Youth Inclusion Program (YIP)
Age group: Adolescence (12-17); Young adult (18-24)
Gender: Mixed (male and female)
Population served: Aboriginal/Indigenous
Topic: Academic issues; Antisocial/deviant behaviours; Social/economic disadvantage
Setting: Rural/remote area; Urban area; Community-based setting; Recreational/sport-based setting
Location: British Columbia; New Brunswick; Nova Scotia; Quebec
Number of completed Canadian outcome evaluation studies: 2
Continuum of intervention: Secondary crime prevention
The Youth Inclusion Program (YIP) is a neighbourhood-based initiative that aims to reduce youth crime and antisocial behaviour by creating a safe place where youth can go to learn new skills, take part in activities with others, and receive educational support. Originally, YIP was developed in 2000 by the Youth Justice Board (UK) as part of a national strategy for proactively tackling youth crime in England and Wales.
The program is centered on conflict resolution; leadership and youth development; skills training; social emotional learning; substance prevention/treatment; and truancy prevention.
The main goals of the YIP are to:
- Decrease risk factors and increase protective factors;
- Increase school attendance and school performance; and
- Reduce antisocial behaviour and the number of youth in the criminal justice system.
The appropriate clientele for the YIP is at-risk youth who reside in neighbourhoods where there is a strong need to reduce youth crime and antisocial behaviour. Youth’s ages can range from 11 to 20 years old.
Participants are referred to the YIP by police agencies, schools, social services, and other service providers. To participate in the program, youth must reside in an at-risk neighbourhood or community.
The YIP consists of:
- Regular activity programming: This programming is comprised of various activities, including sports and/or recreation; arts and culture; skill development; education tutoring; mentoring; family programming; and education workshops;
- Outings and activities: The program usually includes one-time outings such as recreation/sports activities and cultural outings. Seasonal activities and outings like skiing, snowboarding, hiking, and camping are also included;
- Individual plans: YIP workers and other community-based youth services support the unique needs of each participant. Plans are designed to address the specific needs of the youth so that they will stay engaged in the program; and
- Exit strategy: Following participation in the program, YIP workers help connect youth to community resources by referring them to outside agencies.
Some of the critical elements for the implementation of this program or initiative include the following:
- Organizational requirements: The lead organization must acquire information about other existing services, resources, and organizations within the community. This will help program facilitators and youth workers determine which resources most adequately address each participant’s unique needs.
- Partnerships: The success of the YIP depends on its many partnerships with schools, police agencies, and other community-based organizations.
- Training and technical assistance: It is recommended that YIP staff become well versed in the services available in their community, along with the community’s culture.
- Risk assessment tools: Youth are evaluated using the ONSET risk assessment tool.
- Materials & resources: Limited information on this topic.
The most recognized classification systems of evidence-based crime prevention programs have classified this program or initiative as follows:
- Blueprints for Healthy Youth Development: Not applicable.
- Crime Solutions/OJJDP Model Program Guide: Not applicable.
- SAMHSA's National Registry of Evidence-based Programs and Practices: Not applicable.
- Coalition for Evidence-Based Policy: Not applicable.
Gathering Canadian Knowledge
Canadian Implementation Sites
In total, from 2009 to 2016, 13 organizations will have been supported by Public Safety Canada’s National Crime Prevention Strategy to implement the YIP.
Programs are listed alphabetically:Footnote1
- Agassiz-Harrison Youth Inclusion Programme (Agassiz-Harrison Community Services) (British Columbia) (2009-2014) (process evaluation completed)
- Arrêt de la criminalité dans la communauté ethnoculturelle francophone de Scarborough (Centre international de recherche d’experts consultants juridiques indépendants -DIRECJI) (Ontario) (2009-2013) (process evaluation completed)
- Forces de frappe (Partenaires pour la revitalisation des anciens quartiers – PRAQ) (Quebec) (2010-2015) (process and outcome evaluation completed - multisite; see study #2)
- Kamsack Detour Youth Inclusion Project (Kamsack Detour Drop-In/Resource Centre Inc.) (Saskatchewan) (2009-2012) (process evaluation completed)
- Mandella Project From Risk to Resilience (Aspiral Youth Partners Association – AYPA) (British Columbia) (2009-2014) (process evaluation completed)
- Moricetown Supported Work/Manufactoring Centre (Smithers Community Services Association) (British Columbia) (2009-2014) (process evaluation completed)
- Northside Youth Inclusion Program (Island Community Justice Society – ICJS) (Nova Scotia) (2010-2013) (process and outcome evaluation completed; multisite; see study #1)
- ONE Change Youth Inclusion Program (O.N.E. Change Inc.) (New Brunswick) (2010-2013) (process and outcome evaluation completed - multisite; see study #1)
- Seeds of Change (Chebucto Communities Development Association) (Nova Scotia) (2009-2012) (process and outcome evaluation completed; multisite; see study #1)
- YIP dans la péninsule acadienne – Programme d’inclusion des jeunes (Centre de bénévolat de la péninsule acadienne Inc. – CBPA) (New Brunswick) (2010-2015) (completed process evaluation)
- YIP Québec (Motivaction Jeunesse) (Quebec) (2011-2016) (process evaluation completed)
- YIP - Youth Inclusion Program (YMCA du Québec) (Quebec) (2010-2015) (process and outcome evaluation completed- multisite; see study #2)
- Youth Inclusion Program (Centre des jeunes de St-Sulpice) (Quebec) (2011-2016) (process evaluation completed)
Main Findings from Canadian Outcome Evaluation Studies
As part of Public Safety Canada’s funding, a national outcome multisite evaluation of the YIP – Atlantic Canada program was conducted in 2010-2014 by NRG (Gagnon & Duncan, 2014). This evaluation included the Northside Youth Inclusion Program (Nova Scotia), the Seeds of Change (Nova Scotia) and the ONE Change Youth Inclusion Program (New Brunswick). A quasi-experimental pre-post design with experimental and control groups was initially planned for the evaluation. However, as a result of difficulties in identifying a suitable comparison group of sufficient size, the design was changed to a single-group repeated-measures design for each site. The quantitative component of the evaluation consists of a comparison of data collected pre-intervention, during-intervention and post-intervention.
