National Action Plan to Combat Human Trafficking - 2012-2013 Annual Report on Progress

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Foreword

Often described as modern-day slavery, human trafficking is one of the most heinous crimes imaginable. It is a crime that represents a pervasive assault on the basic human rights of its victims, who are mostly women and children. Victims are deprived of their normal lives and compelled to provide their labour or sexual services through a variety of coercive practices, all for the direct benefit of their perpetrators.

Building on ongoing efforts to combat this crime, on June 6, 2012, the Government of Canada launched the National Action Plan to Combat Human Trafficking (the National Action Plan), which consolidated all federal activities into one comprehensive plan under the '4-Ps' approach: prevention, protection, prosecution and partnerships.  It leveraged and built on Canada's international and domestic experience to date and outlined new initiatives in order to address this horrific crime in all its forms.

The Government of Canada views the National Action Plan as a living plan; as the crime of human trafficking evolves, so too must the Government's response. That is why, as part of the National Action Plan, the Government is committed to ongoing engagement with stakeholders and experts across the country to identify current and emerging trends; gaps, barriers and challenges; and, priority areas, with a goal of informing federal efforts now and in the future.

The enclosed report outlines the progress made on the National Action Plan commitments since it was launched in June 2012 and covers implementation to March 31, 2013. Key achievements include:  online and in-person consultations with human trafficking stakeholders across Canada; a partnership with the National Association of Friendship Centres to develop a human trafficking information and awareness campaign targeting Aboriginal populations;  increased outreach information specifically targeting foreign nationals and temporary foreign workers who may be vulnerable to human trafficking; launch of a youth awareness campaign through the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP); and, the issuance of negative Labour Market Opinions to businesses related to the sex trade and, at the same time, no longer processing work permit applications from temporary foreign workers destined to work for the same businesses.

While significant progress has been made over the past several months, work is not yet done. The Government of Canada will continue to strengthen its efforts as new knowledge and information about the scope and nature of this crime in Canada comes to light.

The Government looks forward to reporting on these and other activities under the National Action Plan in the next Annual Report on Progress in 2014.

Introduction

What is Human Trafficking?

Human Trafficking involves the recruitment, transportation, harbouring and/or exercising control, direction or influence over the movement of a person in order to exploit that person, typically through sexual exploitation or forced labour. It is often described as a modern-day form of slavery. Organized criminal networks, as well as individuals perpetrate this crime, operating within countries and across borders. Traffickers reap large profits while robbing victims of their freedom, dignity, and human potential at great cost to the individual and society at large. Traffickers control their victims in various ways such as taking away their identity documents and passports, sexual abuse, threats, intimidation, physical violence, and isolation.

Victims suffer physical and/or emotional abuse and often live and work in horrific conditions.  They may also face fatal consequences should they attempt to escape. This crime represents a consistent and pervasive assault on the fundamental human rights of its victims.

A set of interrelated 'push' and 'pull' factors contribute to human trafficking. 'Push' factors include extreme poverty, unemployment, lack of education, inadequate social programs, gender-based inequality, corruption, war and conflict situations, and political unrest in countries of origin. 'Pull' factors include the perceived financial rewards of cheap, exploitative labour practices in some economic sectors.  Victims may also be 'pulled' into trafficking through the promise of money and what is portrayed or believed to be a better life.

The extent of human trafficking internationally (and in Canada) is difficult to assess due to the hidden nature of the crime, the reluctance of victims and witnesses to come forward to law enforcement and the difficulty of identifying victims in practice. Moreover, many cases often go unnoticed and unreported due to manipulation, fear, threats from traffickers, language barriers or mistrust of authorities.

Human Trafficking in Canada

Human trafficking for sexual exploitation continues to constitute the majority of trafficking cases faced by law enforcement across Canada, often in large urban centres, and most victims are Canadian women. However, more evidence of human trafficking for forced labour has come to light during the last two years, which often involves foreign nationals.  

Human Trafficking Offences in Canada

Although the extent of human trafficking (for the purpose of sexual exploitation or forced labour) is difficult to determine, the following available statistics (to March 31, 2013) provide some context:

Those at risk of falling victim to human trafficking continue to be members of vulnerable groups including Aboriginal females, youth and children, migrants and new immigrants, at-risk youth, runaways, and those who are socially or economically disadvantaged.  However, in some cases, young girls and women who may not be considered socially or economically disadvantaged are also being manipulated into believing that they are in an exclusive romantic relationship with their traffickers as one way to maintain control over them. 

In Canada this crime is as likely to be orchestrated by transnational organized criminal networks as it is by individual or family-based opportunists with little formal structure.  Human trafficking for the purpose of sexual exploitation has been mostly associated with organized prostitution where the victims of human trafficking are compelled to provide sexual services. Regarding cases involving foreign national victims, suspects involved in human trafficking activities mostly operate with associates of similar ethnicity and have ethnic ties to the source countries of their victims.

National Action Plan – Progress to Date

The Human Trafficking Taskforce (the Taskforce), which is led by Public Safety Canada (PS),is comprised of ten key federal departmentsFootnote 1 and is the federal body responsible for coordinating the Government of Canada's response to human trafficking.  The Taskforce has replaced the Interdepartmental Working Group on Trafficking in Persons.  The Taskforce responsibilities include overseeing the implementation of the National Action Plan commitments under the '4-Ps' and reporting back annually on progress to the public. On average, the Taskforce has met monthly since June 2012.

Under the Taskforce, two sub-working groups have also been established – the Prevention and Partnership sub-working group and the Prosecution and Protection sub-working group. The primary purpose of theses sub-working groups is to support the Taskforce in the implementation of the National Action Plan commitments.  The sub-working groups have each met at least once since they were formally established in late fall 2012.

The Government knows that the key to the long term success of the National Action Plan is communication and engagement with stakeholders and experts in Canada who play a unique and integral role in preventing and combatting this crime.  To this end, and representing one of the priority 2012-13 Action Plan activities, PS conducted online and in person consultations in fall 2012 with Canadian anti-human trafficking stakeholders and experts to gather information on national and regional human trafficking trends, anti-trafficking efforts and initiatives, challenges, barriers, and gaps, and, priority issues and areas requiring more focus under the '4-Ps'.  This was followed by additional consultations with stakeholders from a small fly-in community in Nunavut in spring 2013 in order to support an improved understanding of the crime as it may occur in northern Canada.  Information flowing from these consultations is being used to inform future federal anti-human trafficking priorities and policies, some of which are identified in the 'Moving Forward' section found at the end of this report.

The following pages highlight the progress made to date on the implementation of the National Action Plan, covering the 10 month period from June 2012 to March 2013.  A compendium of Government of Canada efforts and progress to date can be found in Annex A.

Part I: Prevention

The Government of Canada will support a broad-based prevention strategy focusing on awareness raising and research activities to prevent human trafficking.

Over the past several months, Canada has undertaken a number of activities focusing on prevention, including support for, and the development of, information and awareness campaigns and the creation of tools to advance practical prevention strategies in communities across the country.  The Government has also developed materials to raise awareness among newcomers to Canada, including temporary foreign workers, and sought to increase public awareness of Government anti-human trafficking efforts. A full compendium of federal prevention efforts (and progress to date) can be found in Annex A.

