Age group: Adolescence (12-17); Young adult (18-24)
Gender: Mixed (male and female)
Population served: Aboriginal/Indigenous; Families; Gang-involved (and/or at risk); Youth in contact with law enforcement (and/or at risk)
Topic: Aggressive/violent behaviours; Antisocial/deviant behaviours; Gang and/or related criminal activities
Setting: Rural/remote area; Urban area; Community-based setting
Location: Alberta; British Columbia; Manitoba; Nova Scotia; Ontario; Quebec; Saskatchewan
Number of completed Canadian outcome evaluation studies: 3 or more
Continuum of intervention: Secondary crime prevention
WraparoundFootnote1 is an intensive, individualized care management program designed for youth with serious or complex emotional and/or behavioural problems. It is designed to prevent fragmentation and ‘gaps’ in the services often encountered by youth and their families.
The Wraparound approach seeks to provide more extensive and proactive contact between the youth, his or her family, and other involved parties (e.g., court counsellor, social worker, etc.). Wraparound is focused on providing a continuum of individualized services and support networks with individualized case management coordination.
The crime issues and risk factors addressed by the program are variable depending on the context in which it is implemented; for this program, youth gangs/gang related activities, aggressive behaviours, and other antiosocial behaviours have been addressed in certain implementation sites.
Wraparound uses a variety of established interventions that are organized: skills training; training in cognitive problem solving; self-control strategies; family management skills training; and parent training.
The main goal of Wraparound is to:
- Assist children, youth, and their families in developing positive connections to various services and their communities.
The appropriate clientele for Wraparound is youth (and their families) between the ages of 13 and 24 who are dealing with multiple, complex, ongoing problems and whose needs have not been adequately addressed by other available services. Clientele for this program can also include youth in contact, or at risk of contact, with law enforcement, and gang-involved youth.
The Wraparound program has also been implemented with Aboriginal/Indigenous communities.
Participation in the Wraparound process ranges from 3 months to 1 year. The core components of the approach include the following:
- Individualized assessments, which identify protective and risk factors for the youth (e.g., family background, school performance and behaviour, and alcohol and drug abuse);
- The development of an intervention plan based on the findings from the assessment (e.g., referral to appropriate services and programs including education, training and leadership programs, counselling and recreational programs); and
- Case management services, which include monitoring the youth’s progress and modifying service delivery as necessary.
Some of the critical elements for the implementation of this program or initiative include the following:
- Organizational requirements: The lead organization should ensure proper analysis of community needs and knowledge of existing services, resources, and organizations. The lead organization must also have solid skills in intake and assessment, case planning, and program delivery.
- Partnerships: Partners and partnerships are defined and based upon the local situation. Examples of partners that can be integrated into the program are: child welfare, mental health and family services, addiction partners, police, school, justice, employment programs. For local examples of partnerships, consult the specific Wraparound program descriptive sheets.
- Training and technical assistance: Staff must be trained in the Wraparound approach. Wrap Canada offers training, coaching and technical assistance to new or existing Wraparound programs in Canada.
- Risk assessment tools: For information about risk assessment tools used by various adaptations of the Wraparound approach, consult the specific program descriptive sheets.
- Materials & resources: Limited information on this topic.
The most recognized classification systems of evidence-based crime prevention programs have classified this program or initiative as follows:
- Blueprints for Healthy Youth Development: Not applicable.
- Crime Solutions/OJJDP Model Program Guide: Not applicable.
- SAMHSA's National Registry of Evidence-based Programs and Practices: Not applicable.
- Coalition for Evidence-Based Policy: Not applicable.
Gathering Canadian Knowledge
Canadian Implementation Sites
In total, from 2007 to 2021, 18 organizations will have been supported by Public Safety Canada’s National Crime Prevention Strategy to implement a program based on the Wraparound approach. As of 2021, 1 organization is still implementing a local program based on the Wraparound.
