Federal terrorism response plan: Domestic concept of operations

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Introduction

As the threat from terrorism continues to evolve, Canada’s response must continually adapt and change to keep Canadians safe. The Federal Terrorism Response Plan (FTRP) sets out an operational model to guide an integrated and effective response to a terrorist incident or threat.

The Plan strengthens domestic coordination among security and intelligence agencies and all levels of government, centered on a modernized operational model, which affirms that:

Consistent with the Emergency Management Act, the Plan’s operational model recognizes that the majority of emergencies are dealt with at the local level by local governments and first responders, including law enforcement. As the severity of the incident increases, the required level of response is escalated. The federal government has lead jurisdiction for the management of terrorist incidents, and provincial/territorial, local governments and local law enforcement have essential responsibilities that require concurrent and complementary action (such as emergency and security response, support for victims or consequence management).

Purpose

The purpose of the FTRP is to strengthen coordination among security and intelligence (S&I) departments and agenciesFootnote2 and facilitate a collective response to a terrorist incident occurring in Canada. To accomplish this, the Plan:

Scope

The FTRP is intended to provide strategic guidance that:

Primary Departments/Agencies

The National Security and Intelligence Advisor (NSIA) advises the Prime Minister on national security and intelligence operations and policy, ensures the effective coordination of the security and intelligence community through the chairing of Deputy Minister level committees on national security and supports the Cabinet Committee on Intelligence and Emergency Management in managing national security and intelligence activities.

Operational Model

Federal Plan for Responding to a Terrorist Incident

The Canadian S&I community’s response to a terrorist threat or incident requires collaboration among numerous areas of expertise to provide a comprehensive response capability. Each federal department and agency is guided by their respective response plans as per their mandates and authorities, with overarching direction provided by this Plan, senior coordinating committees and relevant senior officials.

In addition to their standard response functions, several departments and agencies have specialized capabilities that can be brought to bear should the situation warrant (such as CBRN response or armed assistance). Though these capabilities are unique, they nonetheless follow the same governance model as set out in this Plan.

Across the federal government, the network of operations centres provide departments and agencies with information within their respective areas of responsibility.

For the purposes of the FTRP, responding to a terrorist threat or incident in Canada is composed of three overlapping categories of action (figure 1):

  1. Coordinated crisis response (Police of local jurisdiction, RCMP and other government departments);
  2. Security and intelligence response (S&I community) and information sharing; and
  3. Consequence management response (Provinces/Territories/Municipalities/PS)Footnote3
National Security Incident Model
Figure 1 – The multi-faceted approach to responding to a domestic terrorist incident.
Image Description

This graphic illustrates how, for the purposes of the FTRP, responding to a terrorist threat or incident in Canada is composed of three overlapping categories of action :

  1. Coordinated crisis response (police of local jurisdiction responds): local/provincial emergency and/or terrorism response plan activated and confirmation of a national security nexus
  2. Security and intelligence response (RCMP leads investigation): including National Security Notification Process, specialized response plans, communications, intelligence analysis and support, National Threat Level, international collaboration, information sharing/dissemination, collective federal action 
  3. Consequence management response (Provinces/Territories/Municipalities/PS): federal assistance can be requested, complex incidents with far reaching consequences, coordination of federal resources/assets, ongoing information sharing

The FTRP focuses primarily on the S&I response while ensuring that it is connected with the elements of crisis response and consequence management. Not all terrorist incidents will necessitate consequence management (e.g.: potential attacks that have been thwarted). In complex situations involving a terrorist incident in Canada, the Government Operations Centre (GOC) will provide strategic situational awareness and high level coordination for consequence management and associated planning.

Crisis Response

Crisis response is primarily a local law enforcement/first responder activity which may include measures to prevent, and/or resolve a threat or act of terrorism. In a terrorist incident, a crisis management response may include traditional law enforcement activities, such as intelligence, surveillance, tactical operations, negotiations, forensics, and investigations. During a terrorist event, the original responding police service (if not the RCMP) exercises “lead responsibility” unless or until that “lead” is transferred to the RCMP as per section 6(1) and 6(2) of the Security Offences Act (SOA). Depending on the scope and nature of the threat, a Federal crisis response may continue to be supported by local law enforcement and by consequence management activities, which should operate concurrently. It is the responsibility of the RCMP to provide situational awareness of on-going crisis response activities to the rest of the S&I community, the Assistant Deputy Ministers’ Committee on National Security Operations (ADM NS OPS) and the GOC.