2012-13 Key Achievements:

At the fall 2012 consultations, stakeholders highlighted the need for awareness raising efforts targeting specific groups, including youth and within Aboriginal populations. Under the National Action Plan, the Government committed to developing information and awareness campaigns tailored to specific audiences as part of overall prevention efforts, focusing particularly on these two vulnerable groups.  To this end, the RCMP Human Trafficking National Coordination Centre (HTNCC) 'I'm Not for Sale' youth campaign, which was developed in consultation with youth, was launched in November 2012 and distributed across the country to RCMP Human Trafficking Awareness Coordinators (HTACS), school liaison officers and community policing officers from various organizations upon request. The toolkit contains a variety of awareness materials and tools to assist youth, parents and teachers to better understand this crime.

To enhance awareness and education within Aboriginal populations, the RCMP HTNCC conducted a mass distribution of the 'I'm Not for Sale' campaign to Aboriginal communities and groups throughout Canada in 2011 and continued to distribute the toolkits over the past year.  In 2012, approximately 140 toolkits were distributed to the National Association of Friendship Centres across Canada and to date approximately 2,000 toolkits, and 767 Aboriginal specific posters have been disseminated.  The RCMP HTNCC will continue to work with the HTACs, RCMP Aboriginal Liaison Officers and RCMP National Aboriginal Policing Services to increase awareness among Aboriginal populations.

In December 2012, in collaboration with Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada (AANDC), PS entered into a partnership with the National Association of Friendship Centres for the development of a national awareness campaign on the domestic sex trafficking of Aboriginal peoples living on and off reserve and in rural, urban and northern communities, in order to help prevent victimization. It is anticipated that this campaign will be launched in fall 2013. 

To aid in the identification of populations and places most at risk, a local safety audit tool, which places particular emphasis on the vulnerability of Aboriginal women and girls, has been developed by PS to guide public sector and civil society stakeholders to assess the nature and scope of trafficking and related exploitation, and to develop an action plan tailored to their specific local context.  This tool will be piloted in three communities in Canada as part of a recent Status of Women Canada (SWC) call for proposals focusing on reducing gender-based violence.

An issue of concern raised by stakeholders during the fall consultations focused on the potential vulnerability of temporary foreign workers to human trafficking and exploitation and the need to raise awareness within this group.  Under the National Action Plan, the Government of Canada committed to a number of awareness efforts targeting those who are coming to Canada to work (e.g., temporary foreign workers, international students who have a work permit). Over the past year, materials have been developed for temporary foreign workers, employers, third parties and Service Canada officers.  For example, the 'Temporary Foreign Worker: Your Rights are Protected' pamphlet is available in hardcopy and on the Citizenship and Immigration Canada (CIC) website in multiple languages.  It provides information about temporary foreign workers' rights, labour exploitation, in particular on human trafficking, and also contact numbers and resource websites.  It has been disseminated both electronically and in thousands of hardcopies to selected missions abroad, including Canada's embassies in Mexico, Russia, China and the Philippines.  The Temporary Foreign Worker Program (TFWP) website has been updated and includes new webpages for the Live-in Caregiver Program, the Agricultural Stream, and the Seasonal Agricultural Workers Program, and provides guidelines and clarifies program requirements. The TFWP Employer Compliance pamphlet is also available online and provides information to employers on how to comply with program requirements and the Immigration and Refugee Protection Act and Regulations

To further raise awareness about human trafficking internationally, the National Action Plan, related press releases, media lines and additional information, were shared by the Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade (DFAIT) with all of Canada's missions around the globe. CIC has also made available external online training opportunities to its overseas immigration officers that may be useful should staff encounter instances of human trafficking.  CIC continues to examine how best to incorporate human trafficking training into ongoing training for its operational staff abroad.

The Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) has supported the prevention of human trafficking and the protection of the most vulnerable in developing countries and regions around the globe.  This includes supporting projects to prevent the trafficking of children, capacity-building exercises for government and non-government actors, education and training programs to reduce vulnerabilities, as well as long term institutional support to multi-lateral organizations such as the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), the United Nations Development Program (UNDP), the United Nations High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR) and the International Organization for Migration (IOM) for global initiatives.

Key CIDA Achievements:

Above and beyond these and other efforts initially identified in the National Action Plan, andas a reflection of its commitment to combat this crime, the Government explored and undertook further prevention and awareness raising efforts over the past several months.

To support increased awareness, information sharing and transparency with respect to Government anti-human trafficking efforts, two national newsletters were launched in October 2012. 'Canada's Anti-Human Trafficking Newsletter', which will be released up to three times yearly by PS, includes updates on federal efforts as well as highlights the work of stakeholders in the different regions.  It provides information on upcoming training and events, identifies new research activities and provides an overview of the important work being done across Canada to combat this issue. The RCMP HTNCC's 'Fast Facts' is a quarterly newsletter that includes human trafficking information related to law enforcement initiatives and activities, statistics, feature cases, training opportunities for law enforcement, best practices and regional features among others.Footnote 2

Under the Contribution Program to Combat Child Sexual Exploitation and Human Trafficking, the Government extended its partnership with Persons Against the Crime of Trafficking in Humans (PACT- Ottawa) to expand the scope of the TruckSTOP campaign in order to deliver it in other regions in Canada (i.e., British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba) as well as the distribution of French campaign materials in Quebec and New Brunswick.  Canada also entered into a new partnership with the British Columbia Office to Combat Trafficking in Persons (BC OCTIP) to support the development of a French version of its online training program, 'Human Trafficking: Canada is Not Immune' so that it is available nationally to service providers and first responders in their official language of choice.  Both of these initiatives received positive feedback from stakeholders during the consultations, with the TruckSTOP campaign identified as a promising practice in the prevention of human trafficking. The Government of Canada is pleased to be supporting these two valuable initiatives.

The Government has also enhanced information for newcomers, by including information on human trafficking in the updated 'Welcome to Canada' guide developed by CIC.  This guide, which is designed to assist immigrants as they settle in Canada, includes sections on the country's laws and criminal justice system and on the rights to which all newcomers to Canada are entitled.

The Government of Canada will continue to build upon these initiatives and other prevention efforts already in place as new information on human trafficking in Canada becomes available, including information flowing out of ongoing engagement activities with partners and anti-trafficking stakeholders across the country.

Part II: Protection and Assistance for Victims

The Government of Canada will continue to assist all victims of crime, including trafficking victims; to work with the provinces and territories to deliver services responsive to the needs of trafficking victims; and to promote greater understanding of the needs of trafficked persons with a view to promoting their physical, psychological and social recovery.

The protection of trafficking victims encompasses a whole range of factors – from the earliest possible identification to ensure their safety and separation from their traffickers and then access to services and supports to address their immediate needs and to facilitate their successful (re)integration into society. International victims may also require additional support, including for instance, some form of immigration status, such as through a Temporary Resident Permit (TRP), which provides a victim access to the Interim Federal Health Program and the ability to apply for a work permit.

CIC began issuing Temporary Resident Permits (TRPs) to potential victims of human trafficking in May 2006.  Here are statistics covering the period of May 2006 to the end of December 2012:*

In 2012*, a total of 26 TRPs (13 initial and 13 subsequent were issued to 24 victims).Footnote 3

Federally, a number of efforts have been undertaken over the past several months to enhance the protection of and assistance to those victimized by human trafficking. This includes initiating a variety of efforts to enhance protections for both Canadian and foreign nationals who may be vulnerable to this crime, and working with partners to develop resources and provide training to front line service providers on how to identify and best respond to the needs of victims.  A compendium of federal victim protection and assistance efforts can be found in Annex A.

2012-13 Key Achievements:

To ensure protection from abuse and exploitation for those coming to Canada to work, as of July 4, 2012, Human Resources and Skills Development Canada (HRSDC) issues negative Labour Market Opinions (LMOs) for all applications from employers linked to the sex trade, effectively preventing them from hiring temporary foreign workers. Also, as of July 14th, 2012, CIC no longer processes new work permit applications from temporary foreign workers intending to work for sex-trade related businesses – namely strip clubs, escort services and massage parlours. 