Results from this evaluation showed the following:
- The study found that 67% of all participants decreased their total risk between the pre and post-program ONSET measures;
- The risk factors that had the largest number of youth improving were Lifestyle (53%), Thinking and behaviour (49%), School and education (48%), and Family and personal relationships (46%); and
- The analysis of risk in relation to dosage suggests that youth who participated more intensely in the Northside and ONE Change sites derived greater benefit from the YIP interventions.
For more information, refer to the National Crime Prevention Centre’s publication (2015).
As part of Public Safety Canada’s funding, a national outcome miltsite evaluation of the YIP – Quebec was conducted in 2012-2016 by the Social Research and Demonstration Corporation (SRDC) (Legault et al. 2016). This evaluation included the following of two francophone YIP: the YIP - YMCA du Québec and Forces de frappe. The students in the program were compared to a control group to identify significant changes at 6, 12, and 18 months after the intervention.
Results from this evaluation showed the following:
- Students in the program had larger reductions in alcohol consumption, and reduced associations with peers who consume alcohol compared to the students in the control group;
- Students in the program had more reductions in suspensions and absenteeism than students in the control group, and also showed positive increases in attitude towards school and perceived scholarly achievement; and
- Students in the program had a higher participation rate in prosocial activities, and a better knowledge of support systems available to them in the community compared to the control group.
For more information, refer to Legault et al.'s publication (2016).
Between 2009 and 2013, the cost per youth in the YIP was approximately $11,113.65 (CAD) for the Northside site (Nova Scotia) and approximately $5,855.56 (CAD) per youth at the ONE Change site (New Brunswick) (Gagnon & Duncan, 2014).
Between 2012 and 2015, the average cost per youth in the YIP was approximately $5,033.61 (CAD) per semester for the Montreal and Valleyfield implementation sites (Quebec) (Legault et al. 2016).
Gagnon, N., & Duncan, L. (2014). Youth Inclusion Program Evaluation: Final Report. Report submitted to the National Crime Prevention Centre by the NRG Research Group, Public Safety Canada: Ottawa, ON (Unpublished report).
Laliberté, D. (2015). Summary of the Atlantic Youth Inclusion Program (YIP) Evaluation. Based on the final evaluation report prepared by Nathalie Gagnon and Lesley Duncan, NRG Research Group (2014). Ottawa, ON: Research Division, Public Safety Canada.
National Crime Prevention Centre. (2013). Results from the Youth Inclusion Program – Atlantic Canada. Evaluation Summary. Ottawa: ON: Public Safety Canada. Available from: http://www.publicsafety.gc.ca/cnt/rsrcs/pblctns/rslts-yth-nclsn-prgrm/index-eng.aspx
National Crime Prevention Centre. (2015). Summary of the Atlantic Youth Inclusion Program Evaluation. Research Summary. Ottawa: ON: Public Safety Canada. Available from: https://www.publicsafety.gc.ca/cnt/rsrcs/pblctns/2015-s047/index-en.aspx
Legault, L., Patry, D., Lalonde, P., & Rodier, J. (2016). Rapport final de l’évaulation multi-sites du YIP au Québec. Report submitted to the National Crime Prevention Centre by the Social Research and Demonstration Corporation (SRDC), Public Safety Canada: Ottawa, ON (Unpublished report).
For more information on this program, contact:
The Youth Justice Board for England and Wales (UK) has been reorganized and since then, it appears that the Youth Inclusion Program has not been supported anymore. As a result, for information about the Youth Inclusion Program, communicate with:
Research Division, Public Safety Canada
340 Laurier Avenue West
Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0P8
Record Updated On - 2021-04-29
For specific information about each replication of the program, communicate with the Research Division, Public Safety Canada.
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