Consequence Management

Consequence management is predominantly an emergency management function and includes measures to protect public health and safety, restore essential government services, and provide emergency assistance to other levels of government and Canadians affected by the consequences of terrorism. When the impacts of a terrorist incident require federal assistance for consequence management, the GOC will play a key role in coordinating the federal response. To ensure clear linkages between the security and intelligence response and the consequence management response, ADM NS OPS will provide situational awareness to the Assistant Deputy Ministers’ Committee on Emergency Management (ADM EMC), as necessary. The Federal Emergency Response Plan (FERP) sets out harmonized federal emergency response efforts with Provincial/Territorial (P/T) governments, Non-Governmental Organizations (NGO), and the private sector. It can also serve as mechanism to share and disseminate (unclassified) situational reports in a timely manner and concurrently to multiple or targeted stakeholders to support consequence management.

Application of the Plan

The FTRP will guide the domestic response when:

Governance

The Prime Minister of Canada is ultimately accountable to Parliament and to the people of Canada for the security and integrity of the nation.

While no single Minister is exclusively responsible for Canada’s S&I community, the Minister of Public Safety is responsible for the government’s response to a domestic terrorist incident as well as the Public Safety Portfolio agencies - notably CSIS, RCMP and CBSA.

Committee Structure

The Cabinet Committee on Intelligence and Emergency Management considers intelligence reports and priorities and coordinates and manages responses to public emergencies and national security incidents. As part of this Plan, the Committee will oversee terrorism response activities and Canada’s state of readiness to a terrorist incident. While CCIEM has general responsibility for emergency management at the Cabinet level, the Prime Minister may, in some circumstances, decide to establish an ad hoc Cabinet committee to deal with a particular incident. Composition of Committee: Prime Minister of Canada, Minister of Public Safety, Minister of Justice, Minister of Foreign Affairs, Minister of Health, Minister of Defence, Minister of Public Services and Procurement and the Leader of the Government in the House of Commons.

The Deputy Ministers’ Committee on Operational Coordination provides direction and ensures collective action to a terrorist incident.

The Assistant Deputy Ministers’ Committee on National Security Operations facilitates decision-making during terrorist incidents. As part of this Plan, the committee will coordinate security and intelligence federal activity and provide situational awareness. Composition of Committee: Privy Council Office, Public Safety Canada, Royal Canadian Mounted Police, Canadian Security Intelligence Service, Canada Border Services Agency, Global Affairs Canada, Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada, Department of National Defence, Financial Transactions and Reports Analysis Centre of Canada, Communications Security Establishment, Integrated Terrorism Assessment Centre and Transport Canada.

Departments and agencies that are not standing members of these Committees will be invited to attend based on the nature of the threat/incident (e.g.: PHAC would be invited in the event of a CBRN incident).

Incident/Threat Notification Process

Information on a terrorist threat or incident can come from a variety of sources (including public and social media). Section 6(1) of the SOA stipulates that the RCMP has primary peace officer responsibilities with regard to terrorist threats and incidents. Section 6(2) of the Act authorizes the federal government to negotiate memoranda of understanding with the provinces that govern how provincial or municipal law enforcement will communicate and cooperate with the RCMP in the event of a terrorism-related threat or incident. Pursuant to these agreements, the RCMP, with the cooperation of local law enforcement, will investigate any threats to national security or terrorist incidents in Canada.

The RCMP, working with partners, will determine the accuracy and legitimacy of the information.

It is critical that the S&I community be alerted early in order to respond effectively in a timely and coordinated fashion. To that end, a Domestic National Security Incident Information Sharing Process has been developed (Figure 2).

Figure 2 – Domestic National Security Incident Information Sharing Protocol
Figure 2 – Domestic National Security Incident Information Sharing Protocol
Image Description

This graphic illustrates the Domestic National Security Incident Information Sharing Process in which a two-way communication is in place between PMO/Cabinet Committee on Intelligence and Emergency Management, the DM Committee, ADM Committee, tactical/federal Operational response, and relevant federal/provincial/municipal responders when a domestic national security threat or incident occurs. The Government Operations Centre, partners and stakeholders also share information with the ADM committee to help shape the tactical/federal operational response. Relevant federal/provincial/municipal responders and the Public Safety Communications team share information with the NS Intelligence Advisor to the PM, and this information is then related to the PS Minister and DM, as well as PMO.