Recent amendments to IRPA that came into force through the Budget Implementation Act (2012) will also provide HRSDC enhanced inspection powers in relation to the Temporary Foreign Worker Program. In particular, the IRPA amendments allow HRSDC to set conditions on employers, undertake inspections and impose consequences on non-compliant employers.

To improve monitoring and enforcement within the International Student Program, CIC has been working with provincial and territorial ministries of education and immigration on proposed regulatory amendments that would, among others, strengthen the role of the provinces and territories in the management of the program, including the selection of institutions that host international students; and ensure study permit holders are in fact pursuing studies after their arrival. The proposed amendments were pre-published in the Canadian Gazette in December 2012, with formal consultations taking place in the first two months of 2013. It is anticipated that the new regulations will come into force in 2014.

To support the identification of possible victims of human trafficking at our borders, the human trafficking module within the Canada Border Services Agency (CBSA) Port of Entry Recruitment Training program has been reviewed and updated as has the human trafficking e-learning module, which all new and existing Border Service Officers must complete.  Ongoing updates to training content will occur as required following amendments to legislation and policies.

Further, CBSA has been working with the RCMP and PS to develop and make outreach information available to foreign nationals who may be vulnerable to human trafficking. To this end, CBSA has developed a pamphlet that will be provided after Primary Inspection Line within identified areas at all ports of entry. It is anticipated that this will be distributed in the next few months.

In September 2012, Canada imposed visa requirements on several countries in order to address irregular migration concerns, including human trafficking. When deciding whether to lift or impose visa requirements, CIC considers, among other factors, whether the country has been a significant source country for human trafficking. As part of its commitment to address human trafficking, CIC continues to monitor its policies related to human trafficking to ensure their effectiveness in addressing the crime and protecting victims.

Women and girls remain the most likely to be victims of human trafficking for the purpose of sexual exploitation and to this end, the Government has sought to invest in initiatives to address violence against women and girls. In fall 2012, SWC launched a call for proposals on the issue of reducing gender-based violence.  One of the four thematic areas under this call was preventing and reducing the trafficking of women and girls for the purpose of sexual exploitation through community planning.  Approved projects will pilot the local safety audit guide developed by PS as part of prevention activities.

The RCMP continues to update its contact list of victim service providers and non-governmental organizations that can meet the needs of victims of human trafficking. This list, which is shared only with law enforcement upon request, assists police when working with victims, particularly as it pertains to referrals for supports and services.

Finally, Justice Canada (JUS) is in discussions with the Federal-Provincial-Territorial Victims of Crime Working Group to explore the possible development of a set of guidelines or basic principles regarding the treatment of and provision of services to victims of human trafficking.

The Government of Canada remains committed to supporting and protecting victims of human trafficking and will continue to build upon these initiatives and other efforts over the coming months and years.

Part III: Detection, Investigation and Prosecution of Traffickers

The Government of Canada will build on current efforts to bring traffickers to justice and to strengthen the criminal justice system's responses to this crime.

Recent Cases:

Since the launch of the National Action Plan progress has been made to enhance efforts to better detect and investigate cases of human trafficking and to bring perpetrators of this crime to justice. Cases of human trafficking (for sexual exploitation and forced labour) are being more frequently identified, and more charges are being laid. This is due in part to awareness and training efforts across all sectors, including within the criminal justice system (i.e., police, prosecutors and judges), intelligence and information sharing and the concerted efforts of law enforcement across the various jurisdictions. A compendium of federal activities to support detection, investigation and prosecution of traffickers is found at Annex A.

2012-13 Key Achievements

In 2012, the RCMP continued to organize human trafficking workshops and/or training and awareness sessions involving an integrated training approach for frontline, investigator and intelligence officers, border and immigration officials and prosecutors.  The training focused on both domestic and international cases of human trafficking, reflecting an appreciation of the importance of addressing this crime, regardless of how or where it occurs. Between January–March 2013, the HTNCC and HTACs delivered these sessions to approximately 1,781 law enforcement officers, prosecutors, government employees, members of civil society and youth. Since 2006, approximately 52,100 law enforcement, government and non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and youth have received training and awareness from the RCMP HTNCC and HTACs. 

The RCMP also partnered with HRSDC (Labour Program) to raise awareness on human trafficking for forced labour among provincial labour inspectors and other labour officials, including information about indicators of human trafficking, industries at risk, and possible areas of cooperation between federal, provincial, territorial labour officials, law enforcement and other implicated parties. Since foreign workers are potentially vulnerable to human trafficking, raising awareness among front line labour inspectors may help mitigate the risk and identify potential victims. In 2011-12, awareness sessions were delivered in the provinces of Ontario and Quebec and it is estimated that approximately 300 labor officials have benefitted from these sessions since they began in 2010-11, and as a result, tips related to potential forced labour cases are being reported to authorities.

To support investigations and prosecutions, the RCMP identified four RCMP members to be trained as subject matter experts on human trafficking in order to be available to provide expert testimony (if qualified as expert witnesses) in criminal proceedings where human trafficking is alleged.  The four members attended the first expert witness workshop in March 2012.  The RCMP continues to expand the number of experts in all fields as required.

In addition, over the past year, the RCMP has been working to develop their National Strategy to Combat Human Trafficking (the Strategy), which outlines current and future federal law enforcement efforts in combating this crime. The priorities identified in the Strategy were derived from consultations with key stakeholders across the country, the RCMP National Threat Assessment (2010) and recommendations flowing out of the National Human Trafficking Conference held in March 2011.  The purpose of the Strategy is to reduce the prevalence of, and harms caused by human trafficking in Canada and abroad.

To enhance intelligence, the RCMP HTNCC is working on a new threat assessment, 'Project SAFEKEEPING' on domestic human trafficking for sexual exploitation.  This threat assessment is expected to be completed by end of spring 2013 and will be publically available in fall 2013.  Information from this and the 2010 Threat Assessment is being used to identify the location of the RCMP Dedicated Integrated

Human Trafficking Enforcement Team, which is on track to be established within its original 18-month timeline.

The RCMP HTNCC is currently in the process of developing an investigator's guidebook for Canadian law enforcement, which includes information on the identification and protection of victims and useful tips for interviewing human trafficking victims.  It is expected that this guidebook will be finalized in fall 2013/winter 2014. An operational handbook for police and prosecutors to assist them in responding to this crime is also in development by JUS and partners and is expected to be completed in 2013-14.

As an example of collaboration and cooperation to support human trafficking related investigations, over the past year the Financial Transaction and Reports Analysis Centre of Canada (FINTRAC) has provided financial intelligence to law enforcement when there was reasonable grounds to suspect that it would be relevant to investigating or prosecuting a money laundering offence related to human trafficking.

As another example of collaboration between agencies, since the inception of the National Action Plan, Passport Canada (PPTC) has been tracking its activities as they relate to human trafficking and of the four identified cases associated with human trafficking, all resulted in the revocation of passports to individuals charged with human trafficking offences.

On June 28, 2012, Private Member's Bill C-310, which was supported by the Government, received Royal Assent. This Bill amended the CCC to create a new section 7(4.11), which enables the Canadian prosecution of Canadian citizens or permanent residents who commit, outside of Canada, any of the specific CCC trafficking in persons offences. The Bill also enacted an interpretive provision to help clarify the meaning of 'exploitation' as defined in s. 279.04. 