For more information about these local adaptations, refer to the specific program descriptive sheets.Footnote2
Programs are listed alphabetically:
- Abbotsford Youth Crime Prevention (AYCP) Program (Abbotsford Community Services) (British Columbia) (2009-2014) (process and outcome evaluation completed)
- Changing Direction in Support of Aboriginal Youth (Native Courtwork & Counselling Association of British Columbia) (British Columbia) (2013-2018) (process and outcome evaluation completed)
- Early Intervention Program (Durham Family Court Clinic) (Ontario) (2007-2011) (process evaluation completed)
- Gang Prevention Strategy (Living Rock Ministries) (Ontario) (2007-2011) (process and outcome evaluation completed)
- Identity-based intervention: Preventing Criminal Gang Involvement of Youth from Immigrant Families (University of Calgary – Faculty of Social Work) (Alberta) (2013-2019) (process and outcome evaluation completed)
- Positive Alternative to Youth Gangs (PAYG) (Ontario) (2007-2011) (process and outcome evaluation completed)
- Project Youth Options for Success (Project YOS) (Niagara Citizens Advisory Committee Inc.) (Ontario) (2007-2011) (process and outcome evaluation completed)
- Reclaiming Our Youth (Carrier Sekani Family Services (CSFS)) (British Columbia) (2010-2015) (process evaluation completed)
- Redirecting Youth Through Empowerment (RYTE) – Wraparound Program (Mosaic Multilingual Orientation Service) (British Columbia) (2016-2021) (performance monitoring and assessment in progress)
- Regina Anti-Gang Services (RAGS) (North Central Community Association) (Saskatchewan) (2007-2012) (process and outcome evaluation completed)
- Solutions de rechange et acquisitions de compétences pour les 12-24 ans (Maison des jeunes par la Grand’Porte) (Quebec) (2013-2018) (process and outcome evaluation completed)
- Souls Strong Project (Halifax Regional Municipality Community and Recreational Services – Halifax Regional Municipality) (Nova Scotia) (2013-2018) (process and outcome evaluation completed)
- Winnipeg YGPF Projects – Project OASIS (New Directions) (Manitoba) (2007-2012) (process and outcome evaluation completed)
- Wraparound Edmonton (WrapED) (REACH Edmonton Council) (Alberta) (2013-2018) (process and outcome evaluation completed)
- Wraparound Surrey: A Youth Driven Plan for Gang Violence Prevention (School District #36) (British Columbia) (2008-2013) (process and outcome evaluation completed)
- Youth Advocate Program (YAP) (Halifax Regional Municipality) (Nova Scotia) (2007-2012) (process and outcome evaluation completed)
- Youth At Risk Development (YARD) (Calgary Police Service) (Alberta) (2008-2011) (process and outcome evaluation completed)
- Youth Leading in a Good Way – Oshkiiwaadizag Mino Niigaaniiwad (West Region Child and Family Services Inc.) (2013-2018) (Manitoba) (process and outcome evaluation completed)
Main Findings from Canadian Outcome Evaluation Studies
For main findings pertaining to particular adaptations of the Wraparound approach, consult the specific program descriptive sheets.
For the cost information pertaining to particular adaptations of the Wraparound approach, consult the specific program descriptive sheets.
For references pertaining to particular adaptations of the Wraparound approach, consult the specific program descriptive sheets.
For more information on this program, contact:
1 Young Street, Suite 512
Hamilton, Ontario L8N 1T8
Telephone: (905) 528-0353
Record Updated On - 2021-05-14
Wraparound allows for some flexibility in the way it is implemented and adapted to fit local needs, resources and specific crime issues. Indeed, Wraparound is not a “one size fits all” nor a manualized program; rather it should be considered as a general crime prevention approach. For this reason, Wraparound is briefly described here. To obtain detailed information on how Wraparound has been adapted and implemented in local Canadian communities, please refer to the specific program descriptive sheets listed herein.
Please note that no program description is provided for programs that have only a process evaluation or a performance monitoring and assessment (PMA). For more information about these programs, communicate with the Research Division, Public Safety Canada.
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