The process above ensures that senior decisions makers are alerted in a timely manner, that relevant departments/agencies receive the information quickly, and that the GOC is in a position to support consequence management, if necessary.

In the first minutes and hours after a threat is received, it is not always clear if the reported threat is real, or if a whole-of-government response is warranted. Similarly, those responding to a potential mass casualty event such as an explosion or transportation incident may not know if they are dealing with a terrorist attack or some other form of catastrophe.

Individual departments and agencies, under their respective mandates, are responsible for sharing information with their stakeholders. The GOC would notify other stakeholders (such as P/Ts, NGOs, critical infrastructure owners), as appropriate.

In the event of a major cyber incident, the Cyber Response Plan will guide government actions. Any terrorist nexus will be coordinated with the coordination and information sharing mechanisms established through the FTRP.

Changes to the National Terrorism Threat Level

The National Terrorism Threat Level, assessed by the Integrated Terrorism Assessment Centre (ITAC), is used to ensure a consistent understanding across the Government of the general terrorism threat to Canada.

Text
Figure 3 - National Terrorism Threat Level Definitions
Image Description

This image provides the definitions of the National Terrorism Threat Level:

  1. Very Low: A violent act of terrorism is highly unlikely. Measures are in place to keep Canadians safe.
  2. Low: A violent act of terrorism is possible but unlikely. Measures are in place to keep Canadians safe.
  3. Medium: A violent act of terrorism could occur. Additional measures are in place to keep Canadians safe.
  4. High: A violent act of terrorism is likely. Heightened measures are in place to keep Canadians safe. Canadians are informed what action to take.
  5. Critical: A violent act of terrorism is highly likely and could occur imminently. Exceptional measures are in place to keep Canadians safe. Canadians are informed what action to take.

In the event of a domestic terrorist incident or the receipt of credible information regarding a potential threat, ITAC will reassess the NTTL to determine whether the current threat level should be raised. Depending on the severity and scope of the threat, the NTTL may be immediately raised to CRITICAL pending further assessment.

Information Sharing and Intelligence Analysis

The ability to effectively respond to a terrorist incident requires timely sharing of intelligence information, seamless integration of operation centres, and a shared understanding of the situation on the ground.

Information Sharing

To the greatest extent possible, departments and agencies will share timely, accurate and reliable information related to the threat or incident. While some of the information may be compartmentalized as part of an operational investigation, or due to the sensitivities of the source or situation, agencies with relevant information must ensure that the applicable departments/agencies have situational awareness so that actions are coordinated.

The sharing of information for national security purposes must be done in a manner that respects Canadian privacy legislation, the Charter of Human Rights and Freedoms, caveats, originator controls and the integrity of ongoing investigations. Information sharing arrangements are set out in relevant Acts (including the Security of Canada Information Sharing Act), memoranda of understanding and Ministerial Direction.

When sharing information as part of a response to a terrorist incident, the following items need to be addressed:

This will enable departments and agencies with a mandate to share information with external stakeholders (such as the private sector or other levels of government) to do so in a manner that does not compromise the security of information.

Situational Awareness

While responding to an incident, the RCMP and its provincial and municipal partners share information through mechanisms such as the Counter Terrorism and National Security Committee of the Canadian Association of Chiefs of Police, and their broader incident command structure.

International Cooperation

Canada’s response to a terrorist incident may rely on information and intelligence sharing with international allies, especially with FiveEyes partners. Communicating with allies during an incident will take many forms, particularly:

GAC leads all official efforts relating to coordinating international dimensions of a terrorist incident in Canada, including:

Provincial and Territorial Cooperation

The federal response to a terrorist incident needs to take into account the involvement of P/Ts to ensure a well-coordinated response. Information sharing with other jurisdictions can play a key role in managing the consequences of terrorist incidents. To ensure that P/Ts have the right information, keeping in mind existing caveats, the following is necessary:

Departmental/agency plans will address the need to share information with their respective stakeholders in the private sector, as necessary.