Additionally, amendments to the IRPA, which came into force on December 15, 2012, make explicit that “endangering the life or safety of any person” during the commission of a number of offences, including human trafficking (s. 118 of IRPA), as an aggravating factor for sentencing purposes.

Progress has been made over the past months to support the detection, investigation and prosecution of human trafficking in Canada and the Government will continue to build on federal efforts to this end as it seeks to rescue those who are victimized and punish those who perpetrate this horrific crime.

Part IV: Partnership and Knowledge

The Government of Canada will strengthen its relationship with relevant stakeholders to facilitate the ongoing development of effective policies and tools, to ensure a comprehensive and coordinated approach; and work to improve its ability to collect, track and report on data related to human trafficking in order to enhance knowledge and adapt our response appropriately, both domestically and on the international stage.

Federally, Canada continues to recognize the importance of partnerships both inside and outside of government and the critical role that the various stakeholders play in combatting this crime.  The Government also understands the importance of a strong knowledge base informed by relevant and current research into the nature and scope of this constantly evolving crime in order to implement effective and appropriate policy responses.

Over the past several months, the Government has undertaken activities to enhance engagement and to promote partnerships; improve its understanding of this crime in Canada, and to support capacity-building at an international level. Canada has also strived to increase its knowledge of human trafficking in Canada through research and data collection on the issue. A compendium of federal activities to support partnerships and knowledge development is found at Annex A.

2012-13 Key Achievements

As an example of the Government of Canada's commitment to work with partners, PS conducted an online consultation with stakeholders in fall 2012.  The findings from this online consultation were then used to inform a series of five regional roundtables (Halifax, Montreal, Toronto, Winnipeg, and Edmonton).Footnote 4  These were followed in March 2013 by meetings with stakeholders and individuals in a small fly-in community in Nunavut in recognition of the fact that human trafficking in northern Canada may be different than that in the southern provinces.

The purpose of these consultations was to gather information on national and regional human trafficking trends, anti-trafficking efforts and initiatives, challenges, barriers, and gaps, and, priority issues and areas requiring more focus with a goal of informing future federal anti-trafficking priorities under the National Action Plan. Representatives from civil society, non-governmental organizations, victim service providers, law enforcement, provincial/territorial ministries and academia, as well as survivors took part in the consultation process.

Since its inception, the Human Trafficking Taskforce has regularly invited Canadian organizations involved in anti-human trafficking efforts to attend its monthly meetings to present on their work and participate in discussions.  This not only supports transparency as to the work being undertaken by the Taskforce, but also provides the Taskforce with the opportunity to gain a better understanding of the organizations and work being done by partners across the country.

The Government has also sought to enhance engagement with Provincial-Territorial partners through the implementation of regular quarterly conference calls – one focusing on human trafficking generally and another focusing on labour trafficking specifically.  The decision to have a targeted call focused solely on labour trafficking stems from recognition of the emerging nature of this issue in Canada and a limited knowledge-base in comparison to human trafficking for sexual exploitation. Overall, these calls provide Federal-Provincial-Territorial stakeholders with opportunities to share best practices and to share tools being developed to address human trafficking.

To increase understanding of the nature and scope of human trafficking for forced labour, the Government conducted a research study focusing on the various stakeholders involved and the investigative methods used in the identification of this particular form of human trafficking.  Stakeholders have identified the need for research on this issue and this initial report, which will be made public in the coming months, serves as a take off point for future additional research on the issue in Canada.

To enhance civil society understanding of human trafficking, strengthen relationships and support the identification of victims, the RCMP continued to invite representatives from NGOs to attend its human trafficking awareness workshops for frontline, investigator and intelligence officers, border and immigration officials and prosecutors.Footnote 5 As stakeholders at the recent roundtables highlighted the need to raise awareness among the public in general to support efforts, the work of the RCMP HTNCC and HTACS in this regard is extremely valuable.

At the international level, Canada is active in exchanging intelligence, awareness and best practices among the international law enforcement community.  In October 2012, the RCMP assisted the Interpol Task Force on Human Trafficking in Burkina Faso, West Africa by providing training to local police, customs and forestry officers to prepare them for a project targeting individuals trafficking children to work in illegally operated gold mines. As a result of this law enforcement operation, 387 children were rescued and returned to their families or taken into care by social service agencies and 73 individuals were arrested in connection to child trafficking and labour offences.

In 2012-13, Canada participated in a number of multi-lateral events to support global anti-trafficking efforts and promote its domestic achievements abroad, including:

To support promoting the implementation of the UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, especially Women and Children worldwide, JUS worked with the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) to develop an issue paper entitled, 'Abuse of a Position of Authority and Other Means with the Definition of Trafficking in Persons', which was released in October 2012. The paper provides guidance on the concept of abuse of a position of vulnerability and will assist policy makers in the implementation of criminal laws against human trafficking.

DFAIT programs are also active internationally, especially in the Americas.  Through the Global Peace and Security Fund (GPSF), work was done with UNICEF in Guatemala to improve detection of cases and access to justice for child victims of violence, namely through the creation of units specialised in sexual crime and in human trafficking within both the National Civil Police and the Public Ministry.  In El Salvador, DFAIT, through the GPSF, also partnered with the IOM to reinforce the first-line security and care services offered by the government of El Salvador to returning migrants, victims of human trafficking and their families.  The GPSF also worked with the Salvadoran Institute for the Development of Women to build a shelter where women victims of human trafficking have access to protection, care and justice services in a safe environment.

Further, DFAIT's Anti-Crime Capacity Building Program provides project funding to multilateral organizations such as the UNODC and the IOM, for technical assistance and training for local officials in an effort to build capacity to combat human trafficking.  Current efforts are ongoing in Central America and focus on enhancing investigative and prosecution capabilities and updating legislation.

Through CIDA-funded projects, the RCMP's National Child Exploitation Coordination Center works with law enforcement counterparts in Brazil, Costa Rica and Thailand to reduce the incidence of child trafficking for the purpose of sexual exploitation and to improve communications in support of the effective prosecution of Canadian travelling child sex offenders, as children in these vulnerable situations may have been trafficked.

Above and beyond, officials from PS and the RCMP are participating in a National Human Trafficking Taskforce focused on the trafficking of women and girls for the purpose of sexual exploitation, which is being led by the Canadian Women's Foundation.  The Taskforce is focusing on the development of a national strategy that will address a number of priorities including service needs and gaps for trafficked women and girls, public awareness and prevention, legal and policy issues, capacity building and training among others.

Moving Forward

Over the coming year(s), the Government of Canada will continue to implement and build upon the many efforts identified in the National Action Plan to combat human trafficking under the '4-Ps'. These efforts will be informed by an ongoing commitment to engage and consult with experts and stakeholders across the country, including those from civil society and different levels of government, in recognition of their important role in addressing this crime.

The recent stakeholder consultations provided valuable information, highlighting potential opportunities for future federal efforts and actions.  Some key trends and themes flowing out of the consultations included the identification of labour trafficking as an emerging issue in Canada and ongoing concerns surrounding the potential vulnerability of temporary foreign workers and newcomers to victimization,  the vulnerability of some individuals within Aboriginal populations to falling victim to this crime, the continued need for both general and more targeted awareness on human trafficking as part of prevention efforts, and an improved understanding of the increased use of online technology by traffickers. Additional highlights include the importance of partnerships in addressing this crime and the need to ensure that the necessary supports and services are in place so that victims of human trafficking are able to heal and recover from their ordeal.Footnote 6

The Government is considering many of the issues highlighted above and is also moving forward in a number of ways in 2013-14 informed by the recent consultations.  The following efforts represent those originally committed to in the National Action Plan for 2013-14 as well as other new activities to be undertaken federally. These are in addition to the many ongoing federal activities to combat human trafficking. 

Prevention

To enhance training for front-line service providers, the Government is partnering with the BC OCTIP to update its online training “Human Trafficking: Canada is Not Immune” to ensure that, two years in, it continues to be a relevant and useful tool to stakeholders across the country.  This will include the identification of key provincial/ territorial stakeholders and service providers, which can be utilized to better support victims.

The RCMP HTNCC will continue to distribute its general human trafficking “I'm Not for Sale” awareness material to various audiences (i.e., the public, NGOs, law enforcement and government agencies) across the country as well as the youth version of this campaign, to educate and inform on the issue. In addition, in 2013 the RCMP HTNCC will also be participating in the development of an RCMP Youth Strategy, which will explore various outreach initiatives among youth.

To build on education and awareness materials developed to date within the context of Canada's TFWP, HRSDC will be developing other awareness products specifically targeting employers as a means to increase understanding of this issue and support the prevention of this crime.

Protection and Assistance for Victims

To support protection and assistance for victims, as of April 1, 2013, the Victim's Fund at Justice Canada has designated up to $500,000 annually for projects specifically targeting services for victim of human trafficking.

To enhance the identification of potential victims of human trafficking, the Government of Canada will also explore opportunities to work with the provinces/territories to develop training and education opportunities with Provincial Employment Standards or Occupational Health and Safety officers, Fire and Building Code Inspectors in recognition of the fact that these front line workers may come in contact with potential instances of human trafficking in the course of their work.

Detection, Investigation and Prosecution

To enhance Canada's ability to detect potential cases of labour exploitation and human trafficking, over the coming year HRSDC will explore developing a predictive risk model to identify high-risk employers. This is in addition to HRSDC' s continued work to update and develop improvements to the TFWP Foreign Worker System, including new methods of automation and intelligence management.

Partnerships and Knowledge

Recognizing the important role that anti-human trafficking experts and stakeholders in Canada have in combatting this crime, the Government will also continue to engage with organizations, groups and individuals via a variety of means, which includes planning for a national forum in fall 2013/winter 2014.

Further to this and flowing out of stakeholder identification of the potential of some industries to create situations of vulnerability to human trafficking and the need to bring the private sector to the table, the Government will explore ways to expand the conversation to include these groups as well as ways to engage, whether through awareness raising or as partners in specific anti-human trafficking initiatives, unexpected or unconventional partners.

To enhance information sharing and knowledge development, HRSDC will, continue to make updates and improvements to the TFWP data available online through: http://www.hrsdc.gc.ca/eng/jobs/foreign_workers.

To support the work of Canada's international partners to prevent and combat human trafficking, CIDAFootnote 7 will support capacity building within law enforcement in developing countries to protect children and youth, especially girls, from violence, exploitation and abuse and human trafficking.

As a means to enhance data collection and available statistics on human trafficking, the Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics at Statistics Canada is exploring the possibility of adding questions on human trafficking to the 2014 cycle of the Transition Home Survey.  This would include collecting data on the number of female victims who access the shelter system.

To continue to build our knowledge base on labour trafficking as an emerging issue in Canada, PS will conduct research in order to better understand how to uncover, recognize, investigate and prosecute instances of labour trafficking. In addition, PS also seeks to conduct further research on human trafficking within Aboriginal populations, in recognition that there is still much to learn about the manifestation of this crime within this particular population.

Conclusion

There have been many accomplishments over the past year but more needs to be done.  The Government of Canada will continue to look for ways to prevent human trafficking through effective and targeted awareness and intervention, to protect and meet the needs of victims and to prosecute offenders, but we cannot do it alone. The Government looks forward to continued collaboration with the many experts and stakeholders at home and abroad to combat this crime.

Annex A

Action Items Chart

Prevention

Objective 1.1: The Government of Canada will support a broad-based prevention strategy focusing on awareness raising and research activities to prevent human trafficking.

Task

Deliverable

Timeline

Status

Lead

1.11 Support and develop human trafficking information and awareness campaigns.

Promote online training tool launched by the BC Office to Combat Trafficking in Persons.

Start:

2012/13

Ongoing

PS,

JUS

Through a dedicated contribution program support:

  • Persons Against the Crime of Trafficking in Humans (PACT – Ottawa) to launch TruckStop awareness campaign
  • NASHI: Our Children to hold a 2-day youth forum on human trafficking
  • NEW: PS extended its partnership with PACT- Ottawa to expand the scope of the “TruckSTOP Campaign” (e.g., to include western and eastern Canada)

Start:

2011-12

2011-12

2012/13

Complete

Complete

In progress

PS

Roll out mass distribution of the “I'm Not for Sale” toolkits to all First Nations territories, Inuit communities and Metis settlements.

Start:

2012/13

Complete

RCMP

Develop and launch the “I'm Not for Sale” youth campaign which includes a youth toolkit.

NEW: Develop an RCMP Youth Strategy, which will explore various outreach initiatives among young people.

Start:

2012/13

2013/14

Complete

On track for fall 2013

RCMP

Disseminate awareness materials at Canadian Embassies and High Commissions abroad.

Start:

2012/13

Ongoing

DFAIT,

CBSA,

HRSDC (TFWP)

Increase awareness among Aboriginal men, women, boys and girls in regards to trafficking.

NEW: The National Association of Friendship Centres to develop and deliver a national public awareness campaign related to the human trafficking of Aboriginal peoples.

Start:

2012/13

On track for winter 2014

PS,

AANDC

Provide information on the circumstances that result in the trafficking of Aboriginal women and youth.

Start:

2011/12

Complete

PS,

AANDC

Provide links to other government department websites, immigration programs and human trafficking awareness materials on DFAIT and Embassy websites.

Start: 2012/13

Ongoing

DFAIT

Enhance information and awareness materials related to the Temporary Foreign Worker Program (TFWP), including:

  • update Temporary Foreign Worker Program website;
  • update and disseminate the “Your Rights are Protected” pamphlet for temporary foreign workers; and,
  • develop new awareness products for employers, third parties and Service Canada Officers.

Start:

2012/13

Complete 

Complete 

Ongoing

HRSDC (TFWP)

Make information available to anyone with a work permit, such as Temporary Foreign Workers and international students, indicating where they can seek assistance on issues related to employment and health and safety.

Start:

2012/13

Ongoing

CIC,

HRSDC (TFWP)

Provide information on the temporary resident permit (TRP) to foreign national victims of human trafficking as well as information of the employment rights of Temporary Foreign Workers on the CIC website.

Start:

2012/13

Ongoing

CIC

Incorporate human trafficking training for overseas immigration officers.

Start:

2012/13

Ongoing

CIC

1.12 Support human trafficking prevention and intervention efforts which advance practical prevention strategies in communities across Canada.

Develop a diagnostic tool designed for use at the local level to identify populations and places most at risk of human trafficking (and related issues); relevant resources and sources of information, and an inventory of prevention practices.

Start:

2011/12

Complete

PS

1.13 Enhance awareness of Government anti-human trafficking efforts.

Provide up-to-date information on Government anti-human trafficking efforts (e.g., periodic reports, legislative updates, resources, news and events) online.

NEW: Develop and launch 'Canada's National Anti-Human Trafficking Newsletter' (released up to three times annually)

NEW: Develop and launch RCMP's 'Fast Facts'

Start:

2012/13

2012/13

2012/13

Ongoing

PS,

RCMP,

(in collaboration with the Human Trafficking Taskforce)

Provide information on human trafficking from the “I'm Not for Sale” toolkits and Quick Facts on RCMP website (e.g., number of cases, number of charges, and number of convictions).