Communications

PS is responsible for coordinating emergency public communications among federal government institutions, and in collaboration with provincial/territorial governments, international partners, and non-government organizationsFootnote4. During a terrorist event in Canada where more than one federal department or agency is engaged in the response, PS is the primary coordinating department for public communications at the federal level, in support of PCO communications.

Roles and Responsibilities

The public communications response must enable the dissemination of timely, clear, factual and consistent information about the threat and/or event in ways that minimize the threat to Canadians most likely affected by the event, and meet the broad information demands of key audiences, including those potentially at risk, the public, media, the private sector, NGOs, international partners, and employees.

Public communications involves:

To undertake these responsibilities, PS has developed an emergency public communications protocol. The implementation of this protocol involves:

Acronyms

ADM NS OPS
Assistant Deputy Ministers’ Committee on National Security Operations
CBRN
Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear
CBRNE
Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear and Explosives
CBSA
Canada Border Services Agency
CCIEM
Cabinet Committee on Intelligence and Emergency Management
CSE
Communications Security Establishment
CSIS
Canadian Security Intelligence Service
DMOC
Deputy Ministers’ Committee on Operational Coordination
DND/CAF
Department of National Defense and the Canadian Armed Forces
EMA
Emergency Management Act
PSEPA
Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Act
FERP
Federal Emergency Response Plan
FINTRAC
Financial Transactions and Reports Analysis Centre of Canada
FTRP
Federal Terrorism Response Plan
GAC
Global Affairs Canada
GOC
Government Operations Centre
HC
Health Canada
HP
Health Portfolio (Health Canada and the Public Health Agency of Canada)
ITAC
Integrated Terrorism Assessment Centre
IRCC
Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada
JIG
Joint Intelligence Group
NSIA
National Security and Intelligence Advisor to the Prime Minister
PCMLTFA
Proceeds of Crime (Money Laundering) and Terrorist Financing Act
PCO
Privy Council Office
PHAC
Public Health Agency of Canada
PS
Public Safety Canada
SOA
Security Offences Act
RCMP
Royal Canadian Mounted Police

Glossary

After-action report
A detailed, formal report of an incident or exercise that summarizes planning activities, outcomes, actions taken and recommendations for improvement.
Complex emergency
An emergency that is complicated by the involvement of multiple agencies or jurisdictions, by its severity, duration or required resources or by the threat actors or the nature of the target.
Concept of operations
A concise description of how an organization is to operate in order to achieve specific goals.
Consequence management
Measures and activities undertaken to alleviate the damage, loss, hardship and suffering caused by emergencies. It also includes measures to restore essential services, protect public health, and provide emergency relief to affected governments, businesses, and populations. For the purposes of this Plan, consequence management also includes the planning function for responding to terrorist incidents, as necessary.
Coordinating department
The department responsible for engaging relevant federal government institutions in an integrated Government of Canada response to an emergency. Public Safety Canada is the federal coordinating department based on the legislated responsibility of the Minister of Public Safety under the Emergency Management Act.
Crisis
A situation that threatens public safety and security, the public’s sense of tradition and values or the integrity of government.
Critical infrastructure
Processes, systems, facilities, technologies, networks, assets, and services essential to the health, safety, security or economic well-being of Canadians and the effective functioning of government. Critical infrastructure can be stand-alone or interconnected and interdependent within and across provinces, territories and national borders. Disruptions of critical infrastructure could result in catastrophic loss of life, adverse economic effects, and significant harm to public confidence.
Emergency
A present or imminent event that requires prompt coordination of actions concerning persons or property to protect the health, safety or welfare of people, or to limit damage to property or the environment.
Emergency management
The prevention and mitigation of, preparedness for, response to and recovery from emergencies.
Exercise
A planned, staged implementation of the critical incident plan to evaluate processes that work and identify those needing improvement. Exercises may be classified as Orientation, Tabletop, Functional, or Full-scale and involve scenarios to respond to and resolve the assessed risks.
Governance
The management structures and processes that support the development, implementation and enforcement of policies, programs and activities.
Hot wash
A debriefing session held immediately after an exercise or incident to identify the strengths and weaknesses of plans, policies and procedures.
Incident
For the purposes of this Plan, the term “incident” refers to an actual or potential terrorist occurrence or event.
Integrated Government of Canada response
A response in which involved federal government institutions have unity of purpose and contribute to the federal response process by mutually determining overall objectives, contributing to joint plans and maximizing the use of all available resources.
Law enforcement agency
All agencies at a federal, provincial, territorial or municipal level with direct law enforcement authorities, including the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, Canada Border Services Agency, and provincial and municipal police forces.
Lead agency
The federal department/agency assigned lead responsibility to manage and coordinate the federal response to a domestic terrorism incident in a specific functional area.
National emergency
As defined in the Emergencies Act, an urgent and critical situation of a temporary nature that (a) seriously endangers the lives, health or safety of Canadians and is of such proportions or nature as to exceed the capacity or authority of a province to deal with it, or (b) seriously threatens the ability of the Government of Canada to preserve the sovereignty, security and territorial integrity of Canada, and that cannot be effectively dealt with under any other law of Canada.
Non-governmental organization
A non-profit organization that is based on the interests of its members (i.e.: individuals or institutions). It is not created by a government, but it may work cooperatively with government. Such organizations serve a public purpose, not a private benefit. Examples of non-governmental organizations include faith-based charity organizations and the Canadian Red Cross.
Primary department
A federal government institution with the legislated mandate related to a key element of responding to a terrorist incident. Depending on the nature of the incident, there may be multiple primary departments. See “supporting department”.
Private sector
Organizations that are not part of any governmental structure, including for-profit and not-for-profit organizations, formal and informal structures, commerce, industry, private emergency response organizations, and private voluntary organizations.
Response
Actions taken during or immediately before or after a disaster to manage its consequences and minimize suffering and loss.
Security and intelligence community
For the purposes of this Plan, the security and intelligence community includes all federal departments and agencies with a mandate to fulfill national security and terrorism responsibilities. This includes ‘non-traditional’ partners such as Health Canada, Environment Canada, the Public Health Agency of Canada, etc.
Situational awareness
The continual process of collecting, analyzing and disseminating intelligence, information and knowledge to allow organizations and individuals to anticipate requirements and to prepare appropriately.
Supporting department
A federal government institution that provides general or specialized assistance to a primary department in response to a terrorist incident. See “primary department”.
Terrorist activity
The Federal Terrorism Response Plan uses the definition “terrorist activity” as set out in section 83.01(1)(a) and (b) of the Criminal Code of Canada.
Terrorism offence (Criminal Code Definition)
  1. an offence under any of sections 83.02 to 83.04 or 83.18 to 83.23 of the Criminal Code of Canada,
  2. an indictable offence under the Criminal Code or any other Act of Parliament committed for the benefit of, at the direction of or in association with a terrorist group,
  3. an indictable offence under the Criminal Code or any other Act of Parliament where the act or omission constituting the offence also constitutes a terrorist activity, or
  4. a conspiracy or an attempt to commit, or being an accessory after the fact in relation to or any counselling in relation to, an offence referred to in paragraph (a), (b) or (c).

Annex A: Roles and Responsibilities

Roles and Responsbilities
Department/ Agency Core Counter-terrorism Responsibilities
Public Safety Canada
  • support the coordination of the security and intelligence portfolio response;
  • provide strategic situational awareness across government;
  • develop after-action reports; and
  • coordinate the Passenger Protect Program response
Royal Canadian Mounted Police
  • primary responsibility for the investigation, prevention and prosecution of criminal activities related to terrorism and national security;
  • activate the RCMP’s National Operations Centre for coordination and monitoring;
  • lead the operational response and criminal investigation;
  • lead, or assist the police of jurisdiction with, the tactical response; and
  • lead the response to Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear (CBRN) incidents
Canadian Security Intelligence Service
  • provide technical and operational assistance to Canadian law enforcement and security agencies on national security threats to Canada
Integrated Terrorism Assessment Centre
  • provide integrated and timely assessments of the terrorist threat
National Defence/Canadian Armed Forces
  • lead the response should the incident be considered an attack against Canada;
  • provide assistance to the RCMP or other agencies, as governed by the Request for Assistance (RFA) process or extant Memoranda of Understanding to respond to, or counter, an imminent terrorist attack;
  • provide assistance as part of a whole-of-government response to consequence management after an attack, as governed by the RFA process; and
  • contribute to the intelligence network through established procedures and processes
Privy Council Office/National Security Advisor
  • provide timely advice and situational awareness to the Prime Minister and the Prime Minister’s Office;
  • ensure the coordination of the security and intelligence community; and
  • support the Cabinet Committee on Intelligence and Emergency Management
Canada Border Services Agency
  • interdiction of known or suspected individuals, shipments and/or conveyances which may pose a threat to national security or safety;
  • provide timely information and intelligence regarding the movement of people and goods across Canadian borders; and
  • liaise with the international border services community
Transport Canada
  • manage the security clearance program for access to restricted areas in airports and ports;
  • identify and respond to threats to aviation, marine and surface transportation;
  • develop and enforce security legislation, regulations and policy for the national transportation system;
  • monitor air, marine and rail/surface issues affecting the safety and security of the Canadian transportation system;
  • provide security support (including intelligence) to Transport Canada stakeholders;
  • ensure the implementation of transportation security measures as appropriate for aviation, marine and rail/surface; and
  • regulate the transportation and handling of dangerous goods
Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada
  • enact decisions taken by the Minister of Public Safety or his delegate regarding the cancellation, refusal, or revocation of travel documents to those persons deemed to be a threat to Canada’s security or the security of other countries; and
  • work with other departments and agencies to share information to assist in the identification of high risk travellers
Communications Security Establishment
  • collect foreign signals intelligence in support of  Government of Canada priorities which include protecting Canada and Canadians from foreign-based terrorist threats; and
  • provide technical and operational assistance to Canadian law enforcement and security agencies on national security threats to Canada.
Global Affairs Canada
  • coordinate international dimensions of a terrorist incident in Canada, including:
    • official communications with foreign states, international organisations, and foreign missions to Canada;
    • managing requests for, and offers of, international assistance; and
    • providing analysis on international dimensions and implications, including legal advice in relation to international law and treaties to which Canada is a party
  • lead and coordinate the Government of Canada’s response to national security or terrorist-related critical incidents abroad, including hostage takings
  • assess and mitigate threats to Canadian Mission areas; and
  • jointly coordinate, with Public Safety Canada, the response to a terrorist attack in the United States
Financial Transactions and Reports Analysis Centre of Canada
  • produce financial intelligence in support of investigative and intelligence partners as it pertains to terrorist financing and threats to the security of Canada
Department of Justice
  • prosecute any offence that constitutes a threat to the security of Canada, or where the victim is an Internationally Protected Person; and
  • participate in the negotiation of counter-terrorism treaties
Health Canada
  • provide scientific and surge analytical support to manage the public health consequences from exposure to chemical substances; and
  • coordinate the federal response to a major nuclear accident affecting Canada
Public Health Agency of Canada
  • provide scientific, technical and operational assistance to the RCMP in the response and investigation of CBRN incidents;
  • regulate the importation and use of dangerous pathogens to prevent their importation and use by terrorists;
  • provide scientific, technical and operational advice to guide public health consequence management of a terrorist event involving biological agents in Canada; and
  • coordinate the federal public health consequence management response to a terrorist event in Canada
Environment and Climate Change Canada
  • provide weather information for predicting the path of released substances; and
  • provide expert advice on toxins

Annex B: Authorities

The security and intelligence community’s response activities are pursuant to the following authorities (non-exhaustive list):

Footnotes

  1. 1

    Although the focus of this Plan is on the domestic response to terrorist incidents, it should be noted that the Minister of Foreign Affairs leads the response to a terrorist attack abroad involving Canadians and Canadian interests. This mandate is in accordance with the Department of Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development Act and the Royal Prerogative over Canada’s foreign affairs. Global Affairs Canada’s framework for responding to international emergencies (including terrorist attacks abroad) is built around an Interdepartmental Task Force mechanism, as described in the International Emergency Response Framework.

  2. 2

    For the purposes of this Plan, S&I community  includes all federal departments and agencies with a mandate to fulfill national security and terrorism responsibilities. This includes ‘non-traditional’ partners such as Health Canada and Public Health Agency of Canada, Environment Canada, etc.

  3. 3

    Federal coordination and information sharing to support consequence management and associated planning, to the extent required, is undertaken by the Government Operations Centre.

  4. 4

    As articulated in the Federal Emergency Response Plan.

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