Start:

2012/13

Ongoing

RCMP

Liaise with other departments in the development of integrated web content that highlights human trafficking achievements and awareness materials and promotes linkages.

Start:

2012/13

Ongoing

CBSA

1.14 Prevent Human Trafficking and reduce vulnerabilities abroad.

Through the Children and Youth Strategy, CIDA will support the implementation of the UNSC resolution 1325 in developing countries by:

  • Encouraging partners to review and design programs to consider unsafe migration and human trafficking;
  • Ensuring CIDA supported programs and projects consider community-based, and other protection mechanisms for young women and children;
  • Encouraging partners to integrate into curriculum design life skills training programs that tackle safe migration and human trafficking scenarios;
  • Ensuring birth registration is included and promoted in bilateral partner's frameworks and throughout programming;
  • Targeting CIDA programming to women and girls living in poverty, to address the underlying cause of entry into human trafficking circumstances.

Start:

2012/13

Ongoing

CIDA

Protection and Assistance for Victims

Objective 2.1: The Government of Canada will continue to assist all victims of crime, including trafficking victims; to work with the provinces and territories to deliver services responsive to the needs of trafficking victims; and to promote greater understanding of the needs of trafficked persons with a view to promoting their physical, psychological and social recovery.

Task

Deliverable

Timeline

Status

Lead

2.11 Collaborate with civil society and provinces and territories to develop resources and provide training for frontline service providers on responding to the needs of trafficked persons, and to promote a consistent response across Canada.

Provide information on the victim's state of mind and effects of trauma to criminal justice officials at human trafficking conferences, training, workshops and awareness sessions.

Start:

2012/13

Ongoing

RCMP

Explore, through the FPT Victims of Crime Working Group, the development of guidelines/basic principles regarding the treatment of/services to victims of human trafficking.

Start:

2012/13

In progress

JUS

Develop, in consultation with key partners and stakeholders, a list of relevant service providers and NGOs that can meet the needs of victims, for use by law enforcement.

Start:

2012/13

Ongoing

RCMP

2.12 Provide funding to support provinces and territories and community organizations in improving services for victims of crime, including victims of human trafficking.

The Victims Fund currently makes funding available to projects that improve services to victims of human trafficking and will, beginning in 2013/14, have up to $500,000 specifically designated to such projects.

Start:

2013/14

Ongoing

JUS

Provide funding, where possible, to projects, including support to female victims of human trafficking, preventative measures such as community safety plans, and collaboration with service providers and law enforcement to better identify cases of suspected human trafficking and individuals at risk of being trafficked.

Start:

2012/13

Ongoing

SWC

2.13 Protect foreign nationals vulnerable to human trafficking, including female immigrants aged 15-21 years.

Improve protections for temporary foreign workers by developing policy to conduct on-site employer visits (with employer consent and, where applicable TFW consent) and explore improving employer monitoring in the Live-in Caregiver Program.

Start:

2012/13

In progress

HRSDC (TFWP),

CIC

CIC will improve monitoring and enforcement in the international student program.

Start:

2012/13

In progress

CIC

Develop options for responding to Ministerial direction regarding the issuance of instructions that aim to protect foreign nationals who are at risk of being subjected to humiliating or degrading treatment, including sexual exploitation.

Start:

2012/13

Complete

CIC

The CBSA is working with CIC and the RCMP to make outreach information available to foreign nationals who may be vulnerable to human trafficking. Outreach information will be provided after Primary Inspection Line (PIL) within identified areas at ports of entry.

Start:

2012/13

Ongoing

CBSA,

CIC,

RCMP

To better protect vulnerable persons who are at risk of being trafficked into Canada to work in situations where they could be subject to exploitation, HRSDC and CIC will explore options to prevent the sex trade from accessing the TFWP.

Start:

2012/13

On track for 2013

CIC,

HRSDC (TFWP)

Work with provincial/territorial partners to ensure that foreign nationals entering Canada under the International Student Program are genuine and attending quality educational institutions throughout the period of their stay.

Start:

2012/13

In progress

CIC

Analyze employer compliance reviews to identify high risk trends.

Start:

2012/13

Ongoing

HRSDC (TFWP)

All new Border Services Officers (BSOs) completing CBSA's new recruitment program will have completed the awareness training for Trafficking in Persons and a human trafficking awareness e-learning training will be updated and made available to all existing BSOs who have yet to complete the training.  

Start:

2012/13

Ongoing

CBSA

Explore developing improvements to the TFWP process available to exploited temporary foreign workers to change employers.

Start:

2012/13

Ongoing

HRSDC (TFWP)

Provide TRPs to foreign national victims of human trafficking and consider opportunities for improving the TRP policy and implementation. In deciding whether to impose or lift visa requirements, CIC will consider, among other factors, whether a country has been a significant source country for human trafficking.

Start:

2012/13

Ongoing

CIC

Continue to monitor recent enhancements to the protection of live-in caregivers, while considering the need for further changes.

Start:

2012/13

Ongoing

CIC,

HRSDC (TFWP)

Refer to and work with the Federal Witness Protection Program when a foreign national victim/witness of human trafficking is deemed eligible under the terms of the program.

Start:

2012/13

Ongoing

RCMP

2.14 Protect Canadians vulnerable to trafficking.

Issue emergency travel documents to Canadian citizens who are victims of human trafficking abroad for repatriation in a timelier manner.

Start:

2012/13

Ongoing

PPTC

Refer to and work with the Federal Witness Protection Program when a Canadian victim/witness of human trafficking is deemed eligible under the terms of the program.

Start:

2012/13

Ongoing

RCMP

Detection, Investigation And Prosecution Of Traffickers

Objective 3.1: The Government of Canada will build on current efforts to bring traffickers to justice and to strengthen the criminal justice system's responses to this crime.

Task

Deliverable

Timeline

Status

Lead

3.11 Provide targeted human trafficking training and education for criminal justice officials.

Provide regular briefings on human trafficking detection methods and best practices to all CBSA staff with human trafficking related functions along the continuum and assist in providing the necessary tools to better equip officers to identify and intercept victims as well as traffickers. This includes the provision of ongoing training and the development of online training which will facilitate delivery.

NEW: Update of EN manual Chapter 1, Trafficking in Persons.

Start:

2011/12

2012/13

Ongoing

In progress

CBSA

Explore opportunities to work with the Judiciary, including the National Justice Institute to promote education on human trafficking.

Start:

2012/13

In progress

JUS

Develop and disseminate, through the Coordinating Committee of Senior Officials Responsible for Justice, an operational handbook for police and prosecutors in relation to human trafficking cases.

Start:

2012/13

In progress To be completed in 2013/14

JUS,

RCMP,

PPSC,

PS

Develop training that emphasizes the value of financial intelligence (both tactical and strategic) to investigations and prosecutions of money laundering activity related to human trafficking.

Start:

2012/13

Ongoing

RCMP,

JUS,

PPSC,

FINTRAC

Working with various partners, coordinate and deliver training workshops for criminal justice officials throughout Canada, which includes a component on the vulnerability of Aboriginal populations to human trafficking.

Start:

2012/13

Ongoing

RCMP

In collaboration with JUS and several stakeholders, develop education and training including: an advanced course on human trafficking at the Canadian Police College (CPC), human trafficking awareness session for RCMP cadets, an online human trafficking course for law enforcement, and incorporate human trafficking training into CPC and Pacific Region Training Centre courses indirectly related to human trafficking (i.e., Organized Crime, intelligence, and the Aboriginal Gang Reduction Strategies course).

Start:

2012/13

Ongoing

RCMP

In consultation with stakeholders, develop an investigator's victim centered guidebook to assist in identifying and working with victims of human trafficking.

Start:

2012/13

On track for 2013/14

RCMP

Distribute the 'I'm Not for Sale' law enforcement toolkit which provides useful operational information for police investigating trafficking cases, victim assistance guidelines as well as information.

Start:

2012/13

Ongoing

RCMP

3.12 Explore options to raise awareness of human trafficking for forced labour with labour inspectors, officials and TFWP/Service Canada officers.

Explore options to raise awareness of human trafficking for forced labour with labour inspectors and officials in collaboration with the RCMP.

Start:

2012/13

Ongoing

HRSDC (Labour Program),

RCMP

Develop training modules for the TFWP/Service Canada officers and human trafficking outreach material for employers and third parties.

Start:

2012/13

Ongoing

HRSDC (TFWP)

3.13 Enhance intelligence, coordination and collaboration.

Coordinate intelligence on human trafficking and enhance the production, on an ongoing basis, of threat assessments/intelligence briefs on domestic and international human trafficking within a Canadian context.

Start:

2012/13

Ongoing

RCMP

Maintain partnerships among law enforcement at the municipal, national and international level to improve information and intelligence sharing within the law enforcement community.

Start:

2012/13

Ongoing

RCMP

When appropriate, conduct parallel Proceeds of Crime Investigations when conducting human trafficking investigations.

Start:

2012/13

Ongoing

RCMP

Increase collaboration with law enforcement to revoke the passport or other travel documents of a Canadian trafficker who is charged (inside or outside Canada) with what constitutes an indictable offence and to impose a period of withheld service.

Start:

2012/13

Ongoing

PPTC

Sign a Memorandum of Understanding with the United States (US) to enable Canada and US law enforcement agencies to work more effectively together to combat human smuggling and human trafficking.

Start:

2011/12

Complete

RCMP

Collect, analyze, produce, disseminate intelligence materials related to human trafficking and share with relevant internal and external stakeholders involved in preventing human trafficking.

Start:

2012/13

Ongoing

CBSA

Develop and disseminate information with respect to human trafficking trends to stakeholders, consular staff and visa officers on a regular basis.

Start:

2012/13

Ongoing

CBSA

Engage PPTC's Intelligence Division to collect and analyze data related to human trafficking and where there are indicators that a situation may trigger the revocation or refusal process, forward the file to the Investigations Division.

Start:

2012/13

Ongoing

PPTC,

CBSA

Increase collaboration with law enforcement in order to include on Passport Canada's System Lookout individuals who are under investigation or who have been charged with criminal offences in regards to human trafficking and when possible, share information to confirm suspect's identity and assist in the prosecution.

Start:

2012/13

Ongoing

PPTC

Promote bilateral cooperation through Mutual Legal Assistance and extradition treaties.

Start:

2012/13

Ongoing

DFAIT,

JUS

Provide designated information to partners relevant to investigations or prosecutions of suspected money laundering activity related to human trafficking and monitor and assess financial transactions to identify trends and patterns specific to the laundering of illicit proceeds related to human trafficking.

Start:

2012/13

Ongoing

FINTRAC

Participate in INTERPOL Taskforce on human trafficking to exchange intelligence, awareness and best practices among the international law enforcement community.

NEW: Assist the INTERPOL Taskforce on human trafficking in Burkina Faso, Africa, by providing training to local police, customs and forestry officers to prepare them for a child trafficking project.

Start:

2011/12

2012/13

Ongoing

Complete

RCMP

Dedicated Integrated Enforcement Team consisting of federal, municipal and/or provincial law enforcement agencies, which will focus on all aspects of human trafficking and will be located in an area based on threat/risk assessments.

Start:

2012/13

On track

RCMP,

CBSA

3.14 Support Investigations and Prosecutions.

Develop and make widely available materials to assist front-line criminal justice personnel in the investigation and prosecution of human trafficking in Canada (e.g., issue fact sheets).

Start:

2012/13

Ongoing

JUS

Develop and train police subject matter experts on human trafficking to present expert testimony in court with the objective of convicting traffickers.

Start:

2011/12

Ongoing

RCMP

Provide expertise to police of jurisdiction on human trafficking investigations.

Start:

2012/13

Ongoing

RCMP

Develop RCMP strategic document outlining efforts to combat human trafficking.

Start:

2011/12

Complete

RCMP

3.15 Ensure that strategies are in place to assess for human trafficking as part of large scale irregular arrivals.

When it is believed that a Canadian travel document was misused, use PPTC's database of photographs to identify individuals or detect/identify fraud and/or imposters.

Start:

2012/13

Ongoing

PPTC,

RCMP

Employ an operation contingency plan to investigate and assess Criminal Code of Canada and IRPA offences, including human trafficking, amongst persons who come to Canada as part of large-scale irregular arrivals.

Start:

2012/13

Ongoing

RCMP

3.16 Enhance protocols and information technology (IT) systems to improve detection of labour exploitation, including human trafficking.

Enhance the Foreign Worker System to automatically track and identify high risk employers and enhance information collection.

Start:

2012/13

Ongoing

HRSDC (TFWP)

Develop a predictive risk model to identify high-risk employers.

Start:

2012/13

In progress

HRSDC (TFWP)

Partnership And Knowledge (Domestic And International)

Objective 4.1: The Government of Canada will strengthen its relationships with relevant stakeholders to facilitate the ongoing development of effective policies and tools, to ensure a comprehensive and coordinated approach; and work to improve its ability to collect, track and report on data related to human trafficking in order to enhance knowledge and adapt our response appropriately, both domestically and on the international stage.

Task

Deliverable

Timeline

Status

Lead

4.11 Enhance engagement and collaboration with civil society and all levels of government to support knowledge exchange, strengthen partnerships and inform policy responses.

National engagement of stakeholders via the Internet to identify priorities, delivery and engagement mechanisms.

Start:

2012/13

Complete

PS (in consultation with HTT)

Hold regular discussions with civil society and provinces and territories to share information on combatting human trafficking, including inviting these stakeholders to present and discuss current issues on an ad hoc basis.

Start:

2012/13

Ongoing

PS (in consultation with HTT)

Provide awareness sessions to civil society to enhance the understanding of human trafficking, strengthen relationships and possibly identify and assist victims.

Start:

2012/13

Ongoing

RCMP

Promote the Contribution Program to Combat Child Sexual Exploitation and Human Trafficking to strengthen and engage partnerships with civil society and provinces and territories.

Start:

2011/12

Ongoing

PS

Maximize operations of existing Letters of Understanding (LOU) with provinces and Memoranda of Understanding (MOU) with CIC/CBSA. Complete negotiations and sign new and revised MOUs/LOUs with provinces, territories, RCMP, Labour, CIC and CBSA.

Start:

2012/13

Ongoing

HRSDC (TFWP)

Host regional workshops, meetings and/or conference calls with provinces and territories law enforcement and victim's services and NGOs to facilitate and marinating the development of networks, collaborative efforts, sharing best practices, and support the development of national and international initiatives to address human trafficking.

Start:

2012/13

Complete

RCMP

Host a Knowledge Exchange Forum on Trafficking in Persons and Sexual Exploitation of Aboriginal Peoples. A literature review will be conducted to form the basis of a policy research paper that explores Aboriginal youth sexual exploitation and domestic trafficking in persons and its relation to the broader legal and policy context.

Start:

2011/12

Complete

AANDC

With funding from PS, conduct a research project in which current and previous male and female Aboriginal youth sex trade workers will be interviewed in the cities of Vancouver and Winnipeg.

Start:

2011/12

Complete

AANDC,

PS

Enhance information sharing across federal departments on domestic and international issues related to human trafficking and forced labour.

Start:

2012/13

Ongoing

HRSDC (Labour Program)

4.12 Increase public diplomacy efforts and exchange of reporting between Canadian Government Departments and Canadian Embassies based in source countries.

Request regular human trafficking reporting, research and analysis by Canadian Missions through outreach to foreign experts in source and transit countries.

Start:

2012/13

Ongoing

DFAIT

Monitor and share data on the use of Canadian passports/travel documents through partnership networks of law enforcement and border control agencies at the domestic and international level to prevent human traffickers from travelling.

Start:

2012/13

Ongoing

PPTC,

CBSA

4.13 Systematically report on official data through existing data collection systems and disseminate publically on an annual basis.

Publish employer compliance review statistics on Temporary Foreign Worker Program website.

Start:

2013/14

Ongoing

HRSDC (TFWP)

Provide sex-disaggregated data (where applicable) on Temporary Foreign Worker Program Labour Marker Opinion Statistics Online Publication.

Start:

2013/14

Ongoing

HRSDC (TFWP)

Provide aggregated data on requests regarding specifics to offenders and victims of human trafficking to further the understanding of the crime.

Start:

2012/13

Ongoing

StatsCan

Regularly release disaggregated data pertaining to Temporary Resident Permits issues to foreign national victims of human trafficking.

Start:

2012/13

Ongoing

CIC

4.14 Partner with international organizations and foreign governments to increase capacity to prevent and combat human trafficking.

Through the Anti-Crime Capacity Building Programme (ACCBP) support projects to build capacity in key source and transit countries to combat human trafficking.

Start:

2012/13

Ongoing

DFAIT

NEW: Build capacity of law enforcement in developing countries to protect children and youth, especially girls, from violence, exploitation and abuse, and to combat human trafficking.

Start:

2011/12

Ongoing

CIDA

Promote the ACCBP and the Global Peace and Security Fund (GPSF) to international organizations, NGOs, and partner countries in order to support projects in source and transit countries that combat human trafficking with a focus on organized crime networks.

Start:

2012/13

Ongoing

DFAIT

Promote Canada's domestic achievements and share best practices on combating human trafficking through participation in international fora and with multi-lateral organizations (i.e., UN, OAS, ASEAN, IOM, ILO) and sub-regional mechanisms such as the Regional Conference on Migration (RCM).

Start:

2012/13

Ongoing

DFAIT and others,

CIC

Where possible, make human trafficking (and migrant smuggling) an area of discussion during bilateral interactions between Canada and source and transit countries – particularly in the Americas.

Start:

2012/13

Ongoing

DFAIT

Use diplomatic protocols to promote regional and international partnerships, policies and capacity building to combat human trafficking and child exploitation.

Start:

2012/13

Ongoing

DFAIT

Liaise with source countries (e.g., the Philippines) from which vulnerable temporary foreign workers come to Canada, to improve awareness of labour and sexual exploitation, enhance protections for vulnerable workers, and share best practices.

Start:

2012/13

Ongoing

HRSDC (TFWP)

Leveraging international resources, such as Liaison Officers, the CBSA will work with like-minded international organizations to address human trafficking issues, and where resources permit and as deemed appropriate by senior officials, contribute to broader Government of Canada confidence building measures that aim to counter human trafficking activities.

Start:

2012/13

Ongoing

CBSA

Engage subject matter experts in capacity building initiatives.

Start:

2012/13

Ongoing

RCMP,

CBSA,

JUS

Include emphasis on human trafficking within the delivery of Canada's Action Plan to implement UN Security Council resolution 1325 on Women, Peace and Security, which together calls for special consideration, during and after conflict, to the differential impact of conflict on women and girls and calls states to ensure that the rights and well-being of women and girls are integrated into peace processes and other responses to armed conflict.

Start:

2011/12

In progress

DFAIT,

CIDA,

PS,

RCMP,

JUS

Partner with the UNODC to support an expert group initiative to explore key concepts contained in the Trafficking Protocol with a view to promoting implementation of this Treaty worldwide.

Start:

2012/13

Complete

JUS

Annex B: Resources and Links

Funding Programs

Annex C: Abbreviations

AANDC
Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada
CBSA
Canada Border Services Agency
CIC
Citizenship and Immigration Canada
CIDA
Canadian International Development Agency
DFAIT
Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade
DND
Department of National Defence
FINTRAC
Financial Transaction and Reports Analysis Centre of Canada
HRSDC
(Labour Program) Human Resources and Skills Development Canada (Labour Program)
HRSDC (TFWP)
Human Resources and Skills Development Canada  (Temporary Foreign Worker Program)
HTNCC 
Human Trafficking National Coordination Centre
JUS 
Justice Canada
PHAC
Public Health Agency of Canada
PPSC
Public Prosecution Service of Canada
PPTC
Passport Canada
PS 
Public Safety Canada
RCMP 
Royal Canadian Mounted Police
StatsCan
Statistics Canada
SWC
Status of Women Canada

International Organizations

ASEAN
Association of Southeast Asian Nations
ILO
International Labour Organization
IOM
International Organization for Migration
OAS
Organization of American States
OSCE
Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe
UNDP
United Nations Development Program
UNHCR 
United Nations High Commission for Refugees
UNICEF 
United Nations Children's Fund
UNODC
United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime

Footnotes

  1. 1

    The key federal departments are PS, CBSA, RCMP, CIC, AANDC, DFAIT, SWC, JUS, HRSDC (TFWP), HRSDC (Labour Program), and CIDA. Additional departments participate on an ad hoc basis (e.g., DND, FINTRAC, PPTC, PHAC, PPSC, Stats Can).

  2. 2

    Canada's Anti-Trafficking Newsletter is available online in English (http://www.publicsafety.gc.ca/cnt/cntrng-crm/hmn-trffckng/index-eng.aspx ) and French (http://www.securitepublique.gc.ca/cnt/cntrng-crm/hmn-trffckng/rsrcs-fra.aspx ). The RCMP's 'Fast Facts' is only available via e-mail distribution and requests for the newsletter can be sent to htncc-cnctp@grc.gc.ca.

  3. 3

    *Note on data* - These numbers are subject to change, as final data for 2012 is still being gathered. It is important to note that this data does not include the number of trafficking victims who are Canadian citizens or permanent residents. Furthermore, data limitations do not permit a breakdown of the number of victims of human trafficking who may have chosen to pursue other immigration options, such as applying for refugee protection or permanent residence for humanitarian and compassionate reasons. Source: Citizenship and Immigration Canada, Victims of Trafficking in Persons Case Monitoring as of May 16, 2013.

  4. 4

    The online survey was sent out to over 200 groups and individuals across the country and approximately 75-80 responses were received. A similar number of stakeholders also took part in the face-to-face consultations that followed.

  5. 5

    See p. 12 for information on the number of stakeholders that have received this training.

  6. 6

    Additional highlights can be found in the National Summary Report, which is available online at: http://www.publicsafety.gc.ca/cnt/cntrng-crm/hmn-trffckng/index-eng.aspx.

  7. 7

    On June 26, 2013, the amalgamation of the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) and the Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade (DFAIT) was formalized and the new Department of Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development (DFATD) was created. In 2013, Human Resources and Skills Development Canada (HRSDC) was also renamed Employment and Social Development Canada (ESDC).

Date modified: