2022 Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview

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Table of contents

Preface

The Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview (CCRSO) has been published annually since 1998. The purpose of the CCRSO is to assist the public in understanding statistical information on corrections and conditional release. A primary consideration in producing the CCRSO was to present general statistical information in a user-friendly way that will facilitate understanding by a broad audience. There are several features of this document that make it different from typical statistical reports:

The data used in the CCRSO reflects the most recent data available at the time of publication. For much of the report, data are available from the 2022 calendar year or for the April 1, 2021 - March 31, 2022 fiscal year. For some data, there is a lag in reporting and as such, the most recent data available are from 2021 (or April 1, 2020 - March 31, 2021). There are a few figures for which the cycle of data collection is more infrequent – for example, the General Social Survey on Canadians’ Safety (Victimization) is administered on a 5-year cycle with the most recent available data being from 2019.

Considering much of the data reported for 2020-21 was collected during the COVID-19 pandemic, the report provides an important snapshot of how the pandemic has impacted the criminal justice system. Therefore, some data trends observed between 2019-20 and 2020-21 should be interpreted with caution. The impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic may also be reflected in the data reported for 2021-22.

The CCRSO includes data from partners that have different measures and methods for assessing gender and sex, and use different labels for these terms. For consistency across reporting, in the CCRSO, when sex was measured, the terms Male, Female, and Another sex were used; when gender was measured, the terms Men and Women and Boys and Girls were used.

In addition, some data that was previously labelled as measuring ethnicity has been changed to race in the current CCRSO to more accurately reflect the identity concepts used by partners. As work in measuring racialized groups advances, these terms and identity concepts may change in future years.

Considering the different types of crime statistics and terminology presented in the CCRSO, a certain level of data literacy is essential for accurate interpretation of the data. For example, some figures and tables in the CCRSO display frequencies, while others display rates; frequency and rate data answer different questions and inform responses to crime in different ways. To optimize the public’s ability to form an accurate, informed, and critical interpretation of different crime statistics and terminology presented in the CCRSO, a data literacy focused companion product is available on [website].

To continually improve this annual publication, we welcome your comments. Any correspondence regarding this report, including permission to use tables and figures should be directed to PS.CPBResearch-RechercheSPC.SP@ps-sp.gc.ca.

Contributing Partners

Public Safety Canada

Public Safety Canada (PS) is Canada’s lead federal department for public safety, which includes emergency management, national security and community safety. Its many responsibilities include developing legislation and policies that govern corrections, implementing innovative approaches to community justice, and providing research expertise and resources to the corrections community.

Correctional Service Canada

The Correctional Service of Canada (CSC) is the federal government department responsible for administering custodial sentences of a term of 2 years or more, as imposed by the courts. CSC is responsible for managing institutions of various security levels and supervising offenders under conditional release in the community.

Parole Board of Canada

The Parole Board of Canada (PBC) is an independent administrative tribunal responsible for making decisions about the timing and conditions of release of offenders into the community on various forms of conditional release. The Board also makes pardon, record suspension and expungement decisions and recommendations respecting clemency through the Royal Prerogative of Mercy.

Office of the Correctional Investigator

The Correctional Investigator is the ombudsperson for federal offenders. The Office of the Correctional Investigator (OCI) conducts investigations into the problems of offenders related to decisions, recommendations, acts or omissions of the Correctional Service of Canada that affect offenders individually or as a group.

Canadian Centre for Justice and Community Safety Statistics (Statistics Canada)

The Canadian Centre for Justice and Community Safety Statistics (CCJCSS) is a division of Statistics Canada. The CCJCSS is the focal point of a federal-provincial-territorial partnership, known as the National Justice Statistics Initiative, for the collection of information on the nature and extent of crime and the administration of civil and criminal justice in Canada.


Section A: Crime and the Criminal Justice System

Police-reported crime rate

Figure A1 Police-reported crime rate. Rate per 100,000
Figure A1
Image description

Line graph showing the police-reported crime rate by type, per 100,000 population, between calendar year 2012 and 2021. The total offence rate decreased from 6,466 per 100,000 population in 2012 to 5,793 in 2014, then steadily increased to a peak of 6,490 in 2019, before decreasing back down to 5,897 in 2021. Excluding the total offence rate, the property crime rate was the highest, by far, decreasing from 3,483 in 2012 to 3,100 in 2014, then gradually increasing to a peak of 3,511 in 2019, before decreasing back down to 3,044 in 2021. The violent crime rate was the second highest, which maintained a relatively stable rate of about 1,100 between 2012 and 2018, then gradually increasing to a peak of 1,323 in 2021. This was followed by the other Criminal Code rate, which hovered around 1,000 between 2012 and 2021. The traffic rate decreased gradually over time, from 407 in 2012 to 311 in 2021. The drug rate decreased steadily over time, from 317 in 2012 to 162 in 2021. Other federal statutes was the lowest rate and was relatively stable over time, from 67 in 2012 to 46 in 2021. Full data are available immediately below.

Source: Table 35-10-0177-01, Incident-based crime statistics, by detailed violations, Canada, provinces, territories and Census Metropolitan Areas

Figure A1 Notes
Other Criminal Code offences (Other CC) includes administration of justice violations, weapons/firearms violations, counterfeit, possession of, accessing, making or distribution of child pornography and prostitution.

Other federal statute offences refer to offences against Canadian federal statutes, such as Customs Act, Employment Insurance Act, Firearms Act, Food and Drugs Act (FDA), Income Tax Act, Controlled Drugs and Substances Act (CDSA) and Narcotic Control Act (NCA). This offence category excludes Criminal Code of Canada offences.

The total crime rate in the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview includes traffic offences and violations of federal statutes to provide a measure of all criminal offences. As a result, the Total Crime Rate reported here is higher than the crime rate reported by Statistics Canada.

These crime statistics are based on crimes that are reported to the police. Since not all crimes are reported to the police, these figures underestimate actual crime. See A6 to A8 for self-reported rates based on General Social Survey on Canadians’ Safety surveys (victimization), an alternative method of measuring crime.

Table A1 Police-reported crime rate. Rate per 100,000
Year Violent Property Traffic Other CC Drugs Other fed. statutes Total charged
1998 1,345 5,696 469 1,051 235 40 8,915
1999 1,440 5,345 388 910 264 44 8,474
2000 1,494 5,189 370 924 287 43 8,376
2001 1,473 5,124 393 989 288 62 8,390
2002 1,441 5,080 379 991 296 54 8,315
2003 1,435 5,299 373 1,037 274 46 8,532
2004 1,404 5,123 379 1,072 306 50 8,391
2005 1,389 4,884 378 1,052 290 60 8,090
2006 1,387 4,809 376 1,050 295 57 8,004
2007 1,354 4,525 402 1,029 308 59 7,707
2008 1,334 4,258 437 1,039 308 67 7,475
2009 1,322 4,122 435 1,017 291 57 7,281
2010 1,292 3,838 420 1,029 321 61 6,996
2011 1,236 3,536 424 1,008 330 60 6,628
2012 1,199 3,438 407 1,001 317 67 6,466
2013 1,096 3,154 387 956 311 52 5,982
2014 1,044 3,100 365 918 295 49 5,793
2015 1,070 3,231 353 930 280 51 5,934
2016 1,076 3,239 346 982 267 60 5,987
2017 1,113 3,265 343 997 254 69 6,056
2018 1,152 3,348 340 1,013 229 58 6,152
2019 1,279 3,511 365 1,087 186 55 6,490
2020 1,265 3,084 330 989 177 45 5,895
2021 1,323 3,044 311 1,008 162 46 5,897

Source: Table 35-10-0177-01, Incident-based crime statistics, by detailed violations, Canada, provinces, territories and Census Metropolitan Areas

Table A1 Notes
Other Criminal Code offences (Other CC) includes administration of justice violations, weapons/firearms violations, counterfeit, possession of, accessing, making or distribution of child pornography and prostitution.

Other federal statute offences refer to offences against Canadian federal statutes, such as Customs Act, Employment Insurance Act, Firearms Act, Food and Drugs Act (FDA), Income Tax Act, Controlled Drugs and Substances Act (CDSA) and Narcotic Control Act (NCA). This offence category excludes Criminal Code of Canada offences.

These crime statistics are based on crimes that are reported to the police. Since not all crimes are reported to the police, these figures underestimate actual crime. See A6 to A8 for self-reported rates based on General Social Survey on Canadians’ Safety surveys (victimization), an alternative method of measuring crime.

Police-reported crime rate by province/territory

Figure A2 Police-reported crime rate (2021). Rate per 100,000
Figure A2
Image description

A map of Canada showing the police-reported crime rate per 100,000 population by province/territory in 2021. The total crime rate in Canada was 5,897 per 100,000 population. Provinces/territories with the lowest rate range (between 0 and 10,000) are shaded in white; these include British Columbia, Alberta, Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, and Newfoundland. Provinces/territories with a rate range between 10,000 and 20,000 are shaded in light grey; these include Saskatchewan and Manitoba. Provinces/territories with a rate range between 20,000 and 30,000 are shaded in dark grey; which includes the Yukon Territories. Provinces/territories with the highest rate range (above 30,000) are shaded in black – these include Nunavut and the Northwest Territories. Full data are available immediately below.

Source: Table 35-10-0177-01, Incident-based crime statistics, by detailed violations, Canada, provinces, territories and Census Metropolitan Areas

Figure A2 Notes
These crime statistics are based on crimes that are reported to the police. Since not all crimes are reported to the police, these figures underestimate actual crime. See A6 to A8 for self-reported rates based on General Social Survey on Canadians’ Safety surveys (victimization), an alternative method of measuring crime.

Table A2 Police-reported crime rate. Rate per 100,000
Province/territory 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021

Newfoundland & Labrador

6,042 6,042 6,687 6,769 7,297

Prince Edward Island

4,713 5,392 6,273 5,514 5,247

Nova Scotia

5,732 5,686 5,870 5,854 6,020

New Brunswick

5,753 6,056 6,750 6,779 7,144

Quebec

4,330 4,165 4,065 3,596 3,750

Ontario

4,259 4,509 4,544 4,039 4,170

Manitoba

9,758 9,998 10,860 10,144 10,005

Saskatchewan

12,983 12,665 12,896 12,266 12,673

Alberta

9,335 9,392 10,025 8,807 8,307

British Columbia

8,090 8,251 9,567 8,710 8,318

Yukon Territories

22,224 21,689 26,464 25,812 25,311

Northwest Territories

44,537 45,461 55,418 60,209 58,485

Nunavut

36,912 40,094 49,186 53,945 55,574

Canada

6,056 6,152 6,490 5,895 5,897

Source: Table 35-10-0177-01, Uniform Crime Reporting Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice and Community Safety Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Table A2 Notes
These crime statistics are based on crimes that are reported to the police. Since not all crimes are reported to the police, these figures underestimate actual crime. See A6 to A8 for self-reported rates based on General Social Survey on Canadians’ Safety surveys (victimization), an alternative method of measuring crime.

Police-reported violent victimization: 5-year trend

Figure A3a. Total number of police-reported violent victimizations from 2017 to 2021
Figure A3a
Image description

Line graph showing the total number of police-reported violent victimizations from calendar year 2017 to 2021. The total number of police-reported violent victimizations increased gradually from 356,669 in 2017 to 406,305 in 2019, then dropping slightly to 401,151 in 2020, and increasing again to a peak of 423,531 in 2021. Full data are available immediately below.

Figure A3b. Number of police-reported violent sexual victimizations from 2017 to 2021
Figure A3b
Image description

Line graph showing the number of police-reported violent sexual victimizations from calendar year 2017 to 2021. Sexual assaults increased from 23,905 in 2017 to 30,081 in 2019, then dropping to a low of 27,888 in 2020, and increasing again to a peak of 33,091 in 2021. Sexual violations against children increased from 7,424 in 2017 to 10,956 in 2021. Full data are available immediately below.

Source: Table 35-10-0049-01, Uniform Crime Reporting Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice and Community Safety Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Footnote *

Sexual violations against children are a set of Criminal Code violations that specifically concern violations involving child and youth victims. These include violations such as sexual interference, invitation to sexual touching and sexual exploitation, but exclude sexual violations not specific to children.

Return to footnote * referrer

Figure A3 Notes
Sexual violations against children are a set of Criminal Code violations that specifically concern violations involving child and youth victims. These include violations such as sexual interference, invitation to sexual touching and sexual exploitation, but exclude sexual violations not specific to children.

CC traffic violations causing death or bodily harm include dangerous operation of a motor vehicle, failure to stop and other Criminal Code traffic violations.

These crime statistics are based on crimes that are reported to the police. Since not all crimes are reported to the police, these figures underestimate actual crime. See A6 to A8 for self-reported rates based on General Social Survey on Canadians’ Safety surveys (victimization), an alternative method of measuring crime.

Excludes victims over 89 years of age.

Table A3 Number of police-reported violent victimization from 2017 to 2021
Type of crime 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021

Assaults

225,350 234,398 259,175 255,469 266,020

Other violent violations

95,569 96,302 103,271 103,898 109,228

Sexual assault (levels 1, 2, 3)

23,905 27,561 30,081 27,888 33,091

Sexual violations against children

7,424 8,239 9,313 9,557 10,956

Criminal Code traffic violations causing death or bodily harm

2,883 2,842 2,841 2,654 2,635

Violations causing death and attempted murder

1,538 1,579 1,624 1,685 1,601

Total

356,669 370,921 406,305 401,151 423,531

Source: Table 35-10-0049-01, Uniform Crime Reporting Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice and Community Safety Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Table A3 Notes
Sexual violations against children are a set of Criminal Code violations that specifically concern violations involving child and youth victims. These include violations such as sexual interference, invitation to sexual touching and sexual exploitation, but exclude sexual violations not specific to children.

CC traffic violations causing death or bodily harm include dangerous operation of a motor vehicle, failure to stop and other Criminal Code traffic violations.

These crime statistics are based on crimes that are reported to the police. Since not all crimes are reported to the police, these figures underestimate actual crime. See A6 to A8 for self-reported rates based on General Social Survey on Canadians’ Safety surveys (victimization), an alternative method of measuring crime.

Excludes victims over 89 years of age.

Police-reported violent victimization of sexual and non-sexual violent offences by age: 5-year trend

Figure A4a. Police-reported victimization of non-sexual violent offences by age. Rate per 100,000
Figure A4a
Image description

Line graph showing the police-reported victimization of non-sexual violent offences by age from calendar year 2017 to 2021. Those under 12 years of age and those 45 years of age and over reported the least victimizations, which rose slightly over the 5 year trend. For those 12 to 17 years of age, the trend fluctuated each year with the highest point in 2019, and the lowest in 2020. Ages 25 to 44 had the second highest reported victimizations, a number that rose steadily over time. Ages 18 to 24 reported even more victimizations to police than those aged 25 to 44. While there were fluctuations in the non-sexual violent crime victimizations reported by 18 to 24 year old victims to police, the trend was at its highest point in 2019 and lowest point in 2020. Full data are available immediately below.

Figure A4b. Police-reported victimization of sexual violent offences by age. Rate per 100,000
Figure A4b
Image description

Line graph showing the police-reported victimization by age from calendar year 2017 to 2021 for violent sexual offences. Those 45 years of age and over, 25 to 44, under 12, and between 18 to 24 years of age, all had relatively consistent trends in reporting this crime type to police over time. For those aged 12 to 17, rates increased steadily from 2017 to 2019, dropped in 2020, then rose to their apex in 2021. Full data are available immediately below.

Source: Uniform Crime Reporting Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice and Community Safety Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Figure A4 Notes
Non-sexual violent offences include 1) violations causing death and attempted murder, 2) assaults, 3) other violent violations (e.g., robbery; criminal harassment; indecent/harassing communications; uttering threats; kidnapping, forcible confinement, abduction or hostage taking; trafficking in persons and prostitution; violent firearm violations; extortion; and other violent violations), and traffic offences causing bodily harm.

Sexual violent offences include 1) sexual assaults, 2) sexual violations against children (e.g., child and youth victims). These include violations such as sexual interference, invitation to sexual touching and sexual exploitation.

Excludes victims over 89 years of age.

Figure A4a and A4b in the 2022 CCRSO reflect the same data as the 2021 CCRSO.

Table A4 Victims of police-reported violent crime by age, sex, and sexual or non-sexual violence. Rate per 100,000
Year Under 12 Age 12 - 17 Ages 18 - 24 Ages 25 - 44 Ages 45 +
Total Boys Girls Total Boys Girls Total Men Women Total Men Women Total Men Women
Victimization of non-sexual violent offences
2017 2.4 2.8 2.0 13.6 14.3 12.9 18.4 16.7 20.3 14.3 13.6 15.1 4.8 5.6 4.1
2018 2.5 2.8 2.1 13.4 13.9 12.9 18.0 16.4 19.8 14.7 13.9 15.5 5.0 5.7 4.3
2019 2.9 3.3 2.4 15.0 15.6 14.3 18.7 17.3 20.3 15.8 14.9 16.7 5.4 6.2 4.6
2020 2.4 2.7 2.1 11.8 11.9 11.7 17.9 16.1 19.9 16.0 15.0 17.0 5.5 6.5 4.7
2021 2.8 3.1 2.5 13.7 13.7 13.7 18.1 16.3 20.1 16.4 15.2 17.6 5.7 6.6 4.9
Victimization of sexual violent offences
2017 1.2 0.6 1.8 4.6 0.9 8.5 1.8 0.3 3.5 0.7 0.1 1.2 0.1 0.0 0.3
2018 1.3 0.6 1.9 5.1 1.0 9.3 2.1 0.3 4.0 0.8 0.1 1.5 0.2 0.0 0.3
2019 1.5 0.7 2.2 5.6 1.1 10.3 2.1 0.3 4.1 0.8 0.1 1.6 0.2 0.0 0.3
2020 1.4 0.7 2.2 5.1 1.0 9.4 2.0 0.3 3.8 0.8 0.1 1.5 0.2 0.0 0.3
2021 1.7 0.7 2.7 6.5 1.2 12.0 2.2 0.3 4.2 0.9 0.2 1.7 0.2 0.0 0.3

Source: Uniform Crime Reporting Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice and Community Safety Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Table A4 Notes
Non-sexual violent offences include 1) violations causing death and attempted murder, 2) assaults, 3) other violent violations (e.g., robbery; criminal harassment; indecent/harassing communications; uttering threats; kidnapping, forcible confinement, abduction or hostage taking; trafficking in persons and prostitution; violent firearm violations; extortion; and other violent violations), and traffic offences causing bodily harm.

Sexual violent offences include 1) sexual assaults, 2) sexual violations against children (e.g., child and youth victims). These include violations such as sexual interference, invitation to sexual touching and sexual exploitation.

Excludes victims over 89 years of age.

Table A4 in the 2022 CCRSO reflect the same data as the 2021 CCRSO.

Police-reported violent crime by type and gender of victim

Figure A5a. Number of victims of police-reported violent crime by type (2021)
Figure A5a
Image description

Bar graph showing the number of victims of police-reported violent crime by type in calendar year 2021. Assault was the most common crime that was reported to police with 266,020; followed by a category called “other violent violations” with 109,228 victims; sexual assault with 33,091 victims; sexual violations against children with 10,956 victims; Criminal Code traffic violations causing death or bodily harm with 2,635 victims; and finally, violations causing death and attempted murder with 1,601 victims. Full data are available immediately below.

Figure A5b. Victims of police-reported violent crime by type and gender of victim (2021)
Figure A5b
Image description

Bar graph showing the gender of the victims of violent crime whose victimization was reported to the police in calendar year 2021. Assaults, other violent offences, and criminal code traffic violations causing death or bodily harm were all relatively evenly represented by the gender of the victim. Sexual assault and sexual violations against children were mainly perpetrated upon victims that were women or girls (over 80 percent). Victims of violations causing death and attempted murder were primarily boys and men (over 70 percent). Full data are available immediately below.

Source: Table 35-10-0049-01, Uniform Crime Reporting Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice and Community Safety Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Figure A5 Notes
Victims with gender unreported were omitted from Figure A5b. As such, proportions do not add up to 100.

*Sexual violations against children are a set of Criminal Code violations that specifically concern violations involving child and youth victims. These include violations such as sexual interference, invitation to sexual touching and sexual exploitation, but exclude sexual violations not specific to children.

**Criminal Code traffic violations causing death or bodily harm includes dangerous operation of a motor vehicle, failure to stop and other Criminal Code traffic violations.

Excludes victims over 89 years of age.

Table A5 Police-reported violent crime by type and gender of victim (2021)
Type of crime Gender of victim Total
Girls and women Boys and men Not reported
# % # % # % # %
Assaults 130,267 49.0 134,713 50.6 1,040 0.4 266,020 62.8
Other violent violations 56,813 52.0 52,196 47.8 219 0.2 109,228 25.8
Sexual assault 29,591 89.4 3,398 10.3 102 0.3 33,091 7.8
Sexual violations against childrenFootnote * 9,306 84.9 1,619 14.8 31 0.3 10,956 2.6
Criminal Code traffic violations causing death or bodily harmFootnote ** 1,198 45.5 1,429 54.2 8 0.3 2,635 0.6
Violations causing death and attempted murder 410 25.6 1,183 73.9 8 0.5 1,601 0.4
Total 227 585 194 583 1 408 423 531

Source: Table 35-10-0049-01, Uniform Crime Reporting Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice and Community Safety Statistics, Statistics Canada

Self-reported victimization rate

Figure A6 Victims of self-reported crime by type (2019). Rate per 100,000
Figure A6
Image description

Bar graph showing the rate of victims of crime per 100,000 population that self-reported an experience of criminal victimization in calendar year 2019. Theft of personal property was the most frequent criminal victimization experienced by the public with 9,800 victims per 100,000 people; followed by theft of household property with 6,500 victims per 100,000 people; assault with 4,600 victims; vandalism with 4,500 victims; break and enter with 4,200 victims; sexual assault with 3,000 victims; motor vehicle or parts theft with 2,000 victims; and robbery with 700 victims. Finally, the composite rates for total household victimization with 17,200 victims and total violent victimization with 8,300 victims. Full data are available immediately below.

Source: General Social Survey (GSS) Canadians’ Safety, Statistics Canada.

Figure A6 Notes
General Social Survey (GSS) Canadians’ Safety data are reported per 1,000 population, which are converted to per 100,000 in the CCRSO for ease of comparison with police reported rates.

Total household victimization includes the following categories contained in the General Social Survey: motor vehicle/parts theft, break and enter, vandalism, theft of household property.

Total violent victimization includes the following categories contained in the General Social Survey: physical assault, sexual assault, and robbery.

The GSS Canadians’ Safety is conducted every 5 years, and the most recent data available is from 2019. The GSS excludes those under age 15.

Table A6 Victims of self-reported crime by type (2019). Rate per 100,000
Type of violent victimization Rate

Theft of personal property

9,800

Theft of household property

6,500

Physical assault

4,600

Vandalism

4,500

Break and enter

4,200

Sexual assault

3,000

Motor vehicle/parts theft

2,000

Robbery

700

Total household victimization

17,200

Total violent victimization

8,300

Source: General Social Survey (GSS) Canadians’ Safety, Statistics Canada.

Table A6 Notes
General Social Survey (GSS) Canadians’ Safety are reported per 1,000 population, which are converted to per 100,000 in the CCRSO for ease of comparison with police-reported rates.

Total household victimization includes the following categories asked in the General Social Survey: motor vehicle/parts theft, break and enter, vandalism, theft of household property.

Total violent victimization includes the following categories asked in the General Social Survey: physical assault, sexual assault, and robbery.

The GSS Canadians’ Safety is conducted every 5 years, and the most recent data available is from 2019. The GSS excludes those under age 15.

Self-reported violent victimization rate by type, gender, and age

Figure A7a. Self-reported violent victimization rate by type and gender (2019). Rate per 100,000
Figure A7a
Image description

Bar graph showing the rate of violent victimizations that were self-reported by offence type and gender per 100,000 population in calendar year 2019. Of the total number of victims of self-reported violent crime, women accounted for 10,600 of victimizations and men accounted for 5,900. Of people being sexually assaulted, women accounted for 5,000 of victimizations and men accounted for 900. Experiences of being victimized by a robbery were similar, with both women and men being victimized by this offence at a rate of about 700 victimizations per 100,000 population. For the physical assault rate, women accounted for 4,900 of the self-reported victimizations and men accounted for 4,300. Full data are available immediately below.

Figure A7b. Self-reported violent victimization rate by age (2019). Rate per 100,000
Figure A7b
Image description

Bar graph showing the rate self-reported violent victimization rate by age and gender in calendar year 2019 per 100,000 population. Of the 15 to 24 age group, women accounted for 25,700 self-reported violent crimes and men accounted for 10,300. Of the 25 to 34 age group, women accounted for 17,900 self-reported violent crimes and men accounted for 9,100. Of the 35 to 44 age group, women accounted for 8,300 of violent crime victims and men accounted for 7,500. Of the 45 to 54 age group, women accounted for 9,800 of violent victimizations and men accounted for 4,200 of self-reported violent victims. Of the 55 to 64 age group, women accounted for 4,500 victims and men accounted for 3,900. Of the 65 and older age group, women accounted for 2,400 of self-reported violent crimes and men accounted for 1,500. Full data are available immediately below.

Source: General Social Survey (GSS), Statistics Canada.

Figure A7 Notes
General Social Survey (GSS) Canadians’ Safety data are reported per 1,000 population, which are converted to per 100,000 in the CCRSO for ease of comparison with police reported rates.

Total household victimization includes the following categories asked in the General Social Survey: motor vehicle/parts theft, break and enter, vandalism, theft of household property.

Total violent victimization includes the following categories asked in the General Social Survey: physical assault, sexual assault, and robbery.

The GSS Canadians’ Safety is conducted every 5 years, and the most recent data available is from 2019. The GSS excludes those under age 15

Table A7a. Self-reported violent victimization rate by type and gender (2019). Rate per 100,000
Type of violent victimization Women Men

Sexual assault

5,000 900

Robbery

700 700

Physical assault

4,900 4,300

Total violent victimization

10,600 5,900
Table A7b. Self-reported violent victimization rate by age (2019). Rate per 100,000
Age group Women Men

15 to 24

25,700 10,300

25 to 34

17,900 9,100

35 to 44

8,300 7,500

45 to 54

9,800 4,200

55 to 64

4,500 3,900

65 and older

2,400 1,500

Source: General Social Survey (GSS) Canadians’ Safety, Statistics Canada.

Table A7 Notes
General Social Survey (GSS) Canadians’ Safety are reported per 1,000 population, which are converted to per 100,000 in the CCRSO for ease of comparison with police-reported rates.

Total household victimization includes the following categories asked in the General Social Survey: motor vehicle/parts theft, break and enter, vandalism, theft of household property.

Total violent victimization includes the following categories asked in the General Social Survey: physical assault, sexual assault, and robbery.

The GSS Canadians’ Safety is conducted every 5 years, and the most recent data available is from 2019. The GSS excludes those under age 15.

Self-reported victimization reported to police by crime

Figure A8 Percentage of self-reported victimization reported to police (2019)
Figure A8
Image description

Bar graph showing the percentage of criminal victimizations that were reported to police in calendar year 2019. Motor vehicle or parts theft was the crime most frequently reported to the police at 52 percent of victimizations of this type being reported to the police; followed by robbery with 47 percent of all victimizations being reported to the police; break and enters offences were reported to the police about 45 percent of the time; vandalism 37 percent of the time; only 36 percent of the physical assaults that were experienced were reported to the police; theft of personal property was reported to the police 28 percent of the time; theft of household property offences were reported to the police in only about 1 in 5 instances; and, finally, of the offence types for which victimization data is available, sexual assaults were only reported to the police 6 percent of the time this offence occurred. Of average household victimizations, 35 percent were reported to the police; of average violent victimizations, 24 percent were reported to the police; and of total victimizations, 29 percent were reported to the police. Full data are available immediately below.

Source: General Social Survey (GSS) Canadians’ Safety, Statistics Canada.

Figure A8 Notes
General Social Survey (GSS) Canadians’ Safety are reported per 1,000 population, which are converted to per 100,000 in the CCRSO for ease of comparison with police-reported rates.

Total household victimization includes the following categories asked in the General Social Survey: motor vehicle/parts theft, break and enter, vandalism, theft of household property.

Total violent victimization includes the following categories asked in the General Social Survey: physical assault, sexual assault, and robbery.

The GSS Canadians’ Safety is conducted every 5 years, and the most recent data available is from 2019. The GSS excludes those under age 15.

Table A8 Percentage of self-reported victimization reported to police (2019)
Type of victimization Percent reported to police

Motor vehicle/parts theft

52

Robbery

47

Break and enter

45

Vandalism

37

Physical assault

36

Theft of personal property

28

Theft of household property

20

Sexual assault

6

Total household victimization

35

Total violent victimization

24

Total victimization

29

Source: General Social Survey (GSS) Canadians’ Safety, Statistics Canada.

Table A8 Notes
General Social Survey (GSS) Canadians’ Safety are reported per 1,000 population, which are converted to per 100,000 in the CCRSO for ease of comparison with police-reported rates.

Total household victimization includes the following categories asked in the General Social Survey: motor vehicle/parts theft, break and enter, vandalism, theft of household property.

Total violent victimization includes the following categories asked in the General Social Survey: physical assault, sexual assault, and robbery.

The GSS Canadians’ Safety is conducted every 5 years, and the most recent data available is from 2019. The GSS excludes those under age 15.

The rate of adults charged

Figure A9 Rate of adults charged. Rate per 100,000
Figure A9
Image description

Line graph of the rate of adults charged with a Criminal Code offence by total offences and by types of offences per 100,000 population. Starting in calendar year 2012 there were just over 2,000 adults charged per 100,000 population. This rate steadily decreases until 2014 where it reaches a low of 1,849 adults charged per 100,000 population before steadily increasing until 2019 where the rate reaches a peak of 1,999 adults charged per 100,000 population. The rate decreases again in 2020 with a rate of 1,769 adults charged per 100,000 population and continues to drop in 2021 to a rate of 1,704 adults charged per 100,000 population.

From 2012 to 2019 other Criminal Code offences increased from 536 adults charged per 100,000 population to a peak of 683 per 100,000, then dropping to 561 per 100,000 population in the year 2020, and increasing again to 572 per 100,000 population in 2021. The rate of violent crimes decreased from 541 adults charged per 100,000 population in 2012 to 489 per 100,000 in 2014. Between 2015 and 2021, the rate of adults charged for violent crimes gradually increases from 501 per 100,000 population to a peak of 557 per 100,000 population. The rate of property offences steadily decreased from 434 adults charged per 100,000 population in 2012 to 284 per 100,000 population in 2021. This trend line is interrupted by a spike in the year 2019 where property offences reach 408 per 100,000 population before decreasing again. The rate of traffic charges steadily decreased from 269 adults charged per 100,000 in 2012 to 177 in 2020. The rate of drug charges saw the most steady decline over this period dropping from 203 adults charged per 100,000 in 2012 to 94 per 100,000 in 2021. Other federal statutes offences remained stable over this period at a rate lower than 25 per 100,000 Canadians. Full data are available immediately below.

Source: Table 35-10-0177-01, Incident-based crime statistics, by detailed violations, Canada, provinces, territories and Census Metropolitan Areas

Figure A9 Notes
Other Criminal Code offences includes administration of justice violations, weapons/firearms violations, counterfeit, possession of, accessing, making or distribution of child pornography and prostitution.

Other federal statute offences refer to offences against Canadian federal statutes, such as Customs Act, Employment Insurance Act, Firearms Act, Food and Drugs Act (FDA), Income Tax Act, Controlled Drugs and Substances Act (CDSA) and Narcotic Control Act (NCA). This offence category excludes Criminal Code of Canada offences.

Violent crimes include homicide, attempted murder, assault, sexual offences, abduction, extortion, robbery, firearms, and other violent offences such as uttering threats and criminal harassment. Property crimes include break and enter, motor vehicle thefts, other thefts, possession of stolen property, fraud, mischief and arson.

Table A9 Rate of adults charged. Rate per 100,000
Year Violent Property Traffic Other CC Drugs Total other fed. stat. Total charged
1998 563 677 374 430 168 12 2,236
1999 590 632 371 396 185 18 2,203
2000 615 591 349 411 198 16 2,190
2001 641 584 349 451 202 18 2,256
2002 617 569 336 460 199 18 2,211
2003 598 573 326 476 172 15 2,168
2004 584 573 314 490 187 22 2,180
2005 589 550 299 479 185 22 2,131
2006 594 533 300 498 198 20 2,150
2007 577 499 298 521 208 20 2,132
2008 576 487 307 540 207 22 2,149
2009 585 490 311 532 201 20 2,152
2010 576 473 295 545 211 22 2,132
2011 548 441 271 527 213 23 2,034
2012 541 434 269 536 203 25 2,020
2013 505 417 242 519 200 18 1,910
2014 489 399 233 520 191 13 1,849
2015 501 403 230 535 182 15 1,872
2016 511 381 222 609 171 18 1,915
2017 515 375 208 635 157 12 1,906
2018 527 387 204 667 138 13 1,941
2019 563 408 214 683 113 16 1,999
2020 556 325 196 561 111 19 1,769
2021 557 284 177 572 94 19 1,704

Source: Table 35-10-0177-01, Incident-based crime statistics, by detailed violations, Canada, provinces, territories and Census Metropolitan Areas

Table A9 Notes
Other Criminal Code offences (Other CC) includes administration of justice offences, counterfeit, weapons/firearms violations, possession of, accessing, making or distribution of child pornography and prostitution.

Other federal statute offences refer to offences against Canadian federal statutes, such as Customs Act, Employment Insurance Act, Firearms Act, Food and Drugs Act (FDA), Income Tax Act, Controlled Drugs and Substances Act (CDSA) and Narcotic Control Act (NCA). This offence category excludes Criminal Code of Canada offences.

Violent crimes include homicide, attempted murder, assault, sexual offences, abduction, extortion, robbery, firearms, and other violent offences such as uttering threats and criminal harassment. Property crimes include break and enter, motor vehicle theft, other theft, possession of stolen property, fraud, mischief and arson.

Due to rounding, rates may not add up to totals.

Criminal Code and other Federal Statute charges among adults

Figure A10 Type of Charge (2020-21)
Figure A10
Image description

Bar graph showing Criminal Code and other Federal Statute charges among adults by type of charge in the 2020 to 2021 fiscal year. Crimes against the person accounted for 28.7 percent of charges, with common assault representing 10.5 percent of those charges. Crimes against property accounted for 22.0 percent of charges, with theft representing 7.3 percent of those charges. Administration of justice accounted for 21.3 percent of charges, with fail to comply with order representing 9.5 percent of those charges. Other Criminal Code accounted for 7.4 percent of charges, with weapons/firearms representing 4.1 percent of those charges. Criminal Code traffic accounted for 12.2 percent of charges, with impaired driving representing 9.4 percent of those charges. Finally, other federal statutes accounted for 8.3 percent of charges, with residual federal statutes representing 3.3 percent of those charges. Full data are available immediately below.

Source: Table 35-10-0027-01, Integrated Criminal Court Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice and Community Safety Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Figure A10 Notes
Administration of justice includes the offences failure to appear, breach of probation, and unlawfully at large.

Other Criminal Code offences (Other CC) includes administration of justice violations, weapons/firearms violations, counterfeit, possession of, accessing, making or distribution of child pornography and prostitution.

Other federal statute offences refer to offences against Canadian federal statutes, such as Customs Act, Employment Insurance Act, Firearms Act, Food and Drugs Act, Income Tax Act, Controlled Drugs and Substances Act (CDSA) and Narcotic Control Act (NCA). This offence category excludes Criminal Code of Canada offences.

The concept of a case has changed to more closely reflect court processing. Statistics from the Integrated Criminal Court Survey used in this report should not be compared to editions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview prior to 2007. A case is 1 or more charges against an accused person or corporation, processed by the courts at the same time, and where all of the charges in the case received a final disposition. Where a case has more than 1 charge, it is necessary to select a charge to represent the case. An offence is selected by applying 2 rules. First, the most serious decision rule is applied. In cases where 2 or more offences have the same decision, the most serious offence rule is applied. All charges are ranked according to an offence seriousness scale. Superior Court data are not reported to the Integrated Criminal Court Survey for Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba and Saskatchewan. In addition, information from Quebec's municipal courts is not collected.

The Canadian Centre for Justice and Community Safety Statistics continues to make updates to the offence library used to classify offence data sent by the provinces and territories. These improvements have resulted in minor changes in the counts of charges and cases as well as the distributions by type of offence. Data presented have been revised to account for these updates.

Due to rounding, percentages may not add up to 100 percent.

The figure includes data from the most recent year available at the time of publication.

Reported year periods reflect fiscal years. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

Table A10 Type of charge
Type of charge 2016-17 2017-18 2018-19 2019-20 2020-21

Crimes against the person

85,474 89,169 82,798 85,762 66,920

Homicide and related

364 376 334 330 302

Attempted murder

203 202 214 184 162

Robbery

3,575 3,535 3,091 3,246 2,524

Sexual assault

3,109 3,277 3,325 3,603 2,640

Other sexual offences

3,950 4,345 3,971 4,050 2,800

Major assault (levels 2 & 3)

20,201 20,804 19,604 20,795 17,119

Common assault (level 1)

31,672 35,112 32,247 32,387 24,480

Uttering threats

15,260 13,912 12,966 13,813 10,960

Criminal harassment

3,539 3,749 3,310 3,647 3,009

Other crimes against persons

3,250 3,341 3,164 3,264 2,739

Crimes against property

85,467 82,529 73,682 76,404 51,287

Theft

36,137 32,710 28,292 29,481 16,923

Break and enter

9,966 9,706 9,179 9,788 7,488

Fraud

12,728 12,599 11,005 11,476 7,447

Mischief

12,956 13,165 12,111 12,083 9,536

Possession of stolen property

11,646 11,981 10,593 10,887 7,831

Other property crimes

2,034 2,368 2,502 2,689 2,062

Administration of justice

80,940 73,809 67,925 69,468 49,642

Fail to appear

4,442 4,159 4,461 4,261 3,032

Breach of probation

30,955 29,008 26,047 27,457 18,383

Unlawfully at large

2,693 2,872 2,705 2,743 1,345

Fail to comply with order

34,632 30,080 27,680 28,101 22,038

Other admin. justice

8,218 7,690 7,032 6,906 4,844

Other Criminal Code

20,112 23,448 22,006 22,073 17,292

Weapons/firearms

10,961 11,322 10,704 11,070 9,475

Prostitution

64 42 22 10 25

Disturbing the peace

938 740 632 633 400

Residual Criminal Code

8,149 11,344 10,648 10,360 7,392

Criminal Code traffic

45,832 44,197 39,346 38,802 28,367

Impaired driving

35,994 34,941 30,721 30,333 21,950

Other CC traffic

9,838 9,256 8,625 8,469 6,417

Other federal statutes

38,371 36,302 29,691 24,850 19,392

Drug possession

10,675 8,592 6,531 4,905 5,596

Other drug offences

8,506 8,139 7,429 6,780 5,763

Residual federal statutes

18,179 18,695 14,975 12,495 7,653

Total offences

356,170 349,454 315,448 311,940 232,900

Source: Table 35-10-0027-01, Integrated Criminal Court Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice and Community Safety Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Table A10 Notes
Administration of justice includes the offences failure to appear, breach of probation, and unlawfully at large.
Other Criminal Code offences (Other CC) includes administration of justice violations, weapons/firearms violations, counterfeit, possession of, accessing, making or distribution of child pornography and prostitution.

Other federal statute offences refer to offences against Canadian federal statutes, such as Customs Act, Employment Insurance Act, Firearms Act, Food and Drugs Act (FDA), Income Tax Act, Controlled Drugs and Substances Act (CDSA) and Narcotic Control Act (NCA). This offence category excludes Criminal Code of Canada offences.

The concept of a case has changed to more closely reflect court processing. Statistics from the Integrated Criminal Court Survey used in this report should not be compared to editions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview prior to 2007. A case is 1 or more charges against an accused person or corporation, processed by the courts at the same time, and where all of the charges in the case received a final disposition. Where a case has more than 1 charge, it is necessary to select a charge to represent the case. An offence is selected by applying 2 rules. First, the most serious decision rule is applied. In cases where 2 or more offences have the same decision, the most serious offence rule is applied. All charges are ranked according to an offence seriousness scale. Superior Court data are not reported to the Integrated Criminal Court Survey for Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba and Saskatchewan. In addition, information from Quebec's municipal courts is not collected.

The Canadian Centre for Justice and Community Safety Statistics continues to make updates to the offence library used to classify offence data sent by the provinces and territories. These improvements have resulted in minor changes in the counts of charges and cases as well as the distributions by type of offence. Data presented have been revised to account for these updates.

Due to rounding, percentages may not add up to 100 percent.

The table includes data from the most recent year available at the time of publication.

Reported year periods reflect fiscal years. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

Decisions in adult criminal court

Figure A11 Cases in adult criminal court and admissions to custody (2020-21)
Figure A11
Image description

Bar illustration showing the number of cases in adult criminal court and admissions to custody in the 2020 to 2021 fiscal year. Of the total number of cases in adult criminal court, which was 232,900 cases, the number of cases with guilty findings accounted for 116,924 of cases and cases without guilting findings accounted for 115,967 of cases. Of the total admissions to custody, which was 38,762 cases, warrant of committal admissions to federal jurisdiction accounted for 3,200 of cases and sentenced admissions to provincial or territorial custody accounted for 35,562 of cases. Full data are available immediately below.

Sources: Table 35-10-0027-01, Integrated Criminal Court Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice and Community Safety Statistics, Statistics Canada; Table 35-10-0018-01, Adult Correctional Services, Canadian Centre for Justice and Community Safety Statistics, Statistics Canada; Correctional Service of Canada.

Table A11 Cases in adult criminal court and admissions to custody
2017-18 2018-19 2019-20 2020-21 2021-22
Total case decisionsFootnote * in adult criminal courtFootnote 1 349,454 315,448 317,359 232,900 Not availableFootnote **
Cases with guilty findings in adult criminal courtFootnote 1 217,433 193,889 192,926 116,924 Not availableFootnote **
Total cases without guilty findings in criminal courtFootnote 1 132,021 121,559 124,433 115,976 Not availableFootnote **
AcquittedFootnote 1
12,637 11,340 9,805 7,124 Not availableFootnote **
Stayed or withdrawnFootnote 1
115,291 106,200 110,894 106,050 Not availableFootnote **
Other decisionsFootnote 1
4,093 4,019 3,734 2,802 Not availableFootnote **
Sentenced admissions to provincial/territorial custodyFootnote 2 80,759 72,312 64,948 35,562 Not availableFootnote **
Warrant of committal-admission to FED (CSC)Footnote 3 4,998 5,006 4,641 3,200 3,887

Length of adult custodial sentences

Figure A12 Length of prison sentence ordered by the court (2020-21)
Figure A12
Image description

Bar graph showing the length of adult prison sentences ordered by the court by gender in the 2020 to 2021 fiscal year. Females accounted for slightly more of sentences of 1 month or less (51.7 percent) than males (43.5 percent). Males accounted for more sentences across all other sentence lengths than females, including: 1 month to 6 months; 6 months to 12 months; 1 year to 2 years; and 2 years or more. Full data are available immediately below.

Source: Table 35-10-0032-01, Integrated Criminal Court Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice and Community Safety Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Table A12 Length of prison sentence ordered by the court
Length of prison sentence 2016-17 2017-18 2018-19 2019-20 2020-21
% % % % %
1 month or less
Females
63.7 62.8 59.5 54.9 51.7
Males
52.0 50.3 49.4 46.6 43.5
Total
49.4 47.8 46.9 44.6 41.3
More than 1 month up to 6 months
Females
22.0 22.2 23.8 26.0 27.4
Males
29.9 30.1 29.9 31.0 31.7
Total
27.2 27.2 27.3 28.4 29.0
More than 6 months up to 12 months
Females
3.3 3.6 3.3 3.9 4.5
Males
5.2 5.4 5.4 5.9 6.8
Total
4.7 4.9 4.9 5.3 6.1
More than 1 year up to less than 2 years
Females
1.7 1.7 1.8 1.9 2.1
Males
3.0 3.2 3.2 3.4 3.8
Total
2.8 2.8 2.9 3.0 3.4
2 years or More
Females
2.1 1.9 2.1 1.9 2.7
Males
3.4 3.6 3.7 3.6 4.1
Total
3.0 3.1 3.3 3.2 3.7
Length unknown
Females
7.2 7.8 9.6 11.4 11.7
Males
6.5 7.4 8.3 9.6 10.0
Total
12.9 14.1 14.8 15.5 16.5

Source: Table 35-10-0032-01, Integrated Criminal Court Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice and Community Safety Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Table A12 Notes
Total includes the following categories: Males, Females, Company, and Sex Unknown.

Length unknown includes indeterminate custody sentences. In some provinces/territories, particularly British Columbia, Saskatchewan, Quebec and New Brunswick, the unknown category may include guilty cases with custody where the custodial sentence ordered has already been served and the time remaining is equal to zero.

The concept of a case has changed to more closely reflect court processing. Statistics from the Integrated Criminal Court Survey used in this report should not be compared to editions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview prior to 2007.

Superior Court data are not reported to the Integrated Criminal Court Survey for Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba and Saskatchewan. In addition, information from Quebec's municipal courts is not collected.

The Canadian Centre for Justice and Community Safety Statistics continues to make updates to the offence library used to classify offence data sent by the provinces and territories. These improvements have resulted in minor changes in the counts of charges and cases as well as the distributions by type of offence. Data presented have been revised to account for these updates.

Due to rounding, totals may not add up to 100 percent.

The table includes data from the most recent year available at the time of publication.

Reported year periods reflect fiscal years. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

The rate of youth charged

Figure A13 Rate of youth charged. Rate per 100,000
Figure A13
Image description

Line graph of the rate of youth charged with a criminal offence, by total offences, and by offence type, from calendar year 2012 to 2021. The rate of youth charged sharply decreased from 2,556 youth charged per 100,000 population in 2012 to 984 per 100,000 in 2021. The rates of youth charged in specific crime categories did not see such a sharp decline. All rates except that for violent crime and traffic offences steadily declined between 2012 and 2021. The rate of violent crime decreased from 765 youth charged per 100,000 in 2012 to a low of 614 per 100,000 in 2015, then it steadily increased to a peak of 702 per 100,00 in 2019, dropped again to 518 per 100,000 in 2020, before rising again to 548 per 100,000 in 2021. The rate of youth charged with traffic offences decreased steadily with only slight fluctuations from 58 per 100,000 in 2012 to 29 per 100,000 in 2021. From 2012 to 2021, the rate of youth charged with property offences went from around 842 youth charged per 100,000 population to close 164 per 100,000; other Criminal Code offences went from around 629 per 100,000 to 209 per 100,000; drug offences went from 240 per 100,000 to 29 per 100,000; total other federal statute offences declined from 20 per 100,000 to 6 per 100,000. Full data are available immediately below.

Source: Table 35-10-0177-01, Uniform Crime Reporting Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice and Community Safety Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Figure A13 Notes
Other Criminal Code offences (Other CC) includes administration of justice violations, weapons/firearms violations, counterfeit, possession of, accessing, making or distribution of child pornography and prostitution.

For criminal justice purposes, youth are defined under Canadian law as persons aged 12 to 17.

Rates are based on 100,000 youth population (12 to 17 years old).

Violent crimes include homicide, attempted murder, assault, sexual offences, abduction, extortion, robbery, firearms, and other violent offences such as uttering threats and criminal harassment. Property crimes include break and enter, motor vehicle theft, other theft, possession of stolen property, fraud, mischief and arson.

Table A13 Rate of youth charged. Rate per 100,000
Year Violent Property Traffic Other CC Drugs Total other fed. stat. Total charged
1998 994 2,500 - 870 226 4 4,595
1999 1,060 2,237 - 728 266 2 4,293
2000 1,136 2,177 - 760 317 4 4,393
2001 1,157 2,119 - 840 343 6 4,466
2002 1,102 2,009 - 793 337 6 4,247
2003 953 1,570 - 726 208 5 3,464
2004 918 1,395 - 691 230 5 3,240
2005 924 1,276 - 660 214 10 3,084
2006 917 1,216 - 680 240 16 3,068
2007 943 1,211 75 732 260 17 3,239
2008 909 1,130 74 730 267 19 3,130
2009 888 1,143 68 698 238 30 3,065
2010 860 1,035 62 669 255 31 2,912
2011 806 904 58 636 263 31 2,697
2012 765 842 58 629 240 20 2,556
2013 692 722 45 554 229 10 2,252
2014 625 625 42 526 198 6 2,022
2015 614 603 44 518 159 10 1,946
2016 634 503 40 512 135 11 1,836
2017 668 459 37 482 117 6 1,769
2018 655 399 34 427 87 5 1,607
2019 702 348 33 384 47 6 1,520
2020 518 206 32 254 36 6 1,053
2021 548 164 29 209 29 6 984

Source: Table 35-10-0177-01, Incident-based crime statistics, by detailed violations, Canada, provinces, territories and Census Metropolitan Areas

Table A13 Notes
Other Criminal Code offences (Other CC) includes administration of justice violations, weapons/firearms violations, counterfeit, possession of, accessing, making or distribution of child pornography and prostitution.

For criminal justice purposes, youth are defined under Canadian law as persons age 12 to 17.

Rates are based on 100,000 youth population (12 to 17 years old). Violent crimes include homicide, attempted murder, assault, sexual offences, abduction, extortion, robbery, firearms, and other violent offences such as uttering threats and criminal harassment. Property crimes include break and enter, motor vehicle theft, other theft, possession of stolen property, fraud, mischief and arson.

Criminal Code and other Federal Statute charges among youth

Figure A14 Percentage of all Criminal Code and other federal statute charges (2020-21)
Figure A14
Image description

Bar graph showing the proportion of all Criminal Code and other federal statute charges among youth, highlighting the most common offence in the offence category, for the 2019 to 20 fiscal year. Crimes against the person represented 49.0 percent of total charges against youthful offenders, with common assault accounting for 12.2 percent of those charges. Crimes against property represented 24.6 percent of total charges, with theft accounting for 7.0 percent of those charges. Administration of justice represented 7.7 percent of total charges, with fail to comply with order accounting for 4.8 percent of those charges. Other Criminal Code represented 7.9 percent of total charges, with weapons or firearms accounting for 6.1 percent of those charges. Other federal statutes represented 8.5 percent of total charges, with Youth Criminal Justice Act accounting for 5.2 percent of those charges. Finally, Criminal Code traffic represented 2.3 percent of total charges. Full data are available immediately below.

Source: Table 35-10-0038-01, Integrated Criminal Court Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice and Community Safety Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Figure A14 Notes
Administration of justice includes the offences failure to appear, breach of probation, and unlawfully at large.

Other Criminal Code offences (Other CC) includes administration of justice violations, weapons/firearms violations, counterfeit, possession of, accessing, making or distribution of child pornography and prostitution.

Other federal statute offences refer to offences against Canadian federal statutes, such as Customs Act, Employment Insurance Act, Firearms Act, Food and Drugs Act (FDA), Income Tax Act, Controlled Drugs and Substances Act (CDSA) and Narcotic Control Act (NCA). This offence category excludes Criminal Code of Canada offences.

Youth Criminal Justice Act offences include failure to comply with a disposition or undertaking, contempt against youth court, assisting a youth to leave a place of custody and harbouring a youth unlawfully at large. Also included are similar offences under the Young Offenders Act, which preceded the Youth Criminal Justice Act.

The concept of a case has changed to more closely reflect court processing. Statistics from the Integrated Criminal Court Survey used in this report should not be compared to editions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview prior to 2007. A case is 1 or more charges against an accused person or corporation, processed by the courts at the same time, and where all of the charges in the case received a final disposition. Where a case has more than 1 charge, it is necessary to select a charge to represent the case. An offence is selected by applying 2 rules. First, the most serious decision rule is applied. In cases where 2 or more offences have the same decision, the most serious offence rule is applied. All charges are ranked according to an offence seriousness scale.

The Canadian Centre for Justice and Community Safety Statistics continues to make updates to the offence library used to classify offence data sent by the provinces and territories. These improvements have resulted in minor changes in the counts of charges and cases as well as the distributions by type of offence. Data presented have been revised to account for these updates.

The figure includes data from the most recent year available at the time of publication.

Reported year periods reflect fiscal years. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

Table A14 Number of all Criminal Code and other federal statute charges
2016-17 2017-18 2018-19 2019-20 2020-21
Crimes against the person 9,930 10,586 10,183 10,380 7,228
Common assault
2,642 2,923 2,651 2,824 1,798
Major assault
2,149 2,154 2,076 2,174 1,546
Sexual assault/other sexual offences
1,536 1,701 1,854 1,780 1,467
Robbery
1,516 1,650 1,524 1,502 1,065
Homicide and attempted murder
54 43 49 42 36
Other crimes against the person
2,021 2,115 2,029 1,993 1,302
Crimes against property 9,627 8,609 7,211 6,126 3,624
Theft
3,280 2,822 2,397 1,966 1,027
Break and enter
2,193 1,854 1,502 1,155 750
Mischief
1,819 1,676 1,460 1,289 890
Possession of stolen property
1,621 1,490 1,183 1,081 526
Fraud
423 405 385 386 258
Other crimes against property
291 362 284 249 173
Administration of justice 3,112 2,528 2,155 1,785 1,135
Failure to comply with order
2,066 1,590 1,370 1,078 715
Other administration of justice
1,046 938 785 707 420
Other Criminal Code 1,876 1,875 1,650 1,717 1,166
Weapons/firearms
1,408 1,433 1,293 1,368 901
Residual Criminal Code
416 406 331 315 240
Disturbing the peace
50 33 26 33 23
Prostitution
2 3 0 1 2
Criminal Code traffic 554 490 426 364 346
Other federal statutes 4,609 3,831 3,031 2,077 1,255
Drug possession
1,129 930 703 259 144
Other drug offences
653 540 461 334 236
Youth Criminal Justice Act
2,701 2,317 1,837 1,387 766
Residual federal statutes
126 44 30 97 109
Total 29,708 27,919 24,656 22,449 14,754

Source: Table 35-10-0038-01, Integrated Criminal Court Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice and Community Safety Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Table A14 Notes
Administration of justice includes the offences failure to appear, breach of probation, and unlawfully at large.

Other Criminal Code offences (Other CC) includes administration of justice violations, weapons/firearms violations, counterfeit, possession of, accessing, making or distribution of child pornography and prostitution.

Other federal statute offences refer to offences against Canadian federal statutes, such as Customs Act, Employment Insurance Act, Firearms Act, Food and Drugs Act (FDA), Income Tax Act, Controlled Drugs and Substances Act (CDSA) and Narcotic Control Act (NCA). This offence category excludes Criminal Code of Canada offences.

Youth Criminal Justice Act offences include failure to comply with a disposition or undertaking, contempt against youth court, assisting a youth to leave a place of custody and harbouring a youth unlawfully at large. Also included are similar offences under the Young Offenders Act, which preceded the Youth Criminal Justice Act.

The concept of a case has changed to more closely reflect court processing. Statistics from the Integrated Criminal Court Survey used in this report should not be compared to editions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview prior to 2007. A case is 1 or more charges against an accused person or corporation, processed by the courts at the same time, and where all of the charges in the case received a final disposition. Where a case has more than 1 charge, it is necessary to select a charge to represent the case. An offence is selected by applying 2 rules. First, the most serious decision rule is applied. In cases where 2 or more offences have the same decision, the most serious offence rule is applied. All charges are ranked according to an offence seriousness scale.

The Canadian Centre for Justice and Community Safety Statistics continues to make updates to the offence library used to classify offence data sent by the provinces and territories. These improvements have resulted in minor changes in the counts of charges and cases as well as the distributions by type of offence. Data presented have been revised to account for these updates.

The table includes data from the most recent year available at the time of publication.

Reported year periods reflect fiscal years. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

Youth criminal court sentences: 5-year trend

Figure A15 Percentage of sentence received in youth criminal court
Figure A15
Image description

Line graph showing the percentage of sentence types received in youth criminal court from fiscal year 2016 to 2017 until fiscal year 2020 to 2021. Deferred custody and supervision sentences as well as fine sentences remained stable over the five year period, with deferred custody and supervision sentences fluctuating slightly from 4.4 to 4.9 percent and fine sentences from 2.9 to 2.0 percent. Custody sentences represented 15.5 percent of sentences in fiscal year 2016 to 2017, gradually decreasing to 11.6 percent of sentences in fiscal year 2020 to 2021. Community service order sentences began at 22.4 percent in fiscal year 2016 to 2017, fluctuating slightly each year until a proportion of 20.2 percent in fiscal year 2020 to 2021. Other sentences began at 36.7 percent in fiscal year 2016 to 2017 and gradually increased to a peak of 45.2 percent in fiscal year 2020 to 2021. Probation sentences represented the highest proportion of sentence types received in youth criminal court over the five year period; increasing steadily from 56.3 percent in fiscal year 2016 to 2017 to 60.5 percent in fiscal year 2020 to 2021. Full data are available immediately below.

Source: Table 35-10-0041-01, Integrated Criminal Court Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice and Community Safety Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Figure A15 Notes
Other sentence includes absolute discharge, restitution, prohibition, seizure, forfeiture, compensation, pay purchaser, essays, apologies, counselling programs and conditional discharge, conditional sentence, intensive support and supervision, attendance at non-residential program(s) and reprimand. This category also includes intensive support and supervision, attendance at non-residential program(s) and reprimand where sentencing data under the Youth Criminal Justice Act are not available.

Cases can have more than 1 sentence. Therefore, sanctions are not mutually exclusive and will not add to 100%. For all sentencing tables, data are for cases with a guilty finding only. Sentencing information is not available for a small proportion of guilty cases (i.e., approximately 3%, overall). For all sentencing tables, data are for cases with a guilty finding only and for which sentencing information is reported.

The concept of a case has changed to more closely reflect court processing. Statistics from the Integrated Criminal Court Survey used in this report should not be compared to editions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview prior to 2007.

The figure includes data from the most recent year available at the time of publication.

Reported year periods reflect fiscal years. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

Table A15 Percentage of sentence received in youth criminal court
Type of sentence Sex Fiscal year
2016-17 2017-18 2018-19 2019-20 2020-21
% % % % %
Probation Female 54.1 54.7 51.7 53.2 53.7
Male 58.8 59.9 60.5 60.6 62.1
Total 56.3 57.3 58.5 59.1 60.5
Custody Female 11.9 7.5 8.9 6.3 4.7
Male 16.5 13.7 13.5 13.4 12.8
Total 15.5 13.0 12.8 12.0 11.6
Community service order Female 20.9 21.9 21.6 21.4 19.0
Male 24.4 24.9 24.2 22.7 21.7
Total 22.4 22.9 23.0 21.7 20.2
Fine Female 2.9 2.4 2.0 2.3 1.6
Male 2.9 2.5 2.3 2.1 1.9
Total 2.9 2.5 2.2 2.2 2.0
Deferred custody and supervision Female 3.9 3.3 3.4 3.1 3.7
Male 4.7 4.8 5.3 4.9 5.3
Total 4.4 4.5 4.7 4.4 4.9
Other sentence Female 37.7 38.5 41.7 41.6 43.8
Male 39.8 40.6 42.4 43.0 46.5
Total 36.7 37.3 41.1 42.0 45.2

Source: Table 35-10-0041-01, Integrated Criminal Court Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice and Community Safety Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Table A15 Notes
Other sentence includes absolute discharge, restitution, prohibition, seizure, forfeiture, compensation, pay purchaser, essays, apologies, counselling programs and conditional discharge, conditional sentence, intensive support and supervision, attendance at non-residential program(s) and reprimand. This category also includes intensive support and supervision, attendance at non-residential program(s) and reprimand where sentencing data under the Youth Criminal Justice Act are not available.

Cases can have more than 1 sentence. Therefore, sanctions are not mutually exclusive and will not add to 100%. For all sentencing tables, data are for cases with a guilty finding only. Sentencing information is not available for a small proportion of guilty cases (i.e., approximately 3%, overall). For all sentencing tables, data are for cases with a guilty finding only and for which sentencing information is reported.

The concept of a case has changed to more closely reflect court processing. Statistics from the Integrated Criminal Court Survey used in this report should not be compared to editions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview prior to 2007.

The table includes data from the most recent year available at the time of publication.

Reported year periods reflect fiscal years. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

Youth criminal court sentences for most serious sentence: 5-year trend

Figure A16 Percentage of youth criminal court sentence for most serious sentenceFootnote *
Figure A16
Image description

Line graph showing the percentage of youth criminal court sentences for most serious sentence from fiscal year 2016 to 2017 until fiscal year 2020 to 2021. Deferred custody and supervision sentences as well as fine sentences remained stable over the five year period, with deferred custody and supervision sentences fluctuating slightly between 4.5 and 4.9 percent and fine sentences between 1.6 and 2.1 percent. Community service order sentences began at 8.7 percent in fiscal year 2016 to 2017, steadily decreasing to 5.0 percent in fiscal year 2020 to 2021. Custody sentences represented 13.0 percent of sentences in fiscal year 2016 to 2017, steadily decreasing to 9.9 percent of sentences in fiscal year 2020 to 2021. Other sentences began at 17.2 percent in fiscal year 2016 to 2017 and steadily increased to a peak of 23.3 percent in fiscal year 2020 to 2021. Probation sentences represented the highest proportion of sentence types received in youth criminal court over the five year period; increasing gradually from 49.6 percent in fiscal year 2016 to 2017 to 51.7 percent in fiscal year 2020 to 2021. Full data are available immediately below.

Source: Table 35-10-0042-01, Integrated Criminal Court Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice and Community Safety Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Table A16 Percentage of youth criminal court sentence for most serious sentenceFootnote *
Type of sentence Sex Fiscal year
2016-17 2017-18 2018-19 2019-20 2020-21
% % % % %
Probation Female 50.1 47.8 49.2 49.0 47.2
Male 50.4 50.9 51.1 51.6 53.2
Total 49.6 50.3 50.9 51.3 51.7
Custody Female 7.5 8.9 6.3 4.7 4.3
Male 13.6 13.5 13.3 12.7 10.7
Total 13.0 12.7 12.0 11.6 9.9
Community service order Female 9.2 9.2 8.4 7.6 7.0
Male 8.1 7.3 6.4 5.3 4.7
Total 8.7 8.3 7.5 6.1 5.0
Deferred custody and supervision Female 3.3 3.4 3.1 3.7 3.4
Male 4.8 5.2 4.8 5.3 4.7
Total 4.5 4.7 4.3 4.9 4.5
Fine Female 2.2 2.0 2.1 1.3 2.0
Male 2.1 2.0 1.7 1.7 1.9
Total 2.1 2.0 1.8 1.6 2.0
Other sentence Female 20.8 22.8 24.4 27.4 31.2
Male 16.1 17.3 18.7 19.7 21.5
Total 17.2 17.9 19.2 20.5 23.3

Source: Table 35-10-0042-01, Integrated Criminal Court Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice and Community Safety Statistics, Statistics Canada.

International incarceration rates

Figure A17 Prison population (2022). Rate per 100,000
Figure A17
Image description

Bar graph showing the incarceration rates of 15 countries, per 100,000 population, for the calendar year 2022. Compared to the median prison population rate of 96 per 100,000, countries with prison population rates above the median include, the United States with 505 people being incarcerated per 100,000 population; Australia with 165; New Zealand with 157; England and Wales with 139; Scotland with 136; France with 106; Austria with 97, and Italy at the median rate of 96. Countries below the median prison population rate per 100,000 include, Canada with 85; Sweden with 74; Switzerland and Denmark with 72; Germany with 67; Norway with 56; and Finland with 51. Full data are available immediately below.

Source: World Prison Brief, Institute for Crime & Justice Policy Research (ICPR) (www.prisonstudies.org/highest-to-lowest/prison-population-total).

Figure A17 Notes
The median is the middle value where half the values fall below the median and the other half above. The median is the preferred way to measure the average when there is an extreme outlier in the data.

The incarceration rate presented here is a measure of the number of people (i.e., adults and youth) in custody per 100,000 people in the general population. Incarceration rates from the World Prison Brief hosted by the Institute for Crime & Justice Policy Research (ICPR) are based on the most recently available data at the time the list was compiled. The data was retrieved online on March 17th, 2023 from http://www.prisonstudies.org which contains the most up-to-date information available. Additionally, different practices and variations in measurement in different countries limit the comparability of these figures.

Table A17 Prison population. Rate per 100,000
2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022
United States 716 707 698 693 666 655 655 639 629 505
Australia 130 143 151 152 168 172 170 160 165 165
New Zealand 192 190 190 203 214 214 201 188 150 157
England & Wales 148 149 148 147 146 140 140 131 132 139
Scotland 147 144 144 142 138 143 149 136 138 136
France 101 102 100 103 103 100 105 90 103 106
Austria 98 99 95 93 94 98 98 95 90 97
Italy 106 88 86 90 95 98 101 89 92 96
Canada 118 118 106 114 114 114 107 104 104 85
Sweden 67 57 60 53 57 59 61 68 73 74
Switzerland 82 87 84 83 82 81 81 80 73 72
Denmark 73 67 61 58 59 63 63 68 72 72
Germany 79 81 78 78 77 75 77 69 71 67
Norway 72 75 71 74 74 63 60 49 57 56
Finland 58 55 57 55 57 51 53 53 50 51

Source: World Prison Brief, Institute for Crime & Justice Policy Research (ICPR) (www.prisonstudies.org/highest-to-lowest/prison-population-total).

Table A17 Notes
Table A17 and A18 display the same data.

The incarceration rate presented here is a measure of the number of people (i.e., adults and youth) in custody per 100,000 people in the general population. Incarceration rates from the World Prison Brief hosted by the Institute for Crime & Justice Policy Research (ICPR) are based on the most recently available data at the time the list was compiled. The data was retrieved online on March 17th, 2023 from http://www.prisonstudies.org which contains the most up-to-date information available. Additionally, different practices and variations in measurement in different countries limit the comparability of these figures.

International incarceration rates: 10-year trend

Figure A18 Prison population. Rate per 100,000
Figure A18
Image description

Line graph showing the incarceration rate across 7 countries, per 100,000 population, from calendar year 2013 to 2022. Sweden and Denmark had the lowest prison population rates: Sweden decreased from 67 in 2013 to 53 in 2016, then gradually increased to a peak of 74 in 2022; and Denmark decreased from a peak of 73 per 100,000 population in 2013 to 58 in 2016, then gradually increased back up to 72 in 2022. Canada had the next lowest overall rate, peaking in 2013 and 2014 at 118 per 100,000 population, then oscillating downwards to a low of 85 in 2022. Followed by the rate in England and Wales, which steadily decreased from 149 in 2014 to 139 in 2022. New Zealand had the third highest rate, decreasing from 192 in 2013 to 190 in 2014 and 2015, then increasing to a peak of 214 in 2017 and 2018, and decreasing again to 147 in 2022. Australia had the second highest incarceration rate, increasing steadily from 130 in 2013 to 172 in 2018, then gradually decreasing to 165 in 2022. Finally, the United States had, by far, the highest incarceration rate of the countries examined, at 716 in 2013 then gradually decreasing to 505 in 2022. Full data are available immediately below.

Source: World Prison Brief, Institute for Crime & Justice Policy Research (ICPR) (www.prisonstudies.org/highest-to-lowest/prison-population-total).

Figure A18 Notes
The incarceration rate presented here is a measure of the number of people (i.e., adults and youth) in custody per 100,000 people in the general population. Incarceration rates from the World Prison Brief hosted by the Institute for Crime & Justice Policy Research (ICPR) are based on the most recently available data at the time the list was compiled. The data was retrieved online on March 17th, 2023, from http://www.prisonstudies.org which contains the most up to-date information available. Different practices and variations in measurement in different countries limit the comparability of these figures.

Table A18 Prison population. Rate per 100,000
2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022
United States 716 707 698 693 666 655 655 639 629 505
Australia 130 143 151 152 168 172 170 160 165 165
New Zealand 192 190 190 203 214 214 201 188 150 157
England & Wales 148 149 148 147 146 140 140 131 132 139
Scotland 147 144 144 142 138 143 149 136 138 136
France 101 102 100 103 103 100 105 90 103 106
Austria 98 99 95 93 94 98 98 95 90 97
Italy 106 88 86 90 95 98 101 89 92 96
Canada 118 118 106 114 114 114 107 104 104 85
Sweden 67 57 60 53 57 59 61 68 73 74
Switzerland 82 87 84 83 82 81 81 80 73 72
Denmark 73 67 61 58 59 63 63 68 72 72
Germany 79 81 78 78 77 75 77 69 71 67
Norway 72 75 71 74 74 63 60 49 57 56
Finland 58 55 57 55 57 51 53 53 50 51

Source: World Prison Brief, Institute for Crime & Justice Policy Research (ICPR) (www.prisonstudies.org/highest-to-lowest/prison-population-total).

Table A18 Notes
Table A17 and A18 display the same data.

The incarceration rate presented here is a measure of the number of people (i.e., adults and youth) in custody per 100,000 people in the general population. Incarceration rates from the World Prison Brief are based on the most recently available data at the time the list was compiled. For 2022, the data was retrieved online on March 17th, 2023 at www.prisonstudies.org which contains the most up to date information available. Additionally, different practices and variations in measurement in different countries limit the comparability of these figures.

Section B: Corrections Administration

Corrections costs federally and provincially/territorially

Figure B1a. Costs of federal corrections
Figure B1a
Image description

Line graph showing the costs of federal corrections from fiscal year 2011 to 2012 to fiscal year 2020 to 2021. Operating costs are the largest proportion of correctional budgets over time. Operating costs decreased from just shy of 2.5 billion dollars in fiscal year 2011 to 2012 to around 2.25 billion dollars in the next fiscal; operating costs continued to fluctuate between around 2.25 billion dollars to around 2.5 billion dollars until fiscal year 2020 to 2021 when costs peaked around 2.8 billion dollars. Adjusted costs followed a very similar pattern, but at levels that are roughly 500 million dollars less than operating costs. Adjusted costs decreased from around 2 billion dollars in fiscal year 2011 to 2012 to around 1.75 billion dollars in the next fiscal; adjusted costs continued to fluctuate between around 1.75 billion dollars to just over 2 billion dollars through fiscal year 2020 to 2021. Full data are available immediately below.

Figure B1b. Costs of provincial/territorial corrections
Figure B1b
Image description

Line graph showing the costs of provincial and territorial corrections from fiscal year 2011 to 2012 to 2020 to 2021. Operating costs are the largest proportion of correctional budgets over time. Provincial and territorial operating costs increased steadily from around 2 billion dollars in fiscal year 2011 to 2012 to over 2.6 billion dollars in fiscal year 2020 to 2021. Adjusted costs followed a similar trend line to the operating costs, but adjusted costs did not increase as fast as spending on operating costs did. Adjusted costs increased from around 1.75 billion dollars in fiscal year 2011 to 2012 to just shy of 2 billion dollars in fiscal year 2020 to 2021. Full data are available immediately below.

Sources: Federal costs are from Correctional Service Canada; Office of the Correctional Investigator; Parole Board of Canada. Provincial/Territorial costs are from Table 35-10-0013-01, Adult Correctional Services, Canadian Centre for Justice and Community Safety Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Figure B1 Notes
Total expenditures represent gross expenditures and exclude revenues (i.e., Foreign Exchange Gains). Operating costs include Employee Benefit Plan expenditures. CSC expenditures exclude CORCAN (a Special Operating Agency that conducts industrial operations within penitentiaries).

Adjusted costs adjust for the impact of inflation by reporting in constant dollars. Constant dollars (2002) represent dollar amounts calculated on a 1-year base that adjusts for inflation, allowing the yearly amounts to be directly comparable. Changes in the Consumer Price Index were used to calculate constant dollars.

Federal expenditures on corrections include spending by Correctional Service Canada (CSC), the Parole Board of Canada (PBC), and the Office of the Correctional Investigator (OCI).

The table includes data from the most recent year available at the time of publication.

Reported year periods reflect fiscal years. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

Table B1 Federal corrections costs
Fiscal year Current dollars Constant 2002 dollars
Operating Capital Total Per capitaFootnote * Operating Capital Total Per capitaFootnote *

$’000

$’000

$’000

$

$’000

$’000

$’000

$

2016-17

CSC

2,209,048 153,757 2,362,805 65.43 1,720,442 119,748 1,840,190 50.96

PBC

46,825

NA

46,825 1.30 36,468

NA

36,468 1.01

OCI

4,693

NA

4,693 0.13 3,655

NA

3,655 0.10

Total

2,260,566 153,757 2,414,322 66.86 1,760,565 119,748 1,880,313 52.07

2017-18

CSC

2,442,488 185,624 2,628,112 71.91 1,873,074 142,350 2,015,423 55.15

PBC

47,730

NA

47,730 1.31 36,603

NA

36,603 1.00

OCI

4,616

NA

4,616 0.13 3,551

NA

3,551 0.10

Total

2,494,849 185,624 2,680,473 73.35 1,913,228 142,350 2,055,577 56.25

2018-19

CSC

2,352,556 227,793 2,580,349 69.62 1,763,535 170,759 1,934,295 52.19

PBC

49,754

NA

49,754 1.34 37,297

NA

37,297 1.01

OCI

4,631

NA

4,631 0.12 3,472

NA

3,472 0.09

Total

2,406,941 227,793 2,634,734 71.08 1,804,304 170,759 1,975,063 53.29

2019-20

CSC

2,477,237 164,643 2,641,879 70.28 1,821,498 121,061 1,942,558 51.67

PBC

51,489

NA

51,489 1.37 37,860

NA

37,860 1.01

OCI

5,441

NA

5,441 0.14 4,001

NA

4,001 0.11

Total

2,534,167 164,643 2,698,809 71.79 1,863,358 121,061 1,984,418 52.79

2020-21

CSC

2,811,113 121,987 2,933,100 77.17 2,044,446 88,718 2,133,164 56.13

PBC

57,745

NA

57,745 1.52 41,996

NA

41,996 1.10

OCI

5,304

NA

5,304 0.14 3,857

NA

3,857 0.10

Total

2,874,162 121,987 2,996,149 78.83 2,090,300 88,718 2,179,017 57.33

Sources: Federal costs are from Correctional Service Canada; Office of the Correctional Investigator; Parole Board of Canada.

Number of CSC employees by location

Figure B2 CSC employees at the end of fiscal year (2021-22)
Figure B2
Image description

Bar illustration representing the number of Correctional Service of Canada (CSC) employees at the end of the 2021 to 2022 fiscal year. The bar is divided into three sections: community supervision, custody centres, and headquarters and central services. Community supervision employees are the smallest job category at CSC, representing 8.7% of all CSC employees or 1,520 employees. This is followed by jobs at headquarters and central services which represent 15.3% of all CSC employees or 2,664 employees. Jobs at custody centres is the most common job category representing 76.0% of all CSC employees or 13,282 employees. Full data are available immediately below.

Source: Correctional Service of Canada.

Figure B2 Notes
Due to changes in policy, Correctional Officers no longer occupy positions in the community.

CSC has changed its definition of employee. Previously, the total number of employees included casual employees, employees on leave without pay and suspended employees. These categories have been removed from the total as of 2005-06. These numbers represent indeterminate and term equal to, or more than 3 months substantive employment; and employee status of active and paid leave current up to March 31, 2022.

Due to rounding, percentage may not add to 100.

Reported year periods reflect fiscal years. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

Table B2 CSC employees at the end of fiscal year
Service area March 31, 2012 March 31, 2022
# % # %
Headquarters and central services 2,955 15.9 2,664 15.3
Administration 2,592 13.9 2,017 11.5
Health care 99 0.5 73 0.4
Program staff 79 0.4 65 0.4
Correctional officers 19 0.1 42 0.2
Instructors/supervisors 12 0.1 11 0.1
Parole officers/parole supervisorsFootnote * 2 0.0 1 0.0
OtherFootnote ** 152 0.8 455 2.6
Custody centres 14,126 75.9 13,282 76.0
Correctional officers 7,629 41.0 7,037 40.3
Administration 2,140 11.5 1,764 10.1
Health care 1,040 5.6 1,034 5.9
Program staff 1,024 5.5 990 5.7
Parole officers/parole supervisorsFootnote * 678 3.6 556 3.2
Instructors/supervisors 410 2.2 416 2.4
OtherFootnote ** 1,205 6.5 1,485 8.5
Community supervision 1,532 8.2 1,520 8.7
Parole officers/parole supervisorsFootnote * 701 3.8 789 4.5
Administration 396 2.1 365 2.1
Program staff 339 1.8 257 1.5
Health care 83 0.4 82 0.5
Correctional officers 12 0.1 0 0.0
OtherFootnote ** 1 0.0 27 0.2
Total 18,613 100 17,466 100

Source: Correctional Service of Canada.

Cost of incarceration in a federal institution: 5-year trend

Figure B3 Federal average daily inmate cost (current $)
Figure B3
Image description

Line graph showing the cost of incarceration in a federal institution, by average daily inmate cost in dollars, and by female, male, and total from fiscal year 2016 to 2017 to fiscal year 2020 to 2021. Female daily inmate costs were the highest, followed by total and then male. Female daily inmate costs increased from 525 dollars in fiscal year 2016 to 2017 to around 575 dollars in fiscal year 2017 to 2018; then dropping to around 550 in fiscal year 2018 to 2019; after which point daily costs steadily increase to just over 700 dollars in fiscal year 2020 to 2021.

Trend lines for the total daily inmate cost and male daily inmate cost share a similar pattern. Total and male daily inmate costs increase from around 300 dollars in fiscal year 2016 to 2017 to around 350 dollars in fiscal year 2017 to 2018; then dropping to around 325 dollars in fiscal year 2018 to 2019; after which point total and male daily inmate costs increase steadily to around 400 dollars in fiscal year 2020 to 2021. Full data are available immediately below.

Source: Correctional Service of Canada.

Figure B3 Notes
In 2018-19, the methodology of presentation for certain indirect costs was changed to better reflect the direct costs of maintaining an offender.

The average daily inmate cost includes those costs associated with the operation of the institutions such as salaries and employee benefit plan contributions, but excludes capital expenditures and expenditures related to CORCAN (a Special Operating Agency that conducts industrial operations within federal institutions).

Figures may not add due to rounding.

Reported year periods reflect fiscal years. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

Table B3 Annual average cost per offender (current $)
Categories 2016-17 2017-18 2018-19 2019-20 2020-21
Maximum security (men’s facilities) 158,113 169,367 163,642 174,939 204,048
Medium security (men’s facilities) 105,349 115,263 109,660 111,243 131,533
Minimum security (men’s facilities) 83,450 86,603 83,900 92,877 121,898
Women’s facilities 191,843 212,005 204,474 222,942 259,654
Exchange of services agreementsFootnote * (males and females) 122,998 114,188 122,269 131,322 130,729
Incarcerated average 116,473 125,466 120,589 126,253 150,505
Offenders in the community 30,639 32,327 32,037 34,214 38,418
Total incarcerated and in community 95,654 100,425 99,185 104,963 119,735

Source: Correctional Service of Canada.

The number of Parole Board of Canada employees

Figure B4 Full-time equivalents – 10-year trend
Figure B4
Image description

Line graph showing the number of full-time employees employed by the Parole Board of Canada from fiscal year 2012 to 2013 to fiscal year 2021 to 2022. The trend line rises from around 475 employees in fiscal year 2012 to 2013 to around 500 employees in fiscal year 2013 to 2014; then it gradually decreases back to 475 employees in fiscal year 2015 to 2016. The trend is relatively stable until fiscal year 2017 to 2018 when it begins to rise until it reaches 499 employees in fiscal year 2019 to 2020; then drops slightly to 493 employees in fiscal year 2021 to 2022. Full data are available immediately below.

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Figure B4 Notes
A full-time equivalent is a measure of the extent to which an employee represents a full person-year charge against a departmental budget. Section 103 of the Corrections and Conditional Release Act limits the Parole Board of Canada to 60 full-time members.

Reported year periods reflect fiscal years. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

Table B4 Full time equivalents
2017-18 2018-19 2019-20 2020-21 2021-22
Program activity
Conditional release decisions
317 317 320 323 320
Conditional release openness and accountability
42 43 45 45 49
Record suspension and clemency recommendations
48 58 72 62 57
Internal services
64 63 62 68 67
Total
471 481 499 498 493
Types of employees
Full-time board members
38 41 40 36 40
Part-time board members
20 19 20 20 19
Staff
413 421 439 442 434
Total
471 481 499 498 493

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Table B4 Notes
A full-time equivalent is a measure of the extent to which an employee represents a full person-year charge against a departmental budget. Section 103 of the Corrections and Conditional Release Act limits the Parole Board of Canada to 60 full-time members.

Reported year periods reflect fiscal years. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

The number of employees in the Office of the Correctional Investigator

Figure B5 Full-time equivalents
Figure B5
Image description

Line graph showing the number of full-time employees at the Office of the Correctional Investigator from fiscal year 2012 to 2013 to fiscal year 2021 to 2022. The number of full-time employees remains relative stable, around 35 employees, between fiscal year 2012 to 2013 and fiscal year 2017 to 2018; then it rises and reaches a peak of 40 employees in fiscal year 2019 to 2020; then drops again until it reaches 35 employees in fiscal year 2021 to 2022. Full data are available immediately below.

Source: Office of the Correctional Investigator.

Figure B5 Notes
The Office of the Correctional Investigator (OCI) may commence an investigation on receipt of a complaint by or on behalf of an offender or on its own initiative. Complaints are made by telephone, letter and during interviews with the OCI's investigative staff at federal correctional facilities. The dispositions in response to complaints involve a combination of internal responses (where the information or assistance sought by the offender can generally be provided by the OCI's investigative staff) and investigations (where, further to a review/analysis of law, policies and documentation, OCI investigative staff make an inquiry or several interventions with Correctional Service Canada and submit recommendations to address the complaint). Investigations vary considerably in terms of scope, complexity, duration and resources required.

Reported year periods reflect fiscal years. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

Table B5 Full time equivalents
Types of employees 2017-18 2018-19 2019-20 2020-21 2021-22
Correctional investigator 1 1 1 1 1
Senior management and investigative services 26 27 28 26 24
Internal services 4 6 5 5 5
Legal counsel, policy and research 5 5 6 6 5
Total 36 39 40 38 35

Source: Office of the Correctional Investigator.

Table B5 Notes
The Office of the Correctional Investigator (OCI) may commence an investigation on receipt of a complaint by or on behalf of an offender or on its own initiative. Complaints are made by telephone, letter and during interviews with the OCI's investigative staff at federal correctional facilities. The dispositions in response to complaints involve a combination of internal responses (where the information or assistance sought by the offender can generally be provided by the OCI's investigative staff) and investigations (where, further to a review/analysis of law, policies and documentation, OCI investigative staff make an inquiry or several interventions with Correctional Service Canada and submit recommendations to address the complaint). Investigations vary considerably in terms of scope, complexity, duration and resources required.

Reported year periods reflect fiscal years. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

Most common offender complaints to the Office of the Correctional Investigator

Figure B6 Top 10 offender complaints at the end of fiscal year 2021-22
Figure B6
Image description

Bar graph showing the 10 most common offender complaints in fiscal year 2021 to 2022. In descending order of frequency, conditions of confinement are the most prevalent with 765 complaints; followed by health care with 522 complaints; staff with 477 complaints; cell effects with 287 complaints; operation/decisions of the OCI with 259 complaints; transfer with 175 complaints; case preparation with 166 complaints; safety/security of offender(s) with 165 complaints; financial matters with 149 complaints; and visits with 140 complaints. Full data are available immediately below.

Source: Office of the Correctional Investigator.

Figure B6 Notes
The Office of the Correctional Investigator (OCI) may commence an investigation on receipt of a complaint by or on behalf of an offender or on its own initiative. Complaints are made by telephone, letter and during interviews with the OCI's investigative staff at federal correctional facilities. The dispositions in response to complaints involve a combination of internal responses (where the information or assistance sought by the offender can generally be provided by the OCI's investigative staff) and investigations (where, further to a review/analysis of law, policies and documentation, OCI investigative staff make an inquiry or several interventions with Correctional Service Canada and submit recommendations to address the complaint). Investigations vary considerably in terms of scope, complexity, duration and resources required.

Due to restrictions on institutional visits and the operational changes required to meet our service standards as an organization during the COVID-19 pandemic, there was a sudden and large increase in the number of cases categorized as “Operation/Decisions of the OCI.” Most of these were not related to complaints, but were general inquiries regarding visit arrangements, requests for information, etc.

Due to ongoing efforts at the OCI to streamline our administrative database and ensure accuracy in reporting, the numbers in this table will not always match those of past Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overviews, or OCI Annual Reports.

Reported year periods reflect fiscal years. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

Table B6 Top 20 offender complaint categoriesFootnote * for the last 5 fiscal years
Category of complaintFootnote * 2017-18 2018-19 2019-20 2020-21 2021-22
Conditions of confinement 783 608 502 863 765
Health care 858 693 688 516 522
Staff 530 501 560 515 477
Cell effects 412 407 388 244 287
Transfer 353 334 368 201 175
Safety/Security of offender(s) 127 177 230 183 165
Visits 214 192 209 123 140
Request for information 126 159 245 204 139
Telephone 169 183 185 133 127
Grievance 177 127 129 106 92
Financial matters 107 111 119 112 149
Outside OCI jurisdiction 193 128 133 65 71
Correspondence 149 84 130 103 84
Case preparation 55 73 96 149 166
Security classification 129 102 136 61 81
Programs 138 112 112 71 73
Administrative segregation 223 187 89 4 2
Operation/Decisions of the OCIFootnote ** 36 39 57 80 259
Mental health 76 59 100 49 66
Release procedures 83 55 83 59 65
Total of all categoriesFootnote *** 5,865 5,113 5,566 4,507 4,755

Source: Office of the Correctional Investigator.

Section C: Federal Offender and Registered Victims Populations

Offenders under the responsibility of CSC

Figure C1 Total offender population (2021-22)Footnote *
Figure C1
Image description

Bar illustration of the total offender population in fiscal year 2021 to 2022 that is separated into two categories: in-custody population and in community under supervision. First, the in-custody population held at Correctional Service of Canada facilities accounts for 59.2% of the total offender population and includes those who are incarcerated or temporarily detained. Second, the in-community under supervision population of offenders accounts for 40.8% of the total offender population and includes those who are temporarily detained in a non-Correctional Service of Canada facility or are being actively supervised on day parole, full parole, statutory release, or long-term supervision order. Full data are available immediately below.

Source: Correctional Service of Canada.

Definitions C1:

Total Offender Population includes all active offenders, who are incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, offenders who are temporarily detained, offenders who are actively supervised, and offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days.
CSC Facilities include all federal institutions and federally funded Healing Lodges.
In Custody includes all active offenders incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, offenders who are temporarily detained in a CSC facility and offenders on remand in a CSC facility.
In Community Under Supervision includes all active offenders on day parole, full parole, statutory release, in the community supervised on a long-term supervision order, offenders who are temporarily detained in a non-CSC facility, offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days, offenders on remand in a non-CSC facility, and offenders supervised and subject to an immigration hold by Canada Border Services Agency.
**Actively Supervised includes all active offenders on day parole, full parole or statutory release, as well as those who are in the community on long-term supervision orders.
Temporarily Detained includes offenders who are physically held in a CSC facility or a non-CSC facility after being suspended for a breach of a parole condition or to prevent a breach of parole conditions.

In addition to the total offender population, there are excluded groups such as:
Federal jurisdiction offenders incarcerated in a Community Correctional Centre or in a non-CSC facility.
Federal jurisdiction offenders deported /extradited including offenders for whom a deportation order has been enforced by Canada Border Services Agency.
Federal offenders on bail which includes offenders on a judicial interim release; they have appealed their conviction or sentence and have been released to await the results of a new trial.
Escaped includes offenders who have absconded from either a correctional facility or while on a temporary absence and whose whereabouts are unknown.
Unlawfully at Large for 90 days or more. This includes offenders who have been released to the community on day parole, full parole, statutory release or a long-term supervision order for whom a warrant for suspension has been issued at least 90 days ago, but has not yet been executed.

Table C1 Total offender population (2021-22)Footnote *
Status Offenders under the responsibility of CSC
# %

In-custody population (CSC facility)

12,328 59.2
Incarcerated in CSC facility
11,673 56.1
Temporarily detained in CSC facility
655 3.1

In community under supervision

8,479 40.8
Temporarily detained in non-CSC facility
205 1.0
Actively supervisedFootnote **
8,274 39.8
Day parole
1,357 6.5
Full parole
4,096 19.7
Statutory release
2,343 11.3
Long-term supervision order
477 2.3

Total

20,807 100.0

Source: Correctional Service of Canada.

Number of registered victims and number of offenders with a registered victim: 5-year trend

Figure C2 Number of registered victims and offenders with a registered victim
Figure C2
Image description

Line graph showing the number of registered victims and the number of offenders with a registered victim from fiscal year 2017 to 2018 to fiscal year 2021 to 2022. The number of registered victims rose from 8,041 in fiscal year 2017 to 2018 to a peak of 8,857 victims in fiscal year 2019 to 2020, then dropping to 8,537 victims in fiscal year 2021 to 2022. Meanwhile, there were 4,570 offenders with a registered victim in fiscal year 2017 to 2018, rising to a peak of 5,045 offenders in fiscal year 2019 to 2020, before decreasing again in fiscal year 2021 to 2022 at 4,785 offenders. Full data are available immediately below.

Source: Correctional Service of Canada.

Figure C2 Notes
The Canadian Victims Bill of Rights defines a victim as any individual who has suffered physical or emotional harm, property damage, or economic loss as the result of the commission of an offence. The law also allows a spouse, a relative or dependent, an individual who is responsible for the care or support of the victim or the care or support of a dependent of the victim, to act on behalf of a victim, if the victim cannot act on their own behalf. Victims include persons harmed by the offender regardless of whether the offender has been prosecuted or not, as long as an official complaint has been made to the police or to the Crown.

Victims do not automatically receive information about the offender who harmed them. If they have been harmed by an offender serving a sentence of 2 years or more, victims must register with the Correctional Service of Canada (CSC) or the Parole Board of Canada to receive information or access services. Registration allows CSC to verify that the individual meets the definition of victim, which is required by law before sharing protected offender information. https://www.csc-scc.gc.ca/victims/003006-7001-en.shtml

Reported data is current up to the end of each fiscal year. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

Table C2 Number of registered victims and number of offenders with a registered victim
Fiscal year Number of registered victims Number of offenders with a registered victim
2017-18 8,041 4,570
2018-19 8,477 4,847
2019-20 8,857 5,045
2020-21 8,695 4,912
2021-22 8,537 4,785

Source: Correctional Service of Canada.

Table C2 Notes
The Canadian Victims Bill of Rights defines a victim as any individual who has suffered physical or emotional harm, property damage, or economic loss as the result of the commission of an offence. The law also allows a spouse, a relative or dependent, an individual who is responsible for the care or support of the victim or the care or support of a dependent of the victim, to act on behalf of a victim, if the victim cannot act on their own behalf. Victims include persons harmed by the offender regardless of whether the offender has been prosecuted or not, as long as an official complaint has been made to the police or to the Crown.

Victims do not automatically receive information about the offender who harmed them. If they have been harmed by an offender serving a sentence of 2 years or more, victims must register with the Correctional Service of Canada (CSC) or the Parole Board of Canada to receive information or access services. Registration allows CSC to verify that the individual meets the definition of victim, which is required by law before sharing protected offender information. https://www.csc-scc.gc.ca/victims/003006-7001-en.shtml

Reported data is current up to the end of each fiscal year. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

The number of in-custody offenders: 10-year trend

Figure C3a. Number of in-custody offenders in a CSC facility at fiscal yearFootnote * end
Figure C3A
Image description

Line graph showing the number of in-custody offenders in a Correctional Service Canada facility at fiscal year end from fiscal year 2012 to 2013 to fiscal year 2021 to 2022. The number of in-custody offenders rises from 15,318 for fiscal year 2012 to 2013 to a peak of 15,342 in-custody offenders in fiscal year 2013 to 2014, then gradually drops to 14,092 in-custody offenders for fiscal year 2017 to 2018, rising briefly again to 14,149 in-custody offenders for fiscal year 2018 to 2019, then gradually dropping to its lowest point during fiscal year 2021 to 2022 at 12,328 in-custody offenders. Full data are available immediately below.

Figure C3b. Number of in-custody offenders in a provincial/territorial facility fiscal yearFootnote * end
Figure C3B
Image description

Line graph showing the number of in-custody offenders in a provincial or territorial facility at fiscal year end from fiscal year 2012 to 2013 to fiscal year 2021 to 2022. The number drops from 25,185 in-custody offenders in fiscal year 2012 to 2013 to 21,704 in-custody offenders in fiscal year 2013 to 2014, then rises to a peak of 25,448 in-custody offenders in fiscal year 2016 to 2017, before dropping to its lowest point of 18,950 in-custody offenders in fiscal year 2020 to 2021, then rising again to 20,439 in-custody offenders in fiscal year 2021 to 2022. Full data are available immediately below.

Source: Table: 35-10-0154-01, Corrections Key Indicator Report for Adults and Youth, Canadian Centre for Justice and Community Safety Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Table C3 In-custody offenders
Fiscal Year In custody in a CSCFootnote 1 facilityFootnote * Provincial/territorialFootnote 2
Sentenced Remand Other/ temporary detention Total Total
2012-13 15,318 11,138 13,739 308 25,185 40,503
2013-14 15,342 9,888 11,494 322 21,704 37,046
2014-15 14,886 10,364 13,650 441 24,455 39,341
2015-16 14,712 10,091 14,899 415 25,405 40,117
2016-17 14,159 9,710 15,417 321 25,448 39,607
2017-18 14,092 9,545 14,833 303 24,681 38,773
2018-19 14,149 8,708 14,778 297 23,783 37,932
2019-20 13,720 7,947 15,505 442 23,894 37,614
2020-21 12,399 5,881 12,753 317 18,950 31,349
2021-22 12,328 5,798 14,415 226 20,439 32,767

Number of admissions to CSC facilities

Figure C4 Number of admissions to CSC facilities
Figure C4
Image description

Line graph showing the number of admissions to Correctional Service Canada facilities from fiscal year 2012 to 2013 until fiscal year 2021 to 2022. The trend line for warrant of committal admissions remained relatively stable between fiscal year 2012 to 2013 and fiscal year 2018 to 2019, fluctuating between around 5,000 admissions and 4,800 admissions. The trend then drops dramatically to its lowest point in fiscal year 2020 to 2021 at 3,200 admissions and then increases slightly in fiscal year 2021 to 2022 at 3,887. Revocations admissions began at 2,131 in fiscal year 2017 to 2018, increasing to 2,255 in fiscal year 2018 to 2019, before rising to 2,297 in fiscal year 2019 to 2020, before dropping to its lowest point in fiscal year 2020 to 2021 at 2,021 and increasing again in fiscal year 2021 to 2022 at 2,243. The trend for the category of “other” admissions was the lowest, with 64 in fiscal year 2017 to 2018, varying slightly over time until reaching its lowest point in fiscal year 2020 to 2021 at 54 admissions. Full data are available immediately below.

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Figure C4 Notes
Warrant of Committal is a new admission to federal jurisdiction from the courts.

Revocation is when an offender is admitted to federal custody after conditional release and before reaching warrant expiry.

“Other” includes transfers from other jurisdictions (exchange of services), terminations, transfers from foreign countries, and admissions where a release is interrupted as a consequence of a new conviction.

These numbers refer to the total number of admissions to a federal institution or Healing Lodge during each fiscal year and may be greater than the actual number of offenders admitted, since an individual offender may be admitted more than once in a given year.

There is a lag in the data entry of admissions into CSC’s Offender Management System. The admission figures for the most recent year are under-reported by 200-400 admissions at the time of year end data extraction. More accurate figures will be available in the next year’s publication. Please use caution when including the most recent year in any trend analysis.

Reported year periods reflect fiscal years. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

Table C4 Number of admissions to CSC facilities
2017-18 2018-19 2019-20 2020-21 2021-22
Females Males Females Males Females Males Females Males Females Males
Warrant of committal
1st federal sentence
335 3,361 347 3,448 323 3,172 244 2,136 240 2,692
Subsequent federal sentence
45 1,242 36 1,164 30 1,102 23 781 38 907
Provincial sentence
2 13 0 11 1 13 0 16 0 10
Subtotal
382 4,616 383 4,623 354 4,287 267 2,933 278 3,609
Total
4,998 5,006 4,641 3,200 3,887

Revocations

149 1,982 145 2,110 177 2,120 144 1,880 141 2,102
Total
2,131 2,255 2,297 2,024 2,243

Other

9 55 5 67 4 61 8 46 1 58
Total
64 72 65 54 59

Total admissions

540 6,653 533 6,800 535 6,468 419 4,859 420 5,769
Total admissions 7,193 7,333 7,003 5,278 6,189

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Table C4 Notes
Warrant of Committal is a new admission to federal jurisdiction from the courts.

Revocation is when an offender is admitted to federal custody after conditional release and before reaching warrant expiry.

“Other” includes transfers from other jurisdictions (exchange of services), terminations, transfers from foreign countries, and admissions where a release is interrupted as a consequence of a new conviction.

These numbers refer to the total number of admissions to a federal institution or Healing Lodge during each fiscal year and may be greater than the actual number of offenders admitted, since an individual offender may be admitted more than once in a given year.

There is a lag in the data entry of admissions into CSC’s Offender Management System. The admission figures for the most recent year are under-reported by 200-400 admissions at the time of year end data extraction. More accurate figures will be available in the next year’s publication. Please use caution when including the most recent year in any trend analysis.

Reported year periods reflect fiscal years. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

Warrant of committal admissions to CSC facilities by sex: 10-year trend

Figure C5 Warrant of committal admissions by sex
Figure C5
Image description

Line graph showing the number of warrant of committal admissions to Correctional Service Canada facilities by sex from fiscal year 2012 to 2013 until fiscal year 2021 to 2022. The number of males starts at 4,780 admissions in fiscal year 2012 to 2013, then drops steadily until a point of 4,493 admissions in fiscal year 2016 to 2017, rises again to a point of 4,623 admissions in fiscal year 2018 to 2019. The trend then drops drastically to 2,933 admissions in fiscal year 2020 to 2021, followed by a slight rise to 3,609 admissions in 2021 to 2022. The female trend was much lower, beginning in fiscal year 2012 to 2013 with 265 admissions before rising until its peak in fiscal year 2016 to 2017 at 413 admissions, then dropping to 267 admissions in fiscal year 2020 to 2021, before increasing slightly in fiscal year 2021 to 2022 at 278 admissions. Full data are available immediately below.

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Figure C5 Notes
A warrant of committal is a new admission to federal jurisdiction from the courts.

These numbers refer to the total number of admissions to a federal institution or Healing Lodge during each fiscal year and may be greater than the actual number of offenders admitted, since an individual offender may be admitted more than once in a given year.

There is a lag in the data entry of admissions into CSC's Offender Management System. The admission figures for the most recent year are under-reported by 200-400 admissions at the time of year end data extraction. More accurate figures will be available in the next year's publication. Please use caution when including the most recent year in any trend analysis.

Reported year periods reflect fiscal years. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

Table C5 Warrant of committal admissions for females and males
Fiscal year Females Males Total
# % # % #
2012-13 265 5.3 4,780 94.7 5,045
2013-14 312 6.2 4,759 93.8 5,071
2014-15 343 7.1 4,475 92.9 4,818
2015-16 388 7.9 4,503 92.1 4,891
2016-17 413 8.4 4,493 91.6 4,906
2017-18 382 7.6 4,616 92.4 4,998
2018-19 383 7.7 4,623 92.3 5,006
2019-20 354 7.6 4,287 92.4 4,641
2020-21 267 8.3 2,933 91.7 3,200
2021-22 278 7.2 3,609 92.8 3,887

Source: Correctional Service of Canada.

Table C5 Notes
A warrant of committal is a new admission to federal jurisdiction from the courts.

These numbers refer to the total number of admissions to a federal institution or Healing Lodge during each fiscal year and may be greater than the actual number of offenders admitted, since an individual offender may be admitted more than once in a given year.

There is a lag in the data entry of admissions into CSC's Offender Management System. The admission figures for the most recent year are under-reported by 200-400 admissions at the time of year end data extraction. More accurate figures will be available in the next year's publication. Please use caution when including the most recent year in any trend analysis.

Reported year periods reflect fiscal years. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

Number of registered victims by gender: 5-year trend

Figure C6 Number of registered victims by genderFootnote *
Figure C6
Image description

Line graph of the number of registered victims by gender from fiscal year 2017 to 2018 until fiscal year 2021 to 2022. The total number of registered victims rose steadily from 8,041 in fiscal year 2017 to 2018 to 8,857 in fiscal year 2019 to 2020, before dropping to 8,537 in fiscal year 2021 to 2022. Of the female, male, and unknown gender categories, the female trend was highest starting at 4,317 female registered victims in fiscal year 2017 to 2018, decreasing steadily until reaching 3,531 female registered victims in fiscal year 2021 to 2022. The number of registered victims of an unknown gender rose from 1,954 in fiscal year 2017 to 2018 to 3,633 registered victims of an unknown gender in fiscal year 2020 to 2021, followed by a slight decrease in 2021 to 2022 at 3,608 registered victims of an unknown gender. The number of male registered victims was lowest, starting at 1,764 in fiscal year 2017 to 2018, then decreasing steadily until reaching 1,369 male registered victims in fiscal year 2021 to 2022. Full data are available immediately below.

Source: Correctional Service of Canada.

Reported data is current up to the end of each fiscal year. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

Table C6 Number of registered victims by genderFootnote *
2017-18 2018-19 2019-20 2020-21 2021-22

Male

1,764 1,606 1,517 1,422 1,369

Female

4,317 3,947 3,750 3,596 3,531

Another genderFootnote **

NR

NR

0 0 2

Does not want to provide

6 8 10 14 27

Unknown

1,954 2,916 3,580 3,663 3,608

Total

8,041 8,477 8,857 8,695 8,537

Source: Correctional Service of Canada.

CSC total offender population by sentence length

Figure C7 Sentence length of total offender population (2021-22)
Figure C7
Image description

Bar graph showing the sentence length of the Correctional Services of Canada total offender population in fiscal year 2021 to 2022. There were 267 sentences of less than 2 years; 3,814 sentences of 2 to less than 3 years; 2,917 sentences of 3 to less than 4 years; 2,070 sentences of 4 to less than 5 years; 1,605 sentences of 5 to less than 6 years; 1,152 sentences of 6 to less than 7 years; 1,795 sentences of 7 to less than 10 years; 991 sentences of 10 to less than 15 years; 403 sentences of 15 years or more; and 5,792 sentences of a life sentence or an indeterminate sentence. Full data are available immediately below.

Source: Correctional Service of Canada.

Figure C7 Notes
As a result of a data quality issue, sentence length information on 1 offender was not available at the time of the data extraction; therefore, the total of the sentence length grouping will not add up to the offender population results for 2021-22.

Total Offender Population includes all active offenders, who are incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, offenders who are temporarily detained, offenders who are actively supervised, and offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days.

The group of offenders serving a sentence less than 2 years includes offenders transferred from foreign countries or offenders under a long-term supervision order who received a new sentence of less than 2 years.

Indeterminate means that the offender’s term of imprisonment does not have an end date. The parole Board of Canada reviews the case after 7 years and every 2 years after that.

Reported year periods reflect fiscal years. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

Table C7 Sentence length of total offender population
Sentence length 2017-18 2018-19 2019-20 2020-21 2021-22
# % # % # % # % # %
< than 2 years 348 1.5 307 1.3 307 1.3 293 1.4 267 1.3
2 years to < 3 years 5,412 23.3 5,457 23.3 5,149 22.3 4,321 20.1 3,814 18.3
3 years to < 4 years 3,378 14.5 3,436 14.6 3,389 14.7 3,060 14.2 2,917 14.0
4 years to < 5 years 2,342 10.1 2,368 10.1 2,371 10.3 2,157 10.0 2,070 9.9
5 years to < 6 years 1,674 7.2 1,711 7.3 1,692 7.3 1,598 7.4 1,605 7.7
6 years to < 7 years 1,186 5.1 1,172 5.0 1,153 5.0 1,130 5.3 1,152 5.5
7 years to < 10 years 1,811 7.8 1,857 7.9 1,841 8.0 1,795 8.3 1,795 8.6
10 years to < 15 years 979 4.2 998 4.3 1,010 4.4 999 4.6 991 4.8
15 years or more 474 2.0 445 1.9 426 1.8 404 1.9 403 1.9
Life and/or indeterminate Sentence 5,619 24.2 5,713 24.3 5,764 25.0 5,755 26.8 5,792 27.8
Total 23,223 100.0 23,464 100.0 23,102 100.0 21,512 100.0 20,807 100.0

Source: Correctional Service of Canada.

Table C7 Notes
As a result of a data quality issue, sentence length information on 1 offender was not available at the time of the data extraction; therefore, the total of the sentence length grouping will not add up to the offender population results for 2021-22.

Total Offender Population includes all active offenders, who are incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, offenders who are temporarily detained, offenders who are actively supervised, and offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days.

The group of offenders serving a sentence less than 2 years includes offenders transferred from foreign countries or offenders under a long-term supervision order who received a new sentence of less than 2 years.

Indeterminate means that the offender’s term of imprisonment does not have an end date. The parole Board of Canada reviews the case after 7 years and every 2 years after that.

Reported year periods reflect fiscal years. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

Offences of victimization among registered victims

Figure C8 Offences of victimization (2021-22)
Figure C8
Image description

Bar graph showing the offences of victimization among registered victims by offence type in fiscal year 2021 to 2022. Offences causing death account for 49.5 percent of offences of victimization; followed by sexual offences which account for 21.6 percent; assaults which account for 7.3 percent; other offences which account for 6 percent; involving violence or threats of violence which account for 4.9 percent; property crimes which account for 3.8 percent; attempts to cause deaths which account for 2.8 percent; deprivation of freedom which account for 2.3 percent; and finally, driving offences which account for 1.8 percent. Full data are available immediately below.

Source: Correctional Service of Canada.

Figure C8 Notes
The Canadian Victims Bill of Rights defines a victim as any individual who has suffered physical or emotional harm, property damage, or economic loss as the result of the commission of an offence. The law also allows a spouse, a relative or dependant, an individual who is responsible for the care or support of the victim or the care or support of a dependant of the victim, to act on behalf of a victim, if the victim cannot act on their own behalf. Victims include persons harmed by the offender regardless of whether the offender has been prosecuted or not, as long as an official complaint has been made to the police or to the Crown.

Victims do not automatically receive information about the offender who harmed them. If they have been harmed by an offender serving a sentence of 2 years or more, victims must register with the Correctional Service of Canada (CSC) or the Parole Board of Canada to receive information or access services. Registration allows CSC to verify that the individual meets the definition of victim, which is required by law before sharing protected offender information. https://www.csc-scc.gc.ca/victims/003006-7001-en.shtml

Offences of victimization are acts the offender committed that harmed the victim, and have been confirmed using police reports or judge's comments. The offender may not have been convicted of each act or may be serving a federal sentence for different offences. This could be a result of plea deals, because charges were not pursued by the Crown, or the offence may be from a previous sentence or a provincial sentence. Offences of victimization are limited to victims registered with CSC.

More than one offence of victimization may be recorded for each victim.

"Deprivation of freedom" offences are offences such as kidnapping, forcible confinement, hostage taking, or abduction.

Reported year periods reflect fiscal years. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

Table C8 Offences of victimization
2017-18 2018-19 2019-20 2020-21 2021-22
# % # % # % # % # %
Offence causing death 5,128 49.8 5,398 48.5 5,629 47.8 5,597 48.5 5,653 49.5
Sexual offences 2,130 20.7 2,366 21.3 2,517 21.4 2,483 21.5 2,464 21.6
Assaults 784 7.6 876 7.9 932 7.9 903 7.8 828 7.3
Other offences 600 5.8 683 6.1 762 6.5 696 6.0 689 6.0
Violence/threat of violence 482 4.7 502 4.5 540 4.6 555 4.8 555 4.9
Property crimes 458 4.5 508 4.6 540 4.6 501 4.3 438 3.8
Attempt to cause death 296 2.9 317 2.8 338 2.9 341 3.0 325 2.8
Deprivation of freedom 249 2.4 263 2.4 279 2.4 260 2.3 260 2.3
Driving offences 160 1.6 210 1.9 229 1.9 198 1.7 204 1.8
Unknown 5 0.0 4 0.0 4 0.0 3 0.0 2 0.0
Total number of offences 10,292 100.0 11,127 100.0 11,770 100.0 11,537 100.0 11,418 100.0

Source: Correctional Service of Canada.

Table C8 Notes
The Canadian Victims Bill of Rights defines a victim as any individual who has suffered physical or emotional harm, property damage, or economic loss as the result of the commission of an offence. The law also allows a spouse, a relative or dependant, an individual who is responsible for the care or support of the victim or the care or support of a dependant of the victim, to act on behalf of a victim, if the victim cannot act on their own behalf. Victims include persons harmed by the offender regardless of whether the offender has been prosecuted or not, as long as an official complaint has been made to the police or to the Crown.

Victims do not automatically receive information about the offender who harmed them. If they have been harmed by an offender serving a sentence of 2 years or more, victims must register with the Correctional Service of Canada (CSC) or the Parole Board of Canada to receive information or access services. Registration allows CSC to verify that the individual meets the definition of victim, which is required by law before sharing protected offender information. https://www.csc-scc.gc.ca/victims/003006-7001-en.shtml

Offences of victimization are acts the offender committed that harmed the victim, and have been confirmed using police reports or judge's comments. The offender may not have been convicted of each act or may be serving a federal sentence for different offences. This could be a result of plea deals, because charges were not pursued by the Crown, or the offence may be from a previous sentence or a provincial sentence. Offences of victimization are limited to victims registered with CSC.

More than one offence of victimization may be recorded for each victim.

"Deprivation of freedom" offences are offences such as kidnapping, forcible confinement, hostage taking, or abduction.

Reported data is current up to the end of each fiscal year. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

Warrant of committal admissions to a CSC facility by age

Figure C9 Percentage of warrant of committal admissions by age: 10-year trend
Figure C9
Image description

Bar graph showing the percentage of warrant committal admissions to a Correctional Services of Canada facility by age for fiscal year 2012 to 2013 and for fiscal year 2021 to 2022. Over time, the percentage of admissions decreased in the 18 and 19 age group; the 20 to 24 age group; and, the 45 to 49 age group. The percentage of admissions increased over time for all other age groups, including the 25 to 29 age group; the 30 to 34 age group; the 35 to 39 age group; the 40 to 44 age group; the 50 to 59 age group; the 60 to 69 age group; and the 70 plus age group. Full data are available immediately below.

Source: Correctional Service of Canada.

Figure C9 Notes
A warrant of committal is a new admission to federal jurisdiction from the courts.

Although not illustrated in the figure, the distribution of age upon admission is similar for both males and females.

These numbers refer to the total number of admissions to a federal institution or Healing Lodge during each fiscal year and may be greater than the actual number of offenders admitted, since an individual offender may be admitted more than once in a given year.

There is a lag in the data entry of admissions into CSC’s Offender Management System. The admission figures for the most recent year are under-reported by 200-400 admissions at the time of year end data extraction. More accurate figures will be available in the next year’s publication. Please use caution when including the most recent year in any trend analysis.

Due to rounding, percentages may not add to 100 percent.

Reported year periods reflect fiscal years. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

Table C9 Warrant of committal admissions by age and sex: 10-year trend
Age at admission 2012-13 2021-22
Females Males Total Females Males Total
# % # % # % # % # % # %
18 and 19 4 1.5 130 2.7 134 2.7 4 1.4 35 1.0 39 1.0
20 to 24 57 21.5 836 17.5 893 17.7 34 12.2 415 11.5 449 11.6
25 to 29 51 19.2 912 19.1 963 19.1 55 19.8 647 17.9 702 18.1
30 to 34 40 15.1 738 15.4 778 15.4 43 15.5 615 17.0 658 16.9
35 to 39 29 10.9 557 11.7 586 11.6 41 14.7 572 15.8 613 15.8
40 to 44 33 12.5 504 10.5 537 10.6 31 11.2 411 11.4 442 11.4
45 to 49 26 9.8 445 9.3 471 9.3 33 11.9 281 7.8 314 8.1
50 to 59 19 7.2 459 9.6 478 9.5 28 10.1 376 10.4 404 10.4
60 to 69 5 1.9 163 3.4 168 3.3 7 2.5 192 5.3 199 5.1
70 and over 1 0.4 36 0.8 37 0.7 2 0.7 65 1.8 67 1.7
Total 265 4,780 5,045 278 3,609 3,887

Source: Correctional Service of Canada.

Table C9 Notes
A warrant of committal is a new admission to federal jurisdiction from the courts.

These numbers refer to the total number of admissions to a federal institution or Healing Lodge during each fiscal year and may be greater than the actual number of offenders admitted, since an individual offender may be admitted more than once in a given year.

There is a lag in the data entry of admissions into CSC’s Offender Management System. The admission figures for the most recent year are under-reported by 200-400 admissions at the time of year end data extraction. More accurate figures will be available in the next year’s publication. Please use caution when including the most recent year in any trend analysis.

Due to rounding, percentages may not add to 100 percent.

Reported year periods reflect fiscal years. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

Number of registered victims by age

Figure C10 Number of registered victims by age (2021-22)
Figure C10
Image description

Bar graph showing the number of registered victims by age in fiscal year 2021 to 2022. There were 788 registered victims aged 30 and under, with the numbers rising by ascending decennial age grouping until reaching the highest number of registered victims in the 51 to 60 age group at 1,808 registered victims. The number of registered victims then decreased by ascending decade age group until reaching the age group with the fewest registered victims of 253 for those 81 years of age and older. Full data are available immediately below.

Source: Correctional Service of Canada.

Figure C10 Notes
The Canadian Victims Bill of Rights defines a victim as any individual who has suffered physical or emotional harm, property damage, or economic loss as the result of the commission of an offence. The law also allows a spouse, a relative or dependant, an individual who is responsible for the care or support of the victim or the care or support of a dependant of the victim, to act on behalf of a victim, if the victim cannot act on their own behalf. Victims include persons harmed by the offender regardless of whether the offender has been prosecuted or not, as long as an official complaint has been made to the police or to the Crown.

Victims do not automatically receive information about the offender who harmed them. If they have been harmed by an offender serving a sentence of 2 years or more, victims must register with the Correctional Service of Canada (CSC) or the Parole Board of Canada to receive information or access services. Registration allows CSC to verify that the individual meets the definition of victim, which is required by law before sharing protected offender information. https://www.csc-scc.gc.ca/victims/003006-7001-en.shtml

Reporting rates ranged from 90.1% in 2017-18 to 93.7% in 2021-22. The difference between the total number of registered victims and the number of victims who reported their age is the result of victims choosing not to report their age during registration, or their age is unknown to CSC. The information does not represent victims who have not been in contact with CSC or those who choose not to register.

Note that all registered victims are 18 years of age or older except for exceptional circumstances (i.e. emancipations).

Reported year periods reflect fiscal years. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

Table C10 Number of registered victims by age
2017-18 2018-19 2019-20 2020-21 2021-22
# % # % # % # % # %
30 and under 818 10.2 890 10.5 957 10.8 881 10.1 788 9.2
31 to 40 1,158 14.4 1,225 14.5 1,274 14.4 1,288 14.8 1,313 15.4
41 to 50 1,430 17.8 1,521 17.9 1,598 18.0 1,585 18.2 1,517 17.8
51 to 60 1,844 22.9 1,882 22.2 1,928 21.8 1,852 21.3 1,808 21.2
61 to 70 1,213 15.1 1,373 16.2 1,455 16.4 1,504 17.3 1,546 18.1
71 to 80 595 7.4 651 7.7 715 8.1 748 8.6 766 9.0
81 and older 188 2.3 214 2.5 246 2.8 252 2.9 258 3.0
Unknown 795 9.9 721 8.5 684 7.7 585 6.7 541 6.3
Total 8,041 100.0 8,477 100.00 8,857 100.0 8,695 100.0 8,537 100.0

Source: Correctional Service of Canada.

Table C10 Notes
The Canadian Victims Bill of Rights defines a victim as any individual who has suffered physical or emotional harm, property damage, or economic loss as the result of the commission of an offence. The law also allows a spouse, a relative or dependant, an individual who is responsible for the care or support of the victim or the care or support of a dependant of the victim, to act on behalf of a victim, if the victim cannot act on their own behalf. Victims include persons harmed by the offender regardless of whether the offender has been prosecuted or not, as long as an official complaint has been made to the police or to the Crown.

Victims do not automatically receive information about the offender who harmed them. If they have been harmed by an offender serving a sentence of 2 years or more, victims must register with the Correctional Service of Canada (CSC) or the Parole Board of Canada to receive information or access services. Registration allows CSC to verify that the individual meets the definition of victim, which is required by law before sharing protected offender information. https://www.csc-scc.gc.ca/victims/003006-7001-en.shtml

Reporting rates ranged from 90.1% in 2017-18 to 93.7% in 2021-22. The difference between the total number of registered victims and the number of victims who reported their age is the result of victims choosing not to report their age during registration, or their age is unknown to CSC. The information does not represent victims who have not been in contact with CSC or those who choose not to register.

Note that all registered victims are 18 years of age or older except for exceptional circumstances (i.e. emancipations).
Reported data is current up to the end of each fiscal year. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

Warrant of committal admissions to a CSC facility for Indigenous and non-Indigenous offenders by age

Figure C11 Percentage of warrant of committal admissions for Indigenous and non-Indigenous offenders by age (2021-22)
Figure C11
Image description

Bar graph showing the percentage of warrant committal admissions to a Correctional Services of Canada facility by age for Indigenous and non-Indigenous offenders in the 2021 to 2022 fiscal year. There was a higher percentage of Indigenous offenders in the 18 and 19 age group; the 20 to 24 age group; the 25 to 29 age group; the 30 to 34 age group.; and the 35 to 39 age group. There was a higher percentage of non-Indigenous offenders for the 40 to 44 age group; the 45 to 49 age group; the 50 to 59 age group; the 60 to 69 age group; and the 70 plus age group. Full data are available immediately below.

Source: Correctional Service of Canada.

Figure C11 Notes
A warrant of committal is a new admission to federal jurisdiction from the courts.

These numbers refer to the total number of admissions to a federal institution or Healing Lodge during each fiscal year and may be greater than the actual number of offenders admitted, since an individual offender may be admitted more than once in a given year.

There is a lag in the data entry of admissions into CSC’s Offender Management System. The admission figures for the most recent year are under-reported by 200-400 admissions at the time of year end data extraction. More accurate figures will be available in the next year’s publication. Please use caution when including the most recent year in any trend analysis.

Due to rounding, percentages may not add to 100 percent.

Reported year periods reflect fiscal years. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

Table C11 Warrant of committal admissions for Indigenous and non-Indigenous offenders by age
Age at admission 2012-13 2021-22
Indigenous Non- Indigenous Total Indigenous Non- Indigenous Total
# % # % # % # % # % # %
18 and 19 46 3.8 88 2.3 134 2.7 23 2.0 16 0.6 39 1.0
20 to 24 244 20.4 649 16.9 893 17.7 167 14.3 282 10.4 449 11.6
25 to 29 265 22.2 698 18.1 963 19.1 236 20.3 466 17.1 702 18.1
30 to 34 189 15.8 589 15.3 778 15.4 227 19.5 431 15.8 658 16.9
35 to 39 141 11.8 445 11.6 586 11.6 190 16.3 423 15.5 613 15.8
40 to 44 123 10.3 414 10.8 537 10.6 119 10.2 323 11.9 442 11.4
45 to 49 102 8.5 369 9.6 471 9.3 85 7.3 229 8.4 314 8.1
50 to 59 63 5.3 415 10.8 478 9.5 83 7.1 321 11.8 404 10.4
60 to 69 22 1.8 146 3.8 168 3.3 31 2.7 168 6.2 199 5.1
70 and over 0 0.0 37 1.0 37 0.7 4 0.3 63 2.3 67 1.7
Total 1,195 3,850 5,045 1,165 2,722 3,887

Source: Correctional Service of Canada.

Table C11 Notes
A warrant of committal is a new admission to federal jurisdiction from the courts.

These numbers refer to the total number of admissions to a federal institution or Healing Lodge during each fiscal year and may be greater than the actual number of offenders admitted, since an individual offender may be admitted more than once in a given year.

There is a lag in the data entry of admissions into CSC’s Offender Management System. The admission figures for the most recent year are under-reported by 200-400 admissions at the time of year end data extraction. More accurate figures will be available in the next year’s publication. Please use caution when including the most recent year in any trend analysis.

Due to rounding, percentages may not add to 100 percent.

Reported year periods reflect fiscal years. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

Age distribution of the CSC offender population compared to the age distribution of the overall Canadian adult population

Figure C12 Percentage of in-custody offender population (2021-22) vs. in community under supervision (2021-22) vs. overall distribution of the Canadian adult population (2021)
Figure C12
Image description

Bar graph comparing the percentage of the in-custody offender population of fiscal year 2021 to 2022 with the Canadian adult population of the year 2021 by age group. The age group representing the most likely people to be in-custody during the 2021 to 2022 fiscal year are 30 to 34 year olds, an age group that represents about 8 percent of the Canadian population. This is the age grouping that is most over-represented in the in-custody population. The proportion of the in-custody population falls for each age group until reaching a low of about three percent of in-custody population being 70 years old or older. Because there are more Canadians who are 55 to 64 years of age than between ages 40 to 54, overrepresentation by age declines even more rapidly than the proportion in-custody. The proportion of people under community supervision rises quickly from under 6.6 percent for 20 to 24 year olds to a high of about 15 percent amongst 35 to 39 year olds, declining unevenly until a plateau of just under 10 percent of those aged 45 to 59 being under supervision orders in the community. Full data are available immediately below.

Sources: Correctional Service of Canada; Table 17-10-0005-01, Annual Demographic Estimates: Canada, Provinces, and Territories, Centre for Demography, Statistics Canada.

Figure C12 Notes
In-custody population includes all active offenders incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, offenders who are temporarily detained in a CSC facility and offenders on remand in a CSC facility.

In Community Under Supervision includes all active offenders on day parole, full parole, statutory release, or in the community supervised on a long-term supervision order, offenders who are temporarily detained in a non-CSC facility, offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days, offenders on remand in a non-CSC facility, and offenders supervised and subject to an immigration hold by Canada Border Services Agency.

Due to rounding, percentage may not add to 100 percent.

For offender population data, the reported year period (2021-22) reflects a fiscal year. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

Table C12 Percentage of in-custody offender population (2021-22) vs. in community under supervision (2021-22) vs. overall distribution of the Canadian adult population (2021)
Age In custody In community under supervision Total % of Canadian adult population
# % # % # % %
18 and 19 26 0.2 0 0.0 26 0.1 2.2
20 to 24 819 6.6 258 3.0 1,077 5.2 6.4
25 to 29 1,847 15.0 833 9.8 2,680 12.9 6.9
30 to 34 1,985 16.1 1,018 12.0 3,003 14.4 7.0
35 to 39 1,855 15.0 1,047 12.3 2,902 13.9 7.0
40 to 44 1,451 11.8 980 11.6 2,431 11.7 6.6
45 to 49 1,128 9.1 818 9.6 1,946 9.4 6.2
50 to 54 964 7.8 790 9.3 1,754 8.4 6.4
55 to 59 892 7.2 769 9.1 1,661 8.0 7.1
60 to 64 625 5.1 639 7.5 1,264 6.1 6.8
65 to 69 376 3.0 574 6.8 950 4.6 5.8
70 and over 360 2.9 753 8.9 1,113 5.3 12.7
Total 12,328 100.0 8,479 100.0 20,807 100.0 100.0

Sources: Correctional Service of Canada; Table 17-10-0005-01, Annual Demographic Estimates: Canada, Provinces, and Territories, Centre for Demography, Statistics Canada.

Table C12 Notes
In-custody population includes all active offenders incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, offenders who are temporarily detained in a CSC facility and offenders on remand in a CSC facility.

In Community Under Supervision includes all active offenders on day parole, full parole, statutory release, or in the community supervised on a long-term supervision order, offenders who are temporarily detained in a non-CSC facility, offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days, offenders on remand in a non-CSC facility, and offenders supervised and subject to an immigration hold by Canada Border Services Agency.

Due to rounding, percentage may not add to 100 percent.

For offender population data, the reported year period (2021-22) reflects a fiscal year. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

CSC offender population by self-reported race

Figure C13 Percentage of total offender population by self-reported raceFootnote * (2021-22)
Figure C13
Image description

Bar graph showing the percentage of total Correctional Service of Canada offender population by self-reported race for the fiscal year 2021 to 2022. White-identifying offenders accounted for 51.8 percent of the offender population; followed by Indigenous-identifying offenders which accounted for 28.1 percent; Black offenders which account for 8.1 percent; Asian offenders which account for 5.8 percent; other/unknown offenders which account for 5.2 percent; and Hispanic offenders which account for 1.1 percent. Full data are available immediately below.

Source: Correctional Service of Canada.

Table C13 Total offender population by self-reported raceFootnote *
2017-18 2021-22
# % # %
White 13,072 56.3 10,772 51.8
Indigenous 5,572 24.0 5,840 28.1
First Nations
3,750 16.1 4,002 19.2
Métis
1,619 7.0 1,661 8.0
Inuit
203 0.9 177 0.9
Black 1,700 7.3 1,679 8.1
Asian 1,268 5.5 1,210 5.8
Asiatic
377 1.6 371 1.8
Arab
189 0.8 188 0.9
Arab/West Asian
171 0.7 151 0.7
Southeast Asian
196 0.8 166 0.8
South Asian
126 0.5 144 0.7
Chinese
97 0.4 91 0.4
Filipino
75 0.3 72 0.3
East Indian
13 0.1 13 0.1
Korean
16 0.1 9 0.0
Japanese
8 0.0 5 0.0
Hispanic 245 1.1 220 1.1
Latin American
238 1.0 216 1.0
Hispanic
7 0.0 4 0.0
Other/Unknown 1,366 5.9 1,086 5.2
Total 23,223 100.0 20,807 100.0

Source: Correctional Service of Canada.

Number of registered victims by race

Figure C14 Number of registered victims by race (2021-22)
Figure C14
Image description

Bar graph showing the number of registered victims by race in fiscal year 2021 to 2022. There were 5,714 registered victims of unknown race; 2,255 White registered victims; 187 Indigenous registered victims; 119 Asian registered victims; 102 registered victims that did no want to provide race information; 81 registered victims of other, unlisted race(s); 67 Black registered victims; and 12 Hispanic registered victims. Full data are available immediately below.

Source: Correctional Service of Canada.

Figure C14 Notes
The Canadian Victims Bill of Rights defines a victim as any individual who has suffered physical or emotional harm, property damage, or economic loss as the result of the commission of an offence. The law also allows a spouse, a relative or dependant, an individual who is responsible for the care or support of the victim or the care or support of a dependant of the victim, to act on behalf of a victim, if the victim cannot act on their own behalf. Victims include persons harmed by the offender regardless of whether the offender has been prosecuted or not, as long as an official complaint has been made to the police or to the Crown.

Victims do not automatically receive information about the offender who harmed them. If they have been harmed by an offender serving a sentence of 2 years or more, victims must register with the Correctional Service of Canada (CSC) or the Parole Board of Canada to receive information or access services. Registration allows CSC to verify that the individual meets the definition of victim, which is required by law before sharing protected offender information. https://www.csc-scc.gc.ca/victims/003006-7001-en.shtml

Demographic information is voluntarily self-reported by victims who have registered with CSC to receive information about the offender who harmed them. The information does not represent victims who have not been in contact with CSC or those who choose not to register.

The difference between the total number of registered victims and the number of victims who voluntarily self-reported their race is the result of victims choosing not to report their race or their race is unknown to CSC. The response rate for victim race has remained stable for the past three fiscal years.

The total number of victims for whom CSC has reported race data for 2021-22 is 2,823 whereby it is 5,714 for unknown, which means CSC has self-reported race data for less than a third of registered victims. Therefore, these statistics do not represent the entirety of registered victims.

Reported year periods reflect fiscal years. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

Table C14 Number of registered victims by race
2017-18 2018-19 2019-20 2020-21 2021-22
# % # % # % # % # %
White 2,721 33.8 2,487 29.3 2,382 26.9 2,241 25.8 2,255 26.4
Indigenous 191 2.4 182 2.1 181 2.0 180 2.1 187 2.2
First Nations
134 1.7 128 1.5 122 1.4 115 1.3 118 1.4
Métis
31 0.4 30 0.4 34 0.4 38 0.4 43 0.5
Inuit
26 0.3 24 0.3 25 0.3 27 0.3 26 0.3
Black 77 1.0 75 0.9 77 0.9 72 0.8 67 0.8
Asian 129 1.6 109 1.3 107 1.2 110 1.3 119 1.4
Arab/West Asian
16 0.2 16 0.2 14 0.2 13 0.1 14 0.2
East/Southeast Asian
30 0.4 26 0.3 30 0.3 33 0.4 35 0.4
South Asian
39 0.5 24 0.3 22 0.2 21 0.2 25 0.3
Chinese
33 0.4 34 0.4 34 0.4 35 0.4 36 0.4
Filipino
8 0.1 7 0.1 5 0.1 4 0.0 4 0.0
Japanese
2 0.0 1 0.0 1 0.0 3 0.0 4 0.0
Korean
1 0.0 1 0.0 1 0.0 1 0.0 1 0.0
Hispanic 15 0.2 16 0.2 14 0.2 14 0.2 12 0.1
Latin American
15 0.2 16 0.2 14 0.2 14 0.2 12 0.1
Other 66 0.8 65 0.8 68 0.8 71 0.8 81 0.9
Does not want to provide 39 0.5 42 0.5 45 0.5 51 0.6 102 1.2
Unknown 4,803 59.7 5,501 64.9 5,983 67.6 5,956 68.5 5,714 66.9
Total 8,041 100.0 8,477 100.0 8,857 100.0 8,695 100.0 8,537 100.0

Source: Correctional Service of Canada.

Table C14 Notes
The Canadian Victims Bill of Rights defines a victim as any individual who has suffered physical or emotional harm, property damage, or economic loss as the result of the commission of an offence. The law also allows a spouse, a relative or dependant, an individual who is responsible for the care or support of the victim or the care or support of a dependant of the victim, to act on behalf of a victim, if the victim cannot act on their own behalf. Victims include persons harmed by the offender regardless of whether the offender has been prosecuted or not, as long as an official complaint has been made to the police or to the Crown.

Victims do not automatically receive information about the offender who harmed them. If they have been harmed by an offender serving a sentence of 2 years or more, victims must register with the Correctional Service of Canada (CSC) or the Parole Board of Canada to receive information or access services. Registration allows CSC to verify that the individual meets the definition of victim, which is required by law before sharing protected offender information. https://www.csc-scc.gc.ca/victims/003006-7001-en.shtml

Demographic information is voluntarily self-reported by victims who have registered with CSC to receive information about the offender who harmed them. The information does not represent victims who have not been in contact with CSC or those who choose not to register.

The difference between the total number of registered victims and the number of victims who voluntarily self-reported their race is the result of victims choosing not to report their race or their race is unknown to CSC. The response rate for victim race has remained stable for the past three fiscal years.

The total number of victims for whom CSC has reported race data for 2021-22 is 2,823 whereby it is 5,714 for unknown, which means CSC has self-reported race data for less than a third of registered victims. Therefore, these statistics do not represent the entirety of registered victims.

Reported data is current up to the end of each fiscal year. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

CSC offender population by religion

Figure C15 Percentage of total offender population by religious identification (2021-22)
Figure C15
Image description

Bar graph showing the percentage of total Correctional Service of Canada offender population by religious identification in fiscal year 2021 to 2022. Christian offenders accounted for 41.8 percent of the offender population; the religious affiliation for 19.1 percent of offenders was not known; offenders with no religious affiliation accounted for 15 percent of offenders; Muslim offenders account for 7.8 percent; offenders reporting following the teachings of Traditional Aboriginal Spirituality accounted for 7 percent; offenders of the category of “other religions” accounted for 2.7 percent; Buddhist offenders accounted for 2 percent; Wiccan and Pagan offenders accounted for 1.5 percent; Jewish offenders accounted for 1.2 percent; Sikh offenders accounted for 0.8 percent; Rastafarian offenders accounted for 0.8 percent; and, Hindu offenders accounted for 0.3 percent. Full data are available immediately below.

Source: Correctional Service of Canada.

Figure C15 Notes
Religious identification is self-reported by offenders while they are incarcerated, and the categories are not comprehensive; therefore, the reader should interpret these data with caution.

Buddhist includes offenders who belong to the following group: Buddhist, Mahayana Buddhist, Theravadan Buddhist and Vajrayana Buddhist.

Christian includes offenders who belong to the following group: Amish, Anglican (Episcopal Church of England), Antiochian Orthodox, Apostolic Christian Church, Armenian Orthodox/Apostolic, Associated Gospel, Assyrian Chaldean Catholic, Baptist, Brethren In Christ, Bulgarian Orthodox, Canadian Reformed Church, Catholic- Greek, Catholic-Roman, Catholic-Ukranian, Catholic Non-Specific, Churches of Christ/Christian Churches, Charismatic, Christadelphian, Christian & Missionary Alliance, Christian Congregational, Christian Non Specific, Christian Or Plymouth Brethren, Christian Orthodox, Christian Reformed, Christian Reformed Church, Christian Science, Church of Christ Scientist, Church of God, Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saint, Community of Christ, Coptic Orthodox, Doukhobor, Dutch Reformed Church, Ethiopian Orthodox, Evangelical, Evangelical Free Church , Evangelical Missionary Church, Free Methodist, Free Reformed Church, Grace Communion International, Greek Orthodox, Hutterite, Iglesia Ni Cristo, Jehovah's Witnesses, Lutheran, Macedonian Orthodox, Maronite, Melkite, Mennonite, Messianic Jew, Methodist Christian, Metropolitan Community Church, Mission de l'Esprit Saint, Moravian, Mormon (Latter Day Saints), Nazarene Christian, Netherlands Reformed, New Apostolic, Pentecostal (4-Square), Pentecostal Assembly of God, Pentecôtiste, Philadelphia Church of God, Presbyterian, Protestant Non-Specific, Quaker (Society of Friends), Reformed Christian, Romanian Orthodox, Russian Orthodox, Salvation Army, Serbian Orthodox, Seventh Day Adventist, Shaker, Swedenborgian (New Church), Syrian/Syriac Orthodox, Ukrainian Catholic, Ukrainian Orthodox, United Church, United Reformed Church, Vineyard Christian Fellowship, Wesleyan Christian and Worldwide Church of God.

Hindu includes offenders who belong to the following group: Hindu and Siddha Yoga.

Jewish includes offenders who belong to the following group: Jewish Orthodox, Jewish Reformed and Judaism.

Muslim includes offenders who belong to the following group: Muslim and Sufism.

Rastafarian includes offenders who belong to the following group: Rastafarian.

Sikh includes offenders who belong to the following group: Sikh.

Traditional Indigenous Spirituality includes offenders who belong to the following group: Indigenous Spirituality Catholic, Traditional Indigenous Protestant, Native Spirituality, Catholic - Native Spirituality, Native Spirituality Protestant and Indigenous Spirituality.

Wiccan/Pagan includes offenders who belong to the following group: Asatru Paganism, Druidry Paganism, Pagan and Wicca.

Other Religion includes offenders who belong to the following group: Baha'i, Eckankar, Independent Spirituality, Jain, Krishna, New Age, New Thought-Unity-Religious Science, Other, Pantheist, Rosicrucian, Satanist, Scientology, Shintoïste, Spiritualist, Taoism, Transcendental Meditation, Unification Church, Unitarian, Visnabha and Zoroastrian.

No religion affiliation includes offenders who belong to the following group: Agnostic, Atheist, Gnostic, Humanist and offenders who have no religion affiliation.

Unknown includes offenders who belong to the following group: Unknown, not stated as well as those offenders who have no religion specified.

The data reflect all active offenders, who are incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, offenders who are temporarily detained, offenders who are actively supervised, and offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days.

The data reflect the number of offenders active at the end of each fiscal year. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

Due to rounding, percentages may not add to 100 percent.

Table C15 Total offender population by religious identification
2017-18 2021-22
# % # %
Buddhist 508 2.2 425 2.0
Christian 11,503 49.5 8,688 41.8
Hindu 63 0.3 59 0.3
Jewish 220 0.9 252 1.2
Muslim 1,539 6.6 1,627 7.8
Rastafarian 178 0.8 158 0.8
Sikh 188 0.8 170 0.8
Traditional Aboriginal spirituality 1,338 5.8 1,465 7.0
Wicca/Pagan 318 1.4 306 1.5
Other religions 442 1.9 561 2.7
No religion affiliation 3,480 15.0 3,117 15.0
Unknown 3,446 14.8 3,979 19.1
Total 23,223 100.0 20,807 100.0

Source: Correctional Service of Canada.

Table C15 Notes
Religious identification is self-reported by offenders while they are incarcerated, and the categories are not comprehensive; therefore, the reader should interpret these data with caution.

Buddhist includes offenders who belong to the following group: Buddhist, Mahayana Buddhist, Theravadan Buddhist and Vajrayana Buddhist.

Christian includes offenders who belong to the following group: Amish, Anglican (Episcopal Church of England), Antiochian Orthodox, Apostolic Christian Church, Armenian Orthodox/Apostolic, Associated Gospel, Assyrian Chaldean Catholic, Baptist, Brethren In Christ, Bulgarian Orthodox, Canadian Reformed Church, Catholic- Greek, Catholic-Roman, Catholic-Ukranian, Catholic Non-Specific, Churches of Christ/Christian Churches, Charismatic, Christadelphian, Christian & Missionary Alliance, Christian Congregational, Christian Non Specific, Christian Or Plymouth Brethren, Christian Orthodox, Christian Reformed, Christian Reformed Church, Christian Science, Church of Christ Scientist, Church of God, Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saint, Community of Christ, Coptic Orthodox, Doukhobor, Dutch Reformed Church, Ethiopian Orthodox, Evangelical, Evangelical Free Church , Evangelical Missionary Church, Free Methodist, Free Reformed Church, Grace Communion International, Greek Orthodox, Hutterite, Iglesia Ni Cristo, Jehovah's Witnesses, Lutheran, Macedonian Orthodox, Maronite, Melkite, Mennonite, Messianic Jew, Methodist Christian, Metropolitan Community Church, Mission de l'Esprit Saint, Moravian, Mormon (Latter Day Saints), Nazarene Christian, Netherlands Reformed, New Apostolic, Pentecostal (4-Square), Pentecostal Assembly of God, Pentecôtiste, Philadelphia Church of God, Presbyterian, Protestant Non-Specific, Quaker (Society of Friends), Reformed Christian, Romanian Orthodox, Russian Orthodox, Salvation Army, Serbian Orthodox, Seventh Day Adventist, Shaker, Swedenborgian (New Church), Syrian/Syriac Orthodox, Ukrainian Catholic, Ukrainian Orthodox, United Church, United Reformed Church, Vineyard Christian Fellowship, Wesleyan Christian and Worldwide Church of God.

Hindu includes offenders who belong to the following group: Hindu and Siddha Yoga.

Jewish includes offenders who belong to the following group: Jewish Orthodox, Jewish Reformed and Judaism.

Muslim includes offenders who belong to the following group: Muslim and Sufism.

Rastafarian includes offenders who belong to the following group: Rastafarian.

Sikh includes offenders who belong to the following group: Sikh.

Traditional Indigenous Spirituality includes offenders who belong to the following group: Indigenous Spirituality Catholic, Traditional Indigenous Protestant, Native Spirituality, Catholic - Native Spirituality, Native Spirituality Protestant and Indigenous Spirituality.

Wiccan/Pagan includes offenders who belong to the following group: Asatru Paganism, Druidry Paganism, Pagan and Wicca.

Other Religion includes offenders who belong to the following group: Baha'i, Eckankar, Independent Spirituality, Jain, Krishna, New Age, New Thought-Unity-Religious Science, Other, Pantheist, Rosicrucian, Satanist, Scientology, Shintoïste, Spiritualist, Taoism, Transcendental Meditation, Unification Church, Unitarian, Visnabha and Zoroastrian.

No religion affiliation includes offenders who belong to the following group: Agnostic, Atheist, Gnostic, Humanist and offenders who have no religion affiliation.

Unknown includes offenders who belong to the following group: Unknown, not stated as well as those offenders who have no religion specified.

The data reflect all active offenders, who are incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, offenders who are temporarily detained, offenders who are actively supervised, and offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days.

The data reflect the number of offenders active at the end of each fiscal year. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

Due to rounding, percentages may not add to 100 percent.

CSC offenders by Indigenous and non-Indigenous self-identification

Figure C16 Proportion of Indigenous and non-Indigenous offenders in custody
Figure C16
Image description

Line graph showing the proportion of self-identified Indigenous and self-identified non-Indigenous offenders in custody from fiscal year 2012 to 2013 until fiscal year 2021 to 2022. The percentage of self-identified Indigenous offenders decreased from fiscal year 2011 to 2012, experiencing a slight rise in fiscal year 2018 to 2019 to 71.5 percent, then ending at its lowest point of 67.4 percent in fiscal year 2020 to 2021 before rising slightly during 2021 to 2022 at 69.9 percent. The percentage of self-identified non-Indigenous offenders dropped steadily to fiscal year 2020 to 2021 at 54.8 percent before increasing slightly to 56.3 in 2021 to 2022. Full data are immediately below.

Source: Correctional Service of Canada.

Figure C16 Notes
Total Offender Population includes all active offenders, who are incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, offenders who are temporarily detained, offenders who are actively supervised, and offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days.

In Custody includes all active offenders incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, offenders who are temporarily detained in a CSC facility and offenders on remand in a CSC facility.

In Community Under Supervision includes all active offenders on day parole, full parole, statutory release, in the community supervised on a long-term supervision order, offenders who are temporarily detained in a non-CSC facility, offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days, offenders on remand in a non-CSC facility, and offenders supervised and subject to an immigration hold by Canada Border Services Agency.

Indigenous identity is self-reported. Non-indigenous offenders includes offenders who do not identify as Indigenous. See Table C9 for the ethnic diversity of CSC’s offender population.

The data reflect the number of offenders active at the end of each fiscal year. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

Table C16 Indigenous and non-Indigenous offenders in custody vs in the community under supervision
In-custody population In community under supervision Total
# % # %
Males 2017-18 Indigenous 3,647 71.4 1,464 28.6 5,111
Non-Indigenous 9,769 58.4 6,946 41.6 16,715
Total 13,416 61.5 8,410 38.5 21,826
2018-19 Indigenous 3,877 71.5 1,548 28.5 5,425
Non-Indigenous 9,571 57.6 7,036 42.4 16,607
Total 13,448 61.0 8,584 39.0 22,032
2019-20 Indigenous 3,855 69.6 1,684 30.4 5,539
Non-Indigenous 9,177 56.8 6,966 43.2 16,143
Total 13,032 60.1 8,650 39.9 21,682
2020-21 Indigenous 3,646 68.5 1,678 31.5 5,324
Non-Indigenous 8,132 54.8 6,718 45.2 14,850
Total 11,778 58.4 8,396 41.6 20,174
2021-22 Indigenous 3,737 69.9 1,613 30.1 5,350
Non-Indigenous 8,003 56.3 6,223 43.7 14,226
Total 11,740 60.0 7,836 40.0 19,576
Females 2017-18 Indigenous 270 58.6 191 41.4 461
Non-Indigenous 406 43.4 530 56.6 936
Total 676 48.4 721 51.6 1,397
2018-19 Indigenous 291 59.5 198 40.5 489
Non-Indigenous 410 43.5 533 56.5 943
Total 701 49.0 731 51.0 1,432
2019-20 Indigenous 279 57.3 208 42.7 487
Non-Indigenous 406 43.7 523 56.3 929
Total 685 48.4 731 51.6 1,416
2020-21 Indigenous 267 55.2 217 44.8 484
Non-Indigenous 351 41.2 500 58.8 851
Total 618 46.3 717 53.7 1,335
2021-22 Indigenous 291 59.4 199 40.6 490
Non-Indigenous 297 40.1 444 59.9 741
Total 588 47.8 643 52.2 1,231
Another sex 2019-20 Indigenous 1 100.0 0 0.0 1
Non-Indigenous 2 66.7 1 33.3 3
Total 3 75.0 1 25.0 4
2020-21 Indigenous 1 100.0 0 0.0 1
Non-Indigenous 2 100.0 0 0.0 2
Total 3 100.0 0 0.0 3
2021-22 Indigenous 0 0 0 0 0
Non-Indigenous 0 0 0 0 0
Total 0 0 0 0 0

Source: Correctional Service of Canada.

Table C16 Notes
Results for “Another sex” were unavailable prior to 2019-20.

Total Offender Population includes all active offenders, who are incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, offenders who are temporarily detained, offenders who are actively supervised, and offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days.

In Custody includes all active offenders incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, offenders who are temporarily detained in a CSC facility and offenders on remand in a CSC facility.

In Community Under Supervision includes all active offenders on day parole, full parole, statutory release, in the community supervised on a long-term supervision order, offenders who are temporarily detained in a non-CSC facility, offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days, offenders on remand in a non-CSC facility, and offenders supervised and subject to an immigration hold by Canada Border Services Agency.

Indigenous identity is self-reported. Non-indigenous offenders includes offenders who do not identify as Indigenous. See Table C9 for the ethnic diversity of CSC’s offender population.

The data reflect the number of offenders active at the end of each fiscal year. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

Offenders in custody at a CSC facility by security risk classification

Figure C17 Percentage of classified in-custody offenders (2021-22)
Figure C17
Image description

Bar graph comparing the percentage of in-custody offenders at a Correctional Service Canada facility by security risk classification and Indigeneity for fiscal year 2021 to 2022. Minimum security facilities had fewer Indigenous offenders at 15 percent than non-Indigenous offenders at 21.7 percent. Medium security facilities had the most offenders in both identity categories. Medium security facilities had larger proportion of Indigenous offenders at 69.4 percent, than non-Indigenous offenders at 65.2 percent. Finally maximum security facilities also had more Indigenous offenders at 15.6 percent than non-Indigenous offenders at 13.1 percent. Full data are available immediately below.

Source: Correctional Service of Canada.

Figure C17 Notes
In Custody includes all active offenders incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, offenders who are temporarily detained in a CSC facility and offenders on remand in a CSC facility.

The data represent the offender security level decision as of end of fiscal year 2021-22. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

Table C17 Total of classified in-custody offenders (2021-22)
Security risk level Indigenous Non-Indigenous Total
# % # % # %
Minimum 564 15.0 1,622 21.7 2,186 19.5
Medium 2,601 69.4 4,867 65.2 7,468 66.6
Maximum 585 15.6 974 13.1 1,559 13.9
Total 3,750 100.0 7,463 100.0 11,213 100.0
Not yet determined 278 100.0 837 100.0 1,115 100.0
Total 4,028 8,300 12,328

Source: Correctional Service of Canada.

Table C17 Notes
The "Not yet determined" category includes offenders who have not yet been classified.

In Custody includes all active offenders incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, offenders who are temporarily detained in a CSC facility and offenders on remand in a CSC facility.

The data represent the offender security level decision as of end of fiscal year 2021-22. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

Admissions to federal jurisdiction with a life and/or indeterminate sentenceFootnote *: 10-year trend

Figure C18 Number of warrant of committal admissions for life and/or indeterminate sentencesFootnote *
Figure C18
Image description

Line graph showing the number of warrant of committal admissions to federal jurisdiction with life and/or indeterminate sentences from fiscal year 2012 to 2013 until fiscal year 2021 to 2022. Non-Indigenous offenders had a higher number of admissions than Indigenous offenders over time. Non-Indigenous offenders began with 117 admissions in fiscal year 2012 to 2013, rising to a peak of 148 admissions in fiscal year 2017 to 2018, then dropping to its lowest point of 62 admissions in fiscal year 2020 to 2021, and rising again to 97 admissions in 2021 to 2022. Indigenous offenders had 53 admissions in fiscal year 2012 to 2013, dropping to 42 admissions in fiscal year 2014 to 2015, rising to 53 admissions in fiscal year 2015 to 2016, dropping briefly to 48 admissions in fiscal year 2016 to 2017, rising to a peak of 83 admissions in fiscal year 2017 to 2018, dropping gradually to 27 admissions in fiscal year 2020 to 2021, and increasing again to 55 admissions in 2021 to 2022. Full data are available immediately below.

Source: Correctional Service of Canada.

Table C18 Number of warrant of committal admissions for life and/or indeterminate sentencesFootnote *
Fiscal year Indigenous offenders Non-Indigenous offenders Total
Females Males Total Females Males Total Females Males Total
2012-13 6 47 53 2 115 117 8 162 170
2013-14 7 45 52 7 116 123 14 161 175
2014-15 1 41 42 8 118 126 9 159 168
2015-16 5 48 53 6 127 133 11 175 186
2016-17 2 46 48 11 126 137 13 172 185
2017-18 6 77 83 12 136 148 18 213 231
2018-19 7 56 63 3 127 130 10 183 193
2019-20 1 49 50 8 125 133 9 174 183
2020-21 2 25 27 0 62 62 2 87 89
2021-22 4 51 55 4 93 97 8 144 152

Source: Correctional Service of Canada.

Proportion of offenders with life and/or indeterminate sentences

Figure C19 Sentence imposed for the total offender population (2021-22)
Figure C19
Image description

Bar illustration of the proportion of offenders with life and/or indeterminate sentences in fiscal year 2021 to 2022. Of sentences imposed for the total offender population in fiscal year 2021 to 2022, offenders with life and/or indeterminate sentences accounted for 27.8 percent of the sentences that were imposed. This includes 24.5 percent that were life sentences, 3.2 percent that were indeterminate sentences, and 0.1 percent that were both life and indeterminate sentences. Determinate sentences accounted for 72.2 percent of sentences that are imposed. Full data are available immediately below.

Source: Correctional Service of Canada.

Figure C19 Notes
Although life sentences and indeterminate sentences both may result in imprisonment for life, they are different. A life sentence is a sentence of life imprisonment, imposed by a judge at the time of sentencing. An indeterminate sentence is a result of a designation, where an application is made to the court to declare an offender a Dangerous Offender, and the consequence of this designation is imprisonment for an indeterminate period. The Dangerous Sexual Offender and Habitual Offender designations were replaced with Dangerous Offender legislation in 1977.

Total Offender Population includes all active offenders, who are incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, offenders who are temporarily detained, offenders who are actively supervised, and offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days.

In Custody includes all active offenders incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, offenders who are temporarily detained in a CSC facility and offenders on remand in a CSC facility.

In Community Under Supervision includes all active offenders on day parole, full parole, statutory release, in the community supervised on a long-term supervision order, offenders who are temporarily detained in a non-CSC facility, offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days, offenders on remand in a non-CSC facility, and offenders supervised and subject to an immigration hold by Canada Border Services Agency.

Reported year periods reflect fiscal years. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

Table C19 Total offender population (2021-22)
Total offender population In custody in a CSC facility In community under supervision
# % Incarcerated Day parole Full parole OtherFootnote ***
Offenders with a life sentence for:
1st degree murder
1,303 6.3 986 78 239 0
2nd degree murder
3,613 17.4 1,853 239 1,521 0
Other offencesFootnote *
190 0.9 104 11 75 0
Total
5,106 24.5 2,943 328 1,835 0
Offenders with indeterminate sentencesFootnote * resulting from the special designation of:
Dangerous Offender
656 3.2 610 22 24 0
Dangerous Sexual Offender
9 0.0 4 1 4 0
Habitual Offender
1 0.0 0 0 1 0
Total
666 3.2 614 23 29 0
Offenders serving an indeterminate sentence (due to a special designation) and a life sentence (due to an offence) 20 0.1 17 1 2 0
Total offenders with life and/or indeterminate sentence 5,792 27.8 3,574 352 1,866 0
Offenders serving determinate sentencesFootnote ** 15,014 72.2 8,754 1,039 2,258 2,963
TotalFootnote **** 20,806 100.0 12,328 1,391 4,124 2,963

Source: Correctional Service of Canada.

Percentage of total offender population serving a sentence for a violent offence

Figure C20 Percentage of total offender population serving a sentence for a violent offence (2021-22)
Figure C20
Image description

Bar graph showing the percentage of the total offender population serving a sentence for a violent offence, for Indigenous and non-Indigenous identities, in fiscal year 2021 to 2022. There was a higher percentage of non-Indigenous offenders for Murder I, Murder II, and Schedule II offences. Meanwhile, there was a higher percentage of Indigenous offenders for Schedule I and non-Schedule offences. Full data are available immediately below.

Source: Correctional Service of Canada.

Figure C20 Notes
Violent offences include first degree murder, second degree murder, and Schedule I offences.

Schedule I is comprised of sexual offences and other violent crimes excluding first and second degree murder (see the Corrections and Conditional Release Act).

Schedule II is comprised of serious drug offences or conspiracy to commit serious drug offences (see the Corrections and Conditional Release Act).

In cases where the offender is serving a sentence for more than 1 offence, the data reflect the most serious offence.

Total Offender Population includes all active offenders, who are incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, offenders who are temporarily detained, offenders who are actively supervised, and offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days.

Reported year periods reflect fiscal years. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

Table C20 Total offender population serving a sentence for a violent offence (2021-22)
Offence category Indigenous Non-Indigenous Total
Female Male Another sex Total Female Male Another sex Total Female Male Another sex Total
Murder I 11 256 0 267 43 1,008 0 1,051 54 1,264 0 1,318
% 2.2 4.8 0 4.6 5.8 7.1 0 7.0 4.4 6.5 0 6.3
Murder II 72 840 0 912 114 2,612 0 2,726 186 3,452 0 3,638
% 14.7 15.7 0 15.6 15.4 18.4 0 18.2 15.1 17.6 0 17.5
Schedule I 247 3,311 0 3,558 232 7,044 0 7,276 479 10,355 0 10,834
% 50.4 61.9 0 60.9 31.3 49.5 0 48.6 38.9 52.9 0 52.1
Schedule II 105 429 0 534 240 2,325 0 2,565 345 2,754 0 3,099
% 21.4 8.0 0 9.1 32.4 16.3 0 17.1 28.0 14.1 0 14.9
Non-schedule 55 514 0 569 112 1,237 0 1,349 167 1,751 0 1,918
% 11.2 9.6 0 9.7 15.1 8.7 0 9.0 13.6 8.9 0 9.2
Total 490 5,350 0 5,840 741 14,226 0 14,967 1,231 19,576 0 20,807

Source: Correctional Service of Canada.

Table C20 Notes
Violent offences include first degree murder, second degree murder, and Schedule I offences.

Schedule I is comprised of sexual offences and other violent crimes excluding first and second degree murder (see the Corrections and Conditional Release Act).

Schedule II is comprised of serious drug offences or conspiracy to commit serious drug offences (see the Corrections and Conditional Release Act).

In cases where the offender is serving a sentence for more than 1 offence, the data reflect the most serious offence.

Total Offender Population includes all active offenders, who are incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, offenders who are temporarily detained, offenders who are actively supervised, and offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days.

Reported year periods reflect fiscal years. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

Indigenous offenders under the responsibility of CSC

Figure C21 Indigenous offender population
Figure C21
Image description

Line graph showing the Indigenous offender population under the responsibility of the Correctional Service Canada between fiscal years 2012 to 2013 and 2021 to 2022. The total Indigenous offender population rose steadily from just under 5,000 offenders in fiscal year 2012 to 2013 to a peak of 6,027 offenders in fiscal year 2019 to 2020, then dropping gradually to 5,840 offenders in fiscal year 2021 to 2022. Indigenous in-custody offenders rose steadily from around 3,600 offenders in fiscal year 2012 to 2013 to a peak of 4,168 offenders in fiscal year 2018 to 2019, dropping to 3,914 offenders in fiscal year 2020 to 2021, and then increasing to 4,028 offenders in 2021 to 2022. Indigenous in community under supervision offenders rose gradually from just over 1,000 offenders in fiscal year 2012 to 2013 to a peak of 1,895 offenders in fiscal year 2020 to 2021, and then decreasing slightly to 1,812 offenders in 2021 to 2022. Full data are available immediately below.

Source: Correctional Service of Canada.

Figure C21 Notes
Total Offender Population includes all active offenders who are incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, offenders who are temporarily detained, offenders who are actively supervised, and offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days.

In Custody includes all active offenders incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, offenders who are temporarily detained in a CSC facility and offenders on remand in a CSC facility.

In Community Under Supervision includes all active offenders on day parole, full parole, statutory release, or in the community supervised on a long-term supervision order, offenders who are temporarily detained in a non-CSC facility, offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days, offenders on remand in a non-CSC facility, and offenders supervised and subject to an immigration hold by Canada Border Services Agency.

Regional statistics for the Correctional Service of Canada account for data relating to the northern territories in the following manner:  data for Nunavut are reported in the Ontario Region, data for the Northwest Territories are reported in the Prairies Region, and data for the Yukon Territories are reported in the Pacific Region.

Reported year periods reflect fiscal years. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

Table C21 Indigenous offender population
Indigenous offenders Fiscal year
2017-18 2018-19 2019-20 2020-21 2021-22
In custody
Atlantic Region Male 184 224 234 211 208
Female 14 19 18 25 19
Another sex NR NR 0 0 0
Quebec Region Male 392 449 370 352 389
Female 11 16 13 14 19
Another sex NR NR 0 0 0
Ontario Region Male 534 558 612 528 606
Female 43 50 49 53 60
Another sex NR NR 0 0 0
Prairie Region Male 1,879 1,955 1,968 1,925 1,943
Female 163 158 152 127 156
Another sex NR NR 0 0 0
Pacific Region Male 658 691 671 630 591
Female 39 48 47 48 37
Another sex NR NR 1 1 0
National total Male 3,647 3,877 3,855 3,646 3,737
Female 270 291 279 267 291
Another sex NR NR 1 1 0
Total 3,917 4,168 4,135 3,914 4,028
In community under supervision
Atlantic Region Male 88 83 106 97 99
Female 9 10 13 13 10
Another sex NR NR 0 0 0
Quebec Region Male 181 162 182 182 150
Female 6 9 8 9 6
Another sex NR NR 0 0 0
Ontario Region Male 231 239 277 291 304
Female 29 31 28 34 39
Another sex NR NR 0 0 0
Prairie Region Male 645 720 750 756 687
Female 111 113 119 123 103
Another sex NR NR 0 0 0
Pacific Region Male 319 344 369 352 373
Female 36 35 40 38 41
Another sex NR NR 0 0 0
National total Male 1,464 1,548 1,684 1,678 1,613
Female 191 198 208 217 199
Another sex NR NR 0 0 0
Total 1,655 1,746 1,892 1,895 1,812
Total offender population   5,572 5,914 6,027 5,809 5,840

Source: Correctional Service of Canada.

Table C21 Notes
Results for “Another sex” were unavailable prior to 2019-20. “Not reported” is abbreviated to “NR” in this table due to formatting.

Total Offender Population includes all active offenders who are incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, offenders who are temporarily detained, offenders who are actively supervised, and offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days.

In Custody includes all active offenders incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, offenders who are temporarily detained in a CSC facility and offenders on remand in a CSC facility.

In Community Under Supervision includes all active offenders on day parole, full parole, statutory release, or in the community supervised on a long-term supervision order, offenders who are temporarily detained in a non-CSC facility, offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days, offenders on remand in a non-CSC facility, and offenders supervised and subject to an immigration hold by Canada Border Services Agency.

Regional statistics for the Correctional Service of Canada account for data relating to the northern territories in the following manner:  data for Nunavut are reported in the Ontario Region, data for the Northwest Territories are reported in the Prairies Region, and data for the Yukon Territories are reported in the Pacific Region.

Reported year periods reflect fiscal years. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

Number of authorizations for transfer to Structured Intervention Units in federal institutions

Figure C22 Number of authorizations for transfer to Structured Intervention Units in federal institutions
Figure C22
Image description

Line graph showing the number of authorizations for transfer to Structured Intervention Units in a federal institution from fiscal year 2019 to 2020 until fiscal year 2021 to 2021. The number of authorizations increased from 949 authorizations in fiscal year 2019 to 2020 to a peak of 2,262 authorizations in fiscal year 2020 to 2021, then decreasing to 1,432 authorizations in fiscal year 2021 to 2022. Full data are available immediately below.

Source: Correctional Service of Canada.

Figure C22 Notes
Reported year periods reflect fiscal years. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

Figure C22 in the 2021 CCRSO includes data on administrative segregation. Changes to the Corrections and Conditional Release Act abolished administrative segregation as of November 30, 2019.

Table C22 Number of authorizations for transfer to Structured Intervention Units in federal institutions
Fiscal year Total
2019-20 949
2020-21 2,262
2021-22 1,432

Source: Correctional Service of Canada.

Table C22 Notes
Reported year periods reflect fiscal years. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

Table C22 in the 2021 CCRSO includes data on administrative segregation. Changes to the Corrections and Conditional Release Act abolished administrative segregation as of November 30, 2019.

Percentage of successful transfers out of Structured Intervention Units in federal institutions

Figure C23 Percentage of successful transfers out of Structured Intervention Units
Figure C23
Image description

Line graph showing the percentage of successful transfers out of Structured Intervention Units between fiscal years 2020 to 2021 and 2021 to 2022. Transfers increased from 56.3 percent in fiscal year 2020 to 2021 to 66.4 percent in fiscal year 2021 to 2022. Full data are available immediately below.

Source: Correctional Service of Canada.

Figure C23 Notes
A transfer out of Structured Intervention Units is successful if the inmate remains in mainstream population for a period of 120 days.

Reported year periods reflect a fiscal year. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

Figure C23 in the 2022 CCRSO includes data on administrative segregation. Changes to the Corrections and Conditional Release Act abolished administrative segregation as of November 30, 2019.

Table C23 Percentage of successful transfers out of Structured Intervention Units
Fiscal year Successful transfer count Unsuccessful transfer count Total transfer count
# % # % # %
2020-21 1,286 56.2 1,004 43.8 2,290 100.0
2021-22 1,150 66.4 582 33.6 1,732 100.0

Source: Correctional Service of Canada.

Table C23 Notes
A transfer out of Structured Intervention Units is successful if the inmate remains in mainstream population for a period of 120 days.

Reported year periods reflect fiscal years. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

Table C23 in the 2022 CCRSO includes data on administrative segregation. Changes to the Corrections and Conditional Release Act abolished administrative segregation as of November 30, 2019.

Number of offender deaths while in custody: 10-year trend

Figure C24 The number of deaths in federal and provincial/territorial custody by cause of death
Figure C24
Image description

Line graph showing the number of offender deaths while in the custody of federal and provincial/territorial correctional systems by cause of death from fiscal year 2012 to 2013 until fiscal year 2021 to 2022. The total number of deaths fluctuate between 88 deaths to 111 deaths between fiscal year 2012 to 2013 and fiscal year 2019 to 2020, then rising to a peak of 149 deaths in fiscal year 2020 to 2021, and dropping to 127 deaths in fiscal year 2021 to 2022. Causes of death classified as “Other” closely match the overall trend in offender deaths in custody because they are by far the most common cause of offender deaths. Starting at 78 deaths in fiscal year 2012 to 2013, erratically moving upward and downward most years, which forms a trend of gradual increase until the fiscal year 2020 to 2021 when there was a large jump in the number of deaths in this category to 117 deaths for that year, and a slight decline to 100 deaths in 2021 to 2022 fiscal year. Suicide accounted for less than 25 deaths per year until fiscal year 2020 to 2021 when it jumped to 30 deaths. Years with the lowest numbers of suicide were fiscal years 2016 to 2017 and fiscal year 2018 to 2019. Homicide accounted for the fewest amount of deaths, at less than 5 per year and remained consistent over the 10 year period. Full data are available immediately below.

Source: Adult Correctional Services Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice and Community Safety Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Table C24 Deaths in federal and provincial/territorial custody by cause of death
Fiscal year Homicide Suicide Other causesFootnote * Total
Federal # % # % # % #
2012-13
1 1.8 11 20.0 43 78.2 55
2013-14
1 2.1 9 18.8 38 79.2 48
2014-15
1 1.5 13 19.4 53 79.1 67
2015-16
3 4.6 9 13.8 53 81.5 65
2016-17
0 0.0 3 6.4 44 93.6 47
2017-18
2 3.6 6 10.9 47 85.5 55
2018-19
5 9.8 6 11.8 40 78.4 51
2019-20
4 6.5 11 17.7 47 75.8 62
2020-21
1 1.4 6 8.7 62 89.9 69
2021-22
4 6.8 8 13.6 47 79.7 59
Total
22 3.8 82 14.2 474 82.0 578
Provincial and territories # % # % # % #
2012-13
1 2.3 8 18.2 35 79.5 44
2013-14
1 2.4 10 24.4 30 73.2 41
2014-15
0 0.0 9 24.3 28 75.7 37
2015-16
0 0.0 6 14.3 36 85.7 42
2016-17
0 0.0 7 17.1 34 82.9 41
2017-18
0 0.0 14 25.0 42 75.0 56
2018-19
0 0.0 7 14.0 43 86.0 50
2019-20
0 0.0 10 22.7 34 77.3 44
2020-21
1 1.3 24 30.0 55 68.8 80
2021-22
1 1.5 14 20.6 53 77.9 68
Total
4 0.8 109 21.7 390 77.5 503
Total federal and provincial/territorial offender deaths 26 2.4 191 17.7 864 79.9 1,081

Source: Adult Correctional Services Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice and Community Safety Statistics, Statistics Canada.

The number of escapees from federal institutions: 10-year trend

Figure C25 Number of escapees from federal institutions
Figure C25
Image description

Line graph showing the number of escapees from federal institutions from fiscal year 2012 to 2013 until fiscal year 2021 to 2022. This trend rose and fell erratically over the 10-year period with its peaks in 2012 to 2013, 2015 to 2016, and 2017 to 2018, and lowest points in 2011 to 2012, 2013 to 2014, 2016 to 2017, 2020 to 2021, and 2021 to 2022. Overall, there is a gradual decline from 24 escapees in fiscal year 2012 to 2013 to 4 escapees in fiscal year 2021 to 2022. Full data are available immediately below.

Source: Correctional Service of Canada.

Figure C25 Notes
The data represent the number of escape incidents from federal facilities or Healing Lodges during each fiscal year. An escape can involve more than 1 offender.

These numbers are subject to change further to new information becoming available.

Reported year periods reflect fiscal years. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

Table C25 Number of escapees from federal institutions
Fiscal year Total number of escape incidents Total number of escapees
2012-13 18 24
2013-14 11 13
2014-15 14 15
2015-16 17 20
2016-17 10 10
2017-18 14 18
2018-19 13 13
2019-20 10 12
2020-21 11 11
2021-22 4 4
Total number of escape incidents and escapees 122 140

Source: Correctional Service of Canada.

Table C25 Notes
The data represent the number of escape incidents from federal facilities or Healing Lodges during each fiscal year. An escape can involve more than 1 offender.

These numbers are subject to change further to new information becoming available.

Reported year periods reflect fiscal years. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

CSC offenders in community under supervision: 10-year trend

Figure C26 In community under supervision population at fiscal year end
Figure C26
Image description

Line graph showing the in population of Correctional Service Canada offenders in community under supervision at fiscal year-end for the fiscal years 2012 to 2013 until 2021 to 2022. The total population rises from 7,316 offenders in fiscal year 2012 to 2013 to a peak 8,894 offenders in fiscal year 2019 to 2020, and dropping slightly to 7,984 offenders in fiscal year 2021 to 2022. Full parole follows a similar trend, going from 3,157 offenders in fiscal year 2012 to 2013 to a peak of 4,570 offenders in fiscal year 2019 to 2020, then dropping to 4,124 offenders in fiscal year 2021 to 2022. Followed by statutory release, which rose from 2,937 offenders in fiscal year 2012 to 2013 to a peak of 3,059 offenders in fiscal year 2014 to 2015, then remaining relatively stable until a drop after fiscal year 2016 to 2017 which continued until fiscal year 2021 to 2022 with 2,469 offenders. Day parole had the lowest number of offenders, gradually increasing from 1,222 in fiscal year 2012 to 2013 until its peak in fiscal year 2018 to 2019 at 1,692 offenders, then decreasing gradually to 1,391 offenders in fiscal year 2021 to 2022. Full data are available immediately below.

Source: Correctional Service of Canada.

Figure C26 Notes
The data reflect the offender population in the community under supervision, which includes all active offenders on day parole, full parole, statutory release, offenders who are temporarily detained in a non-CSC facility, offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days, offenders on remand in a non-CSC facility, and offenders supervised and subject to an immigration hold by Canada Border Services Agency.

The data presented above do not include offenders who were on long-term supervision orders (See Figure/Table E4).

As a result of a data quality issue, supervision information on 1 offender was not available at the time of the data extraction.

Day parole is a type of conditional release granted by the Parole Board of Canada whereby offenders are permitted to participate in community-based activities in preparation for full parole or statutory release. The conditions require offenders to return nightly to an institution or half-way house unless otherwise authorized by the Parole Board of Canada.

Full parole is a type of conditional release granted by the Parole Board of Canada whereby the remainder of the sentence is served under supervision in the community.

Statutory release refers to a conditional release that is subject to supervision after the offender has served two-thirds of the sentence.

Percent change is measured from the previous year.

These cases reflect the number of offenders on active supervision at fiscal year end. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

Table C26 In community under supervision population at fiscal year end
Fiscal year Day parole Full parole Statutory release Totals % change
Females Males Another sex Females Males Another sex Females Males Another sex Females Males Another sex Total Total
2012-13 116 1,106 NR 225 2,932 NR 136 2,801 NR 477 6,839 NR 7,316 -1.7
2013-14 106 1,104 NR 225 3,017 NR 153 2,858 NR 484 6,979 NR 7,463 2.0
2014-15 115 1,236 NR 239 3,065 NR 150 2,909 NR 504 7,210 NR 7,714 3.4
2015-16 124 1,248 NR 273 3,276 NR 177 2,849 NR 574 7,373 NR 7,947 3.0
2016-17 158 1,392 NR 316 3,587 NR 154 2,856 NR 628 7,835 NR 8,463 6.5
2017-18 197 1,462 NR 369 3,864 NR 145 2,644 NR 711 7,970 NR 8,681 2.6
2018-19 192 1,500 NR 370 4,059 NR 159 2,595 NR 721 8,154 NR 8,875 2.2
2019-20 163 1,376 0 406 4,164 1 152 2,632 0 721 8,172 1 8,894 0.2
2020-21 148 1,258 0 398 4,105 0 161 2,554 0 707 7,917 0 8,624 -3.0
2021-22 162 1,229 0 351 3,773 0 122 2,347 0 635 7,349 0 7,984 -7.4

Source: Correctional Service of Canada.

Table C26 Notes
Results for “Another sex” were unavailable prior to 2019-20. “Not reported” is abbreviated to “NR” in this table due to formatting.

The data reflect the offender population in the community under supervision, which includes all active offenders on day parole, full parole, statutory release, offenders who are temporarily detained in a non-CSC facility, offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days, offenders on remand in a non-CSC facility, and offenders supervised and subject to an immigration hold by Canada Border Services Agency.

The data presented above do not include offenders who were on long-term supervision orders (See Figure/Table E4).

As a result of a data quality issue, supervision information on 1 offender was not available at the time of the data extraction.

Day parole is a type of conditional release granted by the Parole Board of Canada whereby offenders are permitted to participate in community-based activities in preparation for full parole or statutory release. The conditions require offenders to return nightly to an institution or half-way house unless otherwise authorized by the Parole Board of Canada.

Full parole is a type of conditional release granted by the Parole Board of Canada whereby the remainder of the sentence is served under supervision in the community.

Statutory release refers to a conditional release that is subject to supervision after the offender has served two-thirds of the sentence.

Percent change is measured from the previous year.

These cases reflect the number of offenders on active supervision at fiscal year end. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

Offenders under provincial/territorial supervision on probation or conditional sentence: 10-year trend

Figure C27 Average offender counts
Figure C27
Image description

Line graph showing the average offender counts under provincial/territorial supervision on probation or conditional sentences from fiscal year 2012 to 2013 until fiscal year 2021 to 2022. The total average offender counts decrease from 108,318 in fiscal year 2012 to 2013 to 89,451 in fiscal year 2014 to 2015, counts then rise to 94,104 in fiscal year 2015 to 2016, after which point they drop gradually until the lowest point of 68,144 counts in fiscal year 2021 to 2022. Probation counts decrease from 96,116 in fiscal year 2012 to 2013 to 80,705 counts in fiscal year 2014 to 2015, then increase for fiscal year 2015 to 2016 at 85,845 counts, decreasing for fiscal year 2016 to 2017 at 84,978 counts, increasing again for fiscal year 2017 to 2018 at 87,342 counts, then decreasing until its lowest point in fiscal year 2021 to 2022 at 60,994 counts. Conditional sentences are the lowest average offender counts, decreasing from 12,202 counts in fiscal year 2012 to 2013 to 7,150 counts in fiscal year 2021 to 2022. Full data are available immediately below.

Source: Table 35-10-0154-01, Corrections Key Indicator Report for Adults and Youth, Canadian Centre for Justice and Community Safety Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Figure C27 Notes
Data points reflect the average daily count of adult offenders on probation/conditional sentence over the 12-month fiscal year period.

A conditional sentence is a disposition of the court where the offender serves a term of imprisonment in the community under specified conditions. This type of sentence can only be imposed in cases where the term of imprisonment would be less than 2 years. Conditional sentences have been a provincial and territorial sentencing option since September 1996.

The figure includes data from the most recent year available at the time of publication.

Reported year periods reflect a fiscal year. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

Table C27 Average offender counts
Fiscal year Average offender counts on probation Average offender counts on conditional sentence Total
2012-13 96,116 12,202 108,318
2013-14 84,905 10,077 94,981
2014-15 80,705 8,746 89,451
2015-16 85,845 8,259 94,104
2016-17 84,978 7,249 92,228
2017-18 87,342 6,529 93,871
2018-19 82,500 6,082 88,582
2019-20 79,652 5,996 85,648
2020-21 64,971 5,246 70,216
2021-22 60,994 7,150 68,144

Source: Table 35-10-0154-01, Corrections Key Indicator Report for Adults and Youth, Canadian Centre for Justice and Community Safety Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Table C27 Notes
Data points reflect the average daily count of adult offenders on probation/conditional sentence over the 12-month fiscal year period.

A conditional sentence is a disposition of the court where the offender serves a term of imprisonment in the community under specified conditions. This type of sentence can only be imposed in cases where the term of imprisonment would be less than 2 years. Conditional sentences have been a provincial and territorial sentencing option since September 1996.

The figure includes data from the most recent year available at the time of publication.

Reported year periods reflect fiscal years. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

Population of offenders on provincial parole: 10-year trend

Figure C28 Average counts of offenders on provincial day or full parole
Figure C28
Image description

Line graph showing the average count of offenders on provincial day or full parole from fiscal year 2011 to 2012 until fiscal year 2021 to 2022. The population of offenders in fiscal year 2011 to 2012 decreased slightly to 769 offenders in fiscal year 2012 to 2013, then it increased steadily until its peak at 1,408 offenders in fiscal year 2018 to 2019, before dropping to 742 offenders in fiscal year 2021 to 2022. Full data are available immediately below.

Source: Table 35-10-0154-01, Corrections Key Indicator Report for Adults and Youth, Canadian Centre for Justice and Community Safety Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Figure C28 Notes
Provincial parole boards operate in Quebec, Ontario and Alberta. On April 1, 2007, the Parole Board of Canada assumed responsibility for parole decisions relating to offenders serving sentences in British Columbia's provincial correctional facilities. The Parole Board of Canada has jurisdiction over granting parole to provincial offenders in the Atlantic and Prairie provinces, British Columbia, and to territorial offenders in Yukon, Nunavut and the Northwest Territories.

The figure includes data from the most recent year available at the time of publication.

Reported year periods reflect a fiscal year. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

Table C28 Average counts of offenders on provincial day or full parole
Fiscal year Provincial boards Parole Board of CanadaFootnote * Total % change
Quebec Ontario Alberta Total
2012-13 462 164

NR

626 143 769 100.0
2013-14 527 172

NR

699 154 853 9.8
2014-15 612 207

NR

821 151 972 12.3
2015-16 639 207

NR

846 139 985 1.3
2016-17 701 205

NR

907 151 1,058 6.9
2017-18 792 242

NR

1,034 163 1,197 11.6
2018-19 858 398

NR

1,256 152 1,408 15.0
2019-20 682 289

NR

973 127 1,100

-28.1

2020-21 490 197 2 690 117 807

-36.3

2021-22 489 140 20 649 93 742

-8.8

Source: Table 35-10-0154-01, Corrections Key Indicator Report for Adults and Youth, Canadian Centre for Justice and Community Safety Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Section D: Conditional Release

Number of CSC offenders granted temporary absences: 10-year trend

Figure D1 Number of offenders granted temporary absences and work releases
Figure D1
Image description

Line graph showing the number of Correctional Service of Canada offenders who were granted temporary absences, between fiscal year 2012 to 2013 and fiscal year 2021 to 2022, by type of temporary absence that was granted. The vast majority of temporary absences which were granted are escorted temporary absences, which remained stable from fiscal year 2012 to 2013 to fiscal year 2013 to 2014 at around 2,700 offenders granted, then declining gradually to around 2,400 offenders granted in fiscal year 2015 to 2016, a number which remained relatively stable until fiscal year 2020 to 2021, at which point there was a sharp decline to around 370 offenders granted, and a slight increase to around 500 offenders granted in fiscal year 2021 to 2022. Work releases and unescorted temporary absences followed a similar trend, with around 500 offenders granted in fiscal year 2012 to 2013, then decreasing gradually to just around 300 offenders granted in fiscal year 2019 to 2020, after which point the temporary unescorted absences plunged to 18 offenders granted in fiscal year 2020 to 2021 and have remained stable since, while work released plunged to 30 offenders granted in fiscal year 2021 to 2022. Full data are available immediately below.

Source: Correctional Service of Canada.

Figure D1 Notes
A temporary absence is permission given to an eligible offender to be away from the normal place of confinement for medical, administrative, community service, family contact, personal development for rehabilitative purposes, or compassionate reasons, including parental responsibilities.

A work release is a structured program of release of specified duration for work or community service outside the penitentiary, under the supervision of a staff member or other authorized person or organization.

These numbers depict the number of offenders who received at least 1 temporary absence permit (excluding those for medical purposes) or at least 1 work release. An offender may be granted more than 1 temporary absence permit or work release over a period of time.

Reported year periods reflect fiscal years. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

Table D1 Number of offenders granted temporary absences and work releases
Fiscal year Temporary absences Work releases
Escorted Unescorted
# of offenders # of permits # of offenders # of permits # of offenders # of permits
2012-13 2,753 47,814 448 3,709 455 815
2013-14 2,740 49,502 448 4,005 400 643
2014-15 2,574 49,631 411 3,563 345 489
2015-16 2,437 47,072 445 4,080 304 418
2016-17 2,537 48,577 442 3,782 323 481
2017-18 2,536 50,474 428 3,165 312 443
2018-19 2,527 55,927 411 2,819 302 434
2019-20 2,307 51,007 362 2,890 233 314
2020-21 378 2,609 18 59 47 54
2021-22 531 3,863 18 44 30 36

Source: Correctional Service of Canada.

Table D1 Notes
A temporary absence is permission given to an eligible offender to be away from the normal place of confinement for medical, administrative, community service, family contact, personal development for rehabilitative purposes, or compassionate reasons, including parental responsibilities.

A work release is a structured program of release of specified duration for work or community service outside the penitentiary, under the supervision of a staff member or other authorized person or organization.

These numbers depict the number of offenders who received at least 1 temporary absence permit (excluding those for medical purposes) or at least 1 work release. An offender may be granted more than 1 temporary absence permit or work release over a period of time.

Reported year periods reflect fiscal years. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

Offenders released from federal institutions including Healing Lodges on parole: 10-year trend

Figure D2 PercentageFootnote * of offenders released from a federal institution or Healing Lodge
Figure D2
Image description

Line graph showing the percentage of offenders that were released from federal institutions or Healing Lodges on parole, between fiscal year 2012 to 2013 and fiscal year 2021 to 2022, by type of parole. About 25 percent of offenders were released on day parole between fiscal year 2012 to 2013, which remained stable until fiscal year 2013 to 2014, after which point day parole releases gradually rose to 38 percent in fiscal year 2019 to 20, after which the rate declined to just under 35 percent in fiscal year 2018 to 2019, then dropping to around 30 percent in fiscal year 2021 to 2022. Meanwhile, very few offenders are granted full parole, with the percentage of full parole releases hovering between one and three percent for the entire period. Full data are available immediately below.

Source: Correctional Service of Canada.

Table D2 Offenders released from a federal institution or Healing Lodge
Fiscal year Indigenous Non-Indigenous Total offender population
Day parole Full parole Total releases Day parole Full parole Total releases Day parole Full parole Total releases
2012-13 # 320 7 1,969 1,508 110 5,564 1,828 117 7,533
% 16.3 0.4 27.1 2.0 24.3 1.6
2013-14 # 289 19 2,045 1,593 144 5,636 1,882 163 7,681
% 14.1 0.9 28.3 2.6 24.5 2.1
2014-15 # 311 10 2,077 1,664 175 5,455 1,975 185 7,532
% 15.0 0.5 30.5 3.2 26.2 2.5
2015-16 # 343 14 2,047 1,787 164 5,569 2,130 178 7,616
% 16.8 0.7 32.1 2.9 28.0 2.3
2016-17 # 436 14 2,048 2,091 153 5,529 2,527 167 7,577
% 21.3 0.7 37.8 2.8 33.4 2.2
2017-18 # 504 25 2,076 2,118 183 5,174 2,622 208 7,250
% 24.3 1.2 40.9 3.5 36.2 2.9
2018-19 # 554 33 2,020 2,129 175 5,044 2,683 208 7,064
% 27.4 1.6 42.2 3.5 38.0 2.9
2019-20 # 516 24 2,169 2,025 140 4,892 2,541 164 7,061
% 23.8 1.1 41.4 2.9 36.0 2.3
2020-21 # 489 16 2,087 1,824 86 4,451 2,313 102 6,538
% 23.4 0.8 41.0 1.9 35.4 1.6
2021-22 # 436 5 2,204 1,528 57 4,205 1,964 62 6,409
% 19.8 0.2 36.3 1.4 30.6 1.0

Source: Correctional Service of Canada.

Table D2 Notes
The data includes all releases from a federal institution or Healing Lodge in a given fiscal year excluding offenders with quashed sentences, offenders who died in custody, LTSO releases, offenders released at warrant expiry and offenders transferred to foreign countries. An offender may be released more than once during the reporting timeframe in cases where a previous release was subject to revocation, suspension, temporary detention, interruption or in cases where an offender served more than 1 sentence.

Day parole is a type of conditional release granted by the Parole Board of Canada whereby offenders are permitted to participate in community-based activities in preparation for full parole or statutory release. The conditions require offenders to return nightly to an institution or half-way house unless otherwise authorized by the Parole Board of Canada.

Full parole is a type of conditional release granted by the Parole Board of Canada whereby the remainder of the sentence is served under supervision in the community.

Percentage is calculated based on the number of day and full paroles compared to the total releases for each offender group.

Reported year periods reflect fiscal years. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

Federal day and full parole grant rates: 10-year trend

Figure D3 Federal parole grant ratesFootnote *
Figure D3
Image description

Line graph showing the percent of federal day and full parole grant rates, between fiscal year 2012 to 2013 and fiscal year 2021 to 2022. Between fiscal year 2012 to 2013 and fiscal year 2019 to 2020 the federal day parole grant rate rose from 67.6 percent to 80.0 percent, then decreasing to 71.3 percent in fiscal year 2020 to 2021, and rising slightly to 75.8 percent in fiscal year 2021 to 2022. The federal full parole grant rate follows a similar trend, but starts at 28.8 percent in fiscal year 2012 to 2013 and increases to a peak of 39.8 percent in fiscal year 2019 to 2020, then falling to 30.4 percent in fiscal year 2021 to 2022. Full data are available immediately below.

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Table D3 Federal parole grant ratesFootnote *
Type of release Fiscal year Granted Denied Grant rateFootnote * (%) APR
Females Males Females Males Females Males Total Directed Total
Day parole 2012-13 289 2,821 73 1,415 79.8 66.6 67.6 14 21
2013-14 248 2,824 52 1,274 82.7 68.9 69.8 39 47
2014-15 298 3,023 51 1,282 85.4 70.2 71.4 38 45
2015-16 291 3,093 52 1,078 84.8 74.2 75.0 86 90
2016-17 399 3,445 47 1,042 89.5 76.8 77.9 80 83
2017-18 437 3,612 30 1,039 93.6 77.7 79.1 100 106
2018-19 469 3,737 27 1,055 94.6 78.0 79.5 56 58
2019-20 435 3,590 35 972 92.6 78.7 80.0 48 48
2020-21 352 3,409 49 1,462 87.8 70.0 71.3 25 25
2021-22 383 2,919 24 1,031 94.1 73.9 75.8 20 22
Full parole 2012-13 90 914 142 2,328 38.8 28.2 28.9 26 26
2013-14 84 904 103 2,202 44.9 29.1 30.0 126 142
2014-15 87 969 105 2,308 45.3 29.6 30.4 119 137
2015-16 96 1,063 127 2,154 43.0 33.0 33.7 166 185
2016-17 138 1,237 158 2,383 46.6 34.2 35.1 122 126
2017-18 154 1,362 175 2,357 46.8 36.6 37.5 161 165
2018-19 157 1,451 175 2,420 47.3 37.5 38.3 66 67
2019-20 182 1,385 159 2,208 53.4 38.5 39.8 60 60
2020-21 138 1,282 140 2,844 49.6 31.1 32.2 37 38
2021-22 111 961 143 2,307 43.7 29.4 30.4 23 23

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Federal day and full parole grant rates by Indigenous and non-Indigenous offenders: 10-year trend

Figure D4 Federal parole grant ratesFootnote *
Figure D4
Image description

Line graph showing the percent of federal day parole and full parole grant rates, between fiscal year 2012 to 2013 and fiscal year 2021 to 2022, by Indigenous versus non-Indigenous identity. In all cases, non-Indigenous people are granted parole at higher rates than Indigenous people. The difference is more pronounced for the granting of full parole, with a difference of about 10 percent, than for the granting of day parole, where the difference is about 5 percent. Day parole grant rates for non-Indigenous and Indigenous offenders rose gradually from fiscal year 2012 to 2013 until a peak of 76.2 percent for Indigenous offenders in fiscal year 2018 to 2019 and a peak of 81.2 percent for non-Indigenous offenders in fiscal year 2019 to 2020. Full parole grant rates for non-Indigenous offenders rose gradually from fiscal year 2012 to 2013 to a peak of 42.6 percent in fiscal year 2019 to 2020. Full parole grant rates for Indigenous offenders fluctuated during that time, but also reached its peak in fiscal year 2019 to 2020 at 28.9 percent. Full data are available immediately below.

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Table D4 Federal parole grant ratesFootnote *
Type of release Fiscal year Granted Denied Grant rate (%) APR
Ind. Non- Ind. Ind. Non-Ind. Ind. Non-Ind. Total Directed Total
Day parole 2012-13 568 2,542 327 1,161 63.5 68.6 67.6 14 21
2013-14 532 2,540 310 1,016 63.2 71.4 69.8 39 47
2014-15 574 2,747 269 1,064 68.1 72.1 71.4 38 45
2015-16 617 2,767 270 860 69.6 76.3 75.0 86 90
2016-17 715 3,129 266 823 72.9 79.2 77.9 80 83
2017-18 829 3,220 292 777 74.0 80.6 79.1 100 106
2018-19 940 3,266 293 789 76.2 80.5 79.5 56 58
2019-20 906 3,119 287 720 75.9 81.2 80.0 48 48
2020-21 868 2,893 425 1,086 67.1 72.7 71.3 25 25
2021-22 774 2,528 298 757 72.2 77.0 75.8 20 22
Full parole 2012-13 101 903 477 1,993 17.5 31.2 28.9 26 26
2013-14 126 862 429 1,876 22.7 31.5 30.0 126 142
2014-15 109 947 456 1,957 19.3 32.6 30.4 119 137
2015-16 137 1,022 443 1,838 23.6 35.7 33.7 166 185
2016-17 156 1,219 473 2,068 24.8 37.1 35.1 122 126
2017-18 171 1,345 580 1,952 22.8 40.8 37.5 161 165
2018-19 235 1,373 613 1,982 27.7 40.9 38.3 66 67
2019-20 231 1,336 569 1,798 28.9 42.6 39.8 60 60
2020-21 225 1,195 748 2,236 23.1 34.8 32.2 37 38
2021-22 162 910 620 1,830 20.7 33.2 30.4 23 23

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Number of federal Elder-Assisted parole hearings: 10-year trend

Figure D5 Federal Elder-Assisted parole hearings
Figure D5
Image description

Line graph showing the number of federal Elder-assisted parole hearings, between fiscal year 2012 to 2013 and fiscal year 2021 to 2022. Across time, there were far more Elder-assisted hearings with Indigenous offenders than with non-Indigenous offenders. Hearings with Indigenous offenders dropped from 423 hearings in fiscal year 2012 to 2013 to 347 hearings in fiscal year 2013 to 2014, then rose steadily to a peak of 702 hearings in fiscal year 2019 to 2020, then dropped dramatically to 74 hearings in fiscal year 2020 to 2021, and then rose to 436 hearings in fiscal year 2021 to 2022. Elder-assisted parole hearings for non-Indigenous offenders fluctuated between 29 and 46 hearings between fiscal year 2012 to 2013 and fiscal year 2015 to 2016, in fiscal year 2016 to 2017 it reached its peak with 51 hearings, then dropping to a low of 1 hearing in fiscal year 202 to 2021. Full data are available immediately below.

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Figure D5 Notes
The term Elder also refers to a Cultural Advisor as defined in section 11.1.1.5 of the Decision-Making Policy Manual.

The presence of an Elder is an alternative approach to the traditional parole hearing, and was introduced by the Parole Board of Canada to ensure that conditional release hearings are sensitive to Indigenous cultural values and traditions. This type of hearing is available to both Indigenous and non-Indigenous offenders.

Reported year periods reflect fiscal years. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

Table D5 Federal Elder-Assisted parole hearings
Fiscal year Indigenous offenders Non-Indigenous offenders All offenders
Total hearings With an Elder Total hearings With an Elder Total hearings With an Elder
# # % # # % # # %
2012-13 1,329 423 31.8 4,615 46 1.0 5,944 469 7.9
2013-14 947 347 36.6 3,641 29 0.8 4,588 376 8.2
2014-15 896 360 40.2 3,805 42 1.1 4,701 402 8.6
2015-16 973 372 38.2 3,937 29 0.7 4,910 401 8.2
2016-17 1,312 552 42.1 4,468 51 1.1 5,780 603 10.4
2017-18 1,559 634 40.7 4,826 40 0.8 6,385 674 10.6
2018-19 1,637 677 41.4 4,923 42 0.9 6,560 719 11.0
2019-20 1,602 702 43.8 4,530 38 0.8 6,132 740 12.1
2020-21 1,735 74 4.3 4,389 1

<0.1

6,124 75 1.2
2021-22 1,541 436 28.3 3,806 20 0.5 5,347 456 8.5

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Table D5 Notes
The term Elder also refers to a Cultural Advisor as defined in section 11.1.1.5 of the Decision-Making Policy Manual.

The presence of an Elder is an alternative approach to the traditional parole hearing, and was introduced by the Parole Board of Canada to ensure that conditional release hearings are sensitive to Indigenous cultural values and traditions. This type of hearing is available to both Indigenous and non-Indigenous offenders. Due to self-identification, past “Indigenous” and “Non-Indigenous” offender figures may fluctuate from one report to another.

Reported year periods reflect fiscal years. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

Proportion of sentence served prior to being released on parole: 10-year trend

Figure D6 Proportion of sentence served in custody before first federal parole
Figure D6
Image description

Line graph showing the proportion of an offender's sentence that has been served in custody before their first federal parole, between fiscal year 2012 to 2013 and fiscal year 2021 to 2022, for first full parole and for first day parole. The graph includes a dotted line around the 35 percent mark to indicate when full parole eligibility begins. First full parole was granted at just over 45 percent in fiscal year 2012 to 2013 and remained relatively stable over time. Meanwhile, first federal day parole was granted between 35 percent and 37 percent during the same time period. Full data are available immediately below.

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Figure D6 Notes
Full parole is a type of conditional release granted by the Parole Board of Canada in which the remainder of the sentence is served under supervision in the community. The Parole Board of Canada must review the cases of all offenders for full parole at the time prescribed by legislation, unless the offender advises the Parole Board of Canada in writing that they do not wish to be considered for full parole.

Day parole is a type of conditional release granted by the Parole Board of Canada in which offenders are permitted to participate in community-based activities in preparation for full parole or statutory release. The conditions require offenders to return nightly to an institution, half-way house, or other location deemed appropriate for managing their risk, unless otherwise authorized by the Parole Board of Canada. Not all offenders apply for day parole, and some apply more than once before being granted day parole.

Timing of parole in the sentence refers to the percentage of the sentence served at the time the first day parole or full parole starts during the sentence. In most cases a full parole is preceded by a day parole. These calculations are based on sentences under federal jurisdiction, excluding life sentences and indeterminate sentences. Offenders (other than those serving life or indeterminate sentences or subject to judicial determination) normally become eligible for full parole after serving 1/3 of their sentence or 7 years, whichever is less. Eligibility for day parole is normally at 6 months before full parole eligibility.

Reported year periods reflect fiscal years. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

Table D6 Proportion of sentence served in custody before first federal parole
Fiscal year First federal day parole First federal full parole
Females Males Total Females Males Total
2012-13 37.8 37.0 37.1 44.9 46.0 45.9
2013-14 33.9 37.2 36.9 43.3 45.9 45.7
2014-15 34.3 36.8 36.5 43.8 45.0 44.9
2015-16 36.1 37.7 37.5 44.6 46.0 45.8
2016-17 32.5 36.5 36.0 42.9 45.3 45.0
2017-18 32.1 36.1 35.6 41.4 44.4 44.0
2018-19 31.6 37.0 36.4 41.1 44.6 44.2
2019-20 30.0 36.9 36.1 41.2 44.8 44.4
2020-21 33.0 36.9 36.5 42.2 45.6 45.2
2021-22 34.5 38.1 37.6 42.0 45.4 45.0

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Table D6 Notes
Full parole is a type of conditional release granted by the Parole Board of Canada in which the remainder of the sentence is served under supervision in the community. The Parole Board of Canada must review the cases of all offenders for full parole at the time prescribed by legislation, unless the offender advises the Parole Board of Canada in writing that they do not wish to be considered for full parole.

Day parole is a type of conditional release granted by the Parole Board of Canada in which offenders are permitted to participate in community-based activities in preparation for full parole or statutory release. The conditions require offenders to return nightly to an institution, half-way house, or other location deemed appropriate for managing their risk, unless otherwise authorized by the Parole Board of Canada. Not all offenders apply for day parole, and some apply more than once before being granted day parole.

Timing of parole in the sentence refers to the percentage of the sentence served at the time the first day parole or full parole starts during the sentence. In most cases a full parole is preceded by a day parole. These calculations are based on sentences under federal jurisdiction, excluding life sentences and indeterminate sentences. Offenders (other than those serving life or indeterminate sentences or subject to judicial determination) normally become eligible for full parole after serving 1/3 of their sentence or 7 years, whichever is less. Eligibility for day parole is normally at 6 months before full parole eligibility.

Reported year periods reflect fiscal years. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

Proportion of sentence served prior to being released on parole by Indigenous and non-Indigenous offenders: 10-year trend

Figure D7a. Proportion of sentence served in custody before first federal day parole
Figure D7
Image description

Line graph showing the proportion of offenders' sentences that are served in custody before their first federal day parole, between fiscal year 2012 to 2013 and fiscal year 2021 to 2022, by Indigenous and non-Indigenous identity groups. The graph includes a dotted line around the 35 percent mark to indicate when full parole eligibility begins. Indigenous offenders consistently served a higher proportion of their sentence prior to being released on day parole compared to non-Indigenous offenders. The proportion of sentence served for Indigenous offenders fluctuated between 39 percent and 42 percent, while the proportion of sentence served for non-Indigenous offenders fluctuated between 35 percent and 36 percent. Full data are available immediately below.

Figure D7b. Proportion of sentence served in custody before first federal full parole
Figure D7b
Image description

Line graph showing the proportion of offenders' sentences that are served in custody before their first federal full parole, between fiscal year 2012 to 2013 and fiscal year 2021 to 2022, by Indigenous and non-Indigenous identity groups. The graph includes a dotted line around the 35 percent mark to indicate when full parole eligibility begins. Indigenous offenders consistently served a higher proportion of their sentence prior to being released on full parole compared to non-Indigenous offenders. The proportion of sentence served for Indigenous offenders fluctuated between 46 percent and 48 percent, while the proportion of sentence served for non-Indigenous offenders fluctuated between 43 percent and 45 percent. Full data are available immediately below.

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Figure D7 Notes
Full parole is a type of conditional release granted by the Parole Board of Canada in which the remainder of the sentence is served under supervision in the community. The Parole Board of Canada must review the cases of all offenders for full parole at the time prescribed by legislation, unless the offender advises the Parole Board of Canada in writing that they do not wish to be considered for full parole.

Day parole is a type of conditional release granted by the Parole Board of Canada in which offenders are permitted to participate in community-based activities in preparation for full parole or statutory release. The conditions require offenders to return nightly to an institution, half-way house, or other location deemed appropriate for managing their risk, unless otherwise authorized by the Parole Board of Canada. Not all offenders apply for day parole, and some apply more than once before being granted day parole.

Timing of parole in the sentence refers to the percentage of the sentence served at the time the first day parole or full parole starts during the sentence. In most cases a full parole is preceded by a day parole. These calculations are based on sentences under federal jurisdiction, excluding life sentences and indeterminate sentences. Offenders (other than those serving life or indeterminate sentences or subject to judicial determination) normally become eligible for full parole after serving 1/3 of their sentence or 7 years, whichever is less. Eligibility for day parole is normally at 6 months before full parole eligibility.

Reported year periods reflect fiscal years. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

Table D7 Proportion of sentence served in custody before first federal parole
Fiscal year First federal day parole First federal full parole
Indigenous Non- Indigenous Total Indigenous Non- Indigenous Total
2012-13 40.6 36.3 37.1 48.0 45.6 45.9
2013-14 41.5 36.1 36.9 48.0 45.4 45.7
2014-15 39.1 36.1 36.5 46.2 44.8 44.9
2015-16 42.1 36.7 37.5 49.7 45.4 45.8
2016-17 39.2 35.4 36.0 48.0 44.6 45.0
2017-18 39.4 34.7 35.6 47.6 43.6 44.0
2018-19 40.7 35.3 36.4 47.2 43.8 44.2
2019-20 39.1 35.4 36.1 46.8 44.0 44.4
2020-21 40.3 35.5 36.5 48.0 44.8 45.2
2021-22 41.6 36.5 37.6 47.5 44.6 45.0

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Table D7 Notes
Full parole is a type of conditional release granted by the Parole Board of Canada in which the remainder of the sentence is served under supervision in the community. The Parole Board of Canada must review the cases of all offenders for full parole at the time prescribed by legislation, unless the offender advises the Parole Board of Canada in writing that they do not wish to be considered for full parole.

Day parole is a type of conditional release granted by the Parole Board of Canada in which offenders are permitted to participate in community-based activities in preparation for full parole or statutory release. The conditions require offenders to return nightly to an institution, half-way house, or other location deemed appropriate for managing their risk, unless otherwise authorized by the Parole Board of Canada. Not all offenders apply for day parole, and some apply more than once before being granted day parole.

Timing of parole in the sentence refers to the percentage of the sentence served at the time the first day parole or full parole starts during the sentence. In most cases a full parole is preceded by a day parole. These calculations are based on sentences under federal jurisdiction, excluding life sentences and indeterminate sentences. Offenders (other than those serving life or indeterminate sentences or subject to judicial determination) normally become eligible for full parole after serving 1/3 of their sentence or 7 years, whichever is less. Eligibility for day parole is normally at 6 months before full parole eligibility.

Reported year periods reflect fiscal years. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

Outcome of federal day parole supervision periods

Figure D8 Day parole outcomes – 10-year trend
Figure D8
Image description

Line graph showing the outcome of federal day parole supervision periods from fiscal year 2012 to 2013 until fiscal year 2021 to 2022. Successful completion of day parole rose steadily over time, reaching a peak of 91.9 percent in fiscal year 2021 to 2022. Revocation for breach of conditions remained relatively stable over time, fluctuating between 7.2 percent and 8.5 percent. Revocation with offence was the least common outcome with less than 1.5 percent each year. Full data are available immediately below.

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Table D8 Day parole outcomes
Federal day parole outcomes 2017-18 2018-19 2019-20 2020-21 2021-22
# % # % # % # % # %
Successful completionFootnote *
Regular
3,469 90.9 3,628 90.2 3,714 90.1 3,523 91.6 2,991 91.8
Accelerated
84 93.3 75 98.7 57 91.9 42 97.7 24 100
Total
3,553 90.9 3,703 90.4 3,771 90.2 3,565 91.7 3,015 91.9
Revocation for breach of conditions
Regular
287 7.5 329 8.2 353 8.6 280 7.3 242 7.4
Accelerated
6 6.7 1 1.3 4 6.5 0 0.0 0 0.0
Total
293 7.5 330 8.1 357 8.5 280 7.2 242 7.4
Revocation with non-violent offence
Regular
55 1.4 55 1.4 45 1.1 33 0.9 25 0.8
Accelerated
0 0.0 0 0.0 1 1.6 1 2.3 0 0.0
Total
55 1.4 55 1.3 46 1.1 34 0.9 25 0.8
Revocation with violent offence
Regular
7 0.2 8 0.2 9 0.2 9 0.2 0.0 0.0
Accelerated
0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Total
7 0.2 8 0.2 9 0.2 9 0.2 0.0 0.0
Total regular 3,818 97.7 4,020 98.1 4,121 98.5 3,845 98.9 3,258 99.3
Total accelerated 90 2.3 76 1.9 62 1.5 43 1.1 24 0.7
Total (regular and accelerated) 3,908 100 4,096 100 4,183 100 3,888 100 3,282 100

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Outcome of federal full parole supervision periods

Figure D9 Full parole outcomesFootnote * – 10-year trend
Figure D9
Image description

Line graph showing the outcome of federal full parole supervision periods from fiscal year 2012 to 2013 until fiscal year 2021 to 2022. Successful completion of full parole rose to a peak of 90.4 percent in fiscal year 2017 to 2018, after which point it fluctuated between 87.7 percent and 88.3 percent. Revocation for breach of conditions declined steadily to a low of 6.7 percent in fiscal year 2017 to 2018, after which point it rose to 9.8 percent in fiscal year 2021 to 2022 with minor fluctuations. Revocation with offence was the lowest percentage, with below 5 percent over time. Full data are available immediately below.

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Table D9 Full parole outcomesFootnote *
Federal full parole outcomes 2017-18 2018-19 2019-20 2020-21 2021-22
# % # % # % # % # %
Successful completionFootnote **
Regular
968 90.6 1,063 86.9 1,171 87.6 1,177 87.7 1,169 87.8
Accelerated
102 88.7 114 95.8 104 91.2 97 94.2 83 95.4
Total
1,070 90.4 1,177 87.7 1,275 87.9 1,274 88.2 1,252 88.3
Revocation for breach of conditions
Regular
71 6.6 122 10.0 120 9.0 127 9.5 135 10.1
Accelerated
8 7.0 4 3.4 7 6.1 5 4.9 4 4.6
Total
79 6.7 126 9.4 127 8.8 132 9.1 139 9.8
Revocation with non-violent offence
Regular
24 2.2 28 2.3 36 2.7 35 2.6 18 1.4
Accelerated
5 4.3 1 0.8 1 0.9 0 0.0 0 0.0
Total
29 2.4 29 2.2 37 2.6 35 2.4 18 1.3
Revocation with violent offence
Regular
6 0.6 10 0.8 9 0.7 3 0.2 9 0.7
Accelerated
0 0.0 0 0.0 2 1.8 1 1.0 0 0.0
Total
6 0.5 10 0.7 11 0.8 4 0.3 9 0.6
Total regular 1,069 90.3 1,223 91.1 1,336 92.1 1,342 92.9 1,331 93.9
Total accelerated 115 9.7 119 8.9 114 7.9 103 7.1 87 6.1
Total (regular and accelerated) 1,184 100 1,342 100 1,450 100 1,445 100 1,418 100

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Offenders released from federal institutions including Healing Lodges on statutory release: 10-year trend

Figure D10 PercentageFootnote * of offenders released on statutory release
Figure D10
Image description

Line graph showing the percentage of offenders released from federal institutions including healing lodges on statutory release from fiscal year 2012 to 2013 until fiscal year 2021 to 2022. Rates decrease steadily from 83.4 percent in fiscal year 2012 to 2013 until 59.1 percent in fiscal year 2018 to 2019, prior to increasing to 80 percent in fiscal year 2021 to 2022. Full data are available immediately below.

Source: Correctional Service of Canada.

Table D10 Offenders released on statutory release
Fiscal year Indigenous Non-Indigenous Total offender population
Statutory release Total releases %Footnote * Statutory release Total releases %Footnote * Statutory release Total releases %Footnote *
2012-13 1,642 1,969 83.4 3,946 5,564 70.9 5,588 7,533 74.2
2013-14 1,737 2,045 84.9 3,899 5,636 69.2 5,636 7,681 73.4
2014-15 1,756 2,077 84.5 3,616 5,455 66.3 5,372 7,532 71.3
2015-16 1,690 2,047 82.6 3,618 5,569 65.0 5,308 7,616 69.7
2016-17 1,598 2,048 78.0 3,285 5,529 59.4 4,883 7,577 64.4
2017-18 1,547 2,076 74.5 2,873 5,174 55.5 4,420 7,250 61.0
2018-19 1,433 2,020 70.9 2,740 5,044 54.3 4,173 7,064 59.1
2019-20 1,629 2,169 75.1 2,727 4,892 55.7 4,356 7,061 61.7
2020-21 1,582 2,087 75.8 2,541 4,451 57.1 4,123 6,538 63.1
2021-22 1,763 2,204 80.0 2,620 4,205 62.3 4,383 6,409 68.4

Source: Correctional Service of Canada.

Outcome of federal statutory release supervision periods

Figure D11 Statutory releaseFootnote * outcomes – 10-year trend
Figure D11
Image description

Line graph showing the outcomes of federal statutory release supervision periods from fiscal year 2012 to 2013 until fiscal year 2021 to 2022. Successful completion rose steadily to a peak of 66.7 percent in fiscal year 2016 to 2017, decreasing to 64.8 percent in fiscal year 2018 to 2019, increasing back 66.7 percent in fiscal year 2020 to 2021, then decreasing to 62.6 percent in fiscal year 2021 to 2022. Revocation for breach of conditions decreased steadily until its lowest point in fiscal year 2017 to 2018 at 24.0, after which point it rose steadily to a peak of 31.8 percent in fiscal year 2021 to 2022. Revocation with offense was the lowest, decreasing to 8.4 percent in fiscal year 2016 to 2017, then rising to a peak of 10.8 percent in fiscal year 2018 to 2019, then decreasing until reaching its lowest point of 4.9 percent in fiscal year 2021 to 2022. Full data are available immediately below.

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Table D11 Statutory releaseFootnote * outcomes
Statutory releaseFootnote * outcomes 2017-18 2018-19 2019-20 2020-21 2021-22
# % # % # % # % # %
Successful completionFootnote ** 3,558 66.0 3,289 64.8 3,392 65.3 3,336 66.7 3,218 62.6
Revocation for breach of conditions 1,291 24.0 1,230 24.2 1,308 25.2 1,311 26.2 1,634 31.8
Revocation with non-violent offence 463 8.6 462 9.1 401 7.7 289 5.8 251 4.9
Revocation with violent offence 76 1.4 94 1.9 93 1.8 67 1.3 39 0.8
Total 5,388 100 5,075 100 5,194 100 5,003 100 5,142 100

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Rates of violent offence convictions for offenders on federal conditional release: 10-year trend

Figure D12 Rates of violent offence convictions per 1,000 supervised offenders
Figure D12
Image description

Line graph showing the rates of violent offence convictions per 1,000 supervised offenders from fiscal year 2011 to 2012 until fiscal year 2021 to 2022. Statutory release had the highest rate overall, starting at a peak of 35 convictions per 1,000 supervised offenders in fiscal year 2011 to 2012, then fluctuating in a downward trend to 23 convictions in fiscal year 2017 to 2018, briefly rising to 29 convictions in fiscal years 2018 to 2019 and 2019 to 2020, then decreasing to its lowest point of 14 convictions in 2021 to 2022. Day parole rates were significantly lower that statutory release rates, with a peak of 7 convictions in fiscal year 2012 to 2013 and a low of 0 convictions in fiscal year 2021 to 2022. Full parole had the lowest rate overall, fluctuating between 1 and 3 convictions over time, with peaks in fiscal years 2011 to 2012, 2012 to 2013, and 2018 to 2019, and lows in fiscal years 2014 to 2015 and 2020 to 2021. Full data are available immediately below.

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Table D12 Rates of violent offence convictions per 1,000 supervised offenders
Fiscal year # of convictions for violent offences Rates per 1,000 supervised offenders
Day parole Full parole Statutory release Total Day parole Full parole Statutory release
2011-12 7 10 120 137 6 3 35
2012-13 9 11 119 139 7 3 34
2013-14 4 8 106 118 3 2 30
2014-15 1 4 87 92 1 1 25
2015-16 9 7 95 111 6 2 27
2016-17 7 8 83 98 4 2 24
2017-18 7 8 76 91 4 2 23
2018-19 8 15 94 117 4 3 29
2019-20 9 11 93 113 5 2 29
2020-21 9 5 67 81 6 1 22
2021-22 0 10 39 49 0 2 14

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Table D12 Notes
Violent offences include murder and Schedule I offences (listed in the Corrections and Conditional Release Act) such as assaults, sexual offences, arson, abduction, robbery and some weapon offences.

Supervised offenders include offenders who are on parole and statutory release, those temporarily detained in federal institutions, and those who are deported or extradited.

Statutory release refers to a conditional release that is subject to supervision after the offender has served two-thirds of the sentence.

Day and full parole include those offenders serving determinate and indeterminate sentences.

Reported year periods reflect fiscal years. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

Section E: Special Applications of Criminal Justice

Number of initial detention reviews: 10-year trend

Figure E1 Number of initial detention reviews
Figure E1
Image description

Line graph showing the number of initial detention reviews between fiscal year 2012 to 2013 and fiscal year 2021 to 2022. The number of reviews for detained offenders decreased steeply from a peak of 232 reviews in fiscal year 2012 to 2013, to a low of 77 reviews in fiscal year 2018 to 2019, increasing briefly to 113 reviews in fiscal year 2020 to 2021, and dropping to 109 reviews in fiscal year 2021 to 2022. The number of reviews for non-detained offenders was significantly lower, reaching a peak of only 10 reviews in fiscal year 2014 to 2015. Full data are available immediately below.

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Figure E1 Notes
Initial Detention Review: In accordance with subsection 130(1) of the Corrections and Conditional Release Act, a review conducted upon referral by the Correctional Service of Canada. On completion of its review, the Board may order that an individual not be released from imprisonment before the expiration of their sentence according to law – except on a escorted temporary absence for medical or administrative reasons – if it is satisfied that the individual is likely, if released, to commit an offence causing the death of or serious harm to another person, a sexual offence involving a child, or a serious drug offence before the end of their sentence. Detention orders are subject to review within one or two years, depending on the type of offence.

Reported year periods reflect fiscal years. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

Table E1 Number of initial detention reviews
Fiscal year Detained Statutory release Total Total
Ind. Non- Ind. Total % Ind. Non- Ind. Total % Ind. Non- Ind.
2012-13 94 138 232 98.3 4 0 4 1.7 98 138 236
2013-14 91 109 200 96.2 4 4 8 3.8 95 113 208
2014-15 71 93 164 94.3 5 5 10 5.7 76 98 174
2015-16 75 92 167 96.5 2 4 6 3.5 77 96 173
2016-17 55 76 131 97.0 2 2 4 3.0 57 78 135
2017-18 51 59 110 92.4 5 4 9 7.6 56 63 119
2018-19 38 39 77 90.6 6 2 8 9.4 44 41 85
2019-20 50 55 105 93.8 4 3 7 6.3 54 58 112
2020-21 57 56 113 95.0 2 4 6 5.0 59 60 119
2021-22 49 60 109 96.5 1 3 4 3.5 50 63 113
Total 631 777 1,408 95.5 35 31 66 4.5 666 808 1,474

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Table E1 Notes
Indigenous (Ind.) and non-Indigenous (Non-Ind.) are abbreviated in this table due to formatting.

Initial Detention Review: In accordance with subsection 130(1) of the Corrections and Conditional Release Act, a review conducted upon referral by the Correctional Service of Canada. On completion of its review, the Board may order that an individual not be released from imprisonment before the expiration of their sentence according to law – except on a escorted temporary absence for medical or administrative reasons – if it is satisfied that the individual is likely, if released, to commit an offence causing the death of or serious harm to another person, a sexual offence involving a child, or a serious drug offence before the end of their sentence. Detention orders are subject to review within one or two years, depending on the type of offence.

Reported year periods reflect fiscal years. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

Annual judicial review hearings

Figure E2 Judicial review hearings between fiscal year 1987-88 and fiscal year 2021-22
Figure E2
Image description

Bar chart showing the outcomes of annual judicial review hearings between fiscal year 1987 to 1988 and fiscal year 2021 to 2022. In order from most to least, the total number of offenders with cases applicable for judicial review was 1,744; the total number of offenders eligible at this time or in the future for a judicial review hearing was 529; the total number of court decisions was 254; there were 188 decisions of earlier eligibility; and 176 offenders were released on parole. Full data are available immediately below.

Source: Correctional Service of Canada.

Table E2 Judicial review hearings between fiscal year 1987-88 and fiscal year 2021-22
Province/territory of judicial review Parole ineligibility reduced by court Reduction denied by court Total
1st degree murder 2nd degree murder 1st degree murder 2nd degree murder 1st degree murder 2nd degree murder
Northwest Territories 0 0 0 0 0 0
Nunavut 0 0 0 0 0 0
Yukon Territories 0 0 0 0 0 0
Newfoundland & Labrador 0 0 0 0 0 0
Prince Edward Island 0 0 0 0 0 0
Nova Scotia 1 1 1 0 2 1
New Brunswick 1 0 0 0 1 0
Quebec 78 16 7 2 85 18
Ontario 24 0 31 1 55 1
Manitoba 8 4 1 0 9 4
Saskatchewan 7 0 3 0 10 0
Alberta 20 0 9 1 29 1
British Columbia 27 1 9 1 36 2
Subtotal 166 22 61 5 227 27
Total 188 66 254

Source: Correctional Service of Canada.

Table E2 Notes
Judicial review is an application to the court for a reduction in the time required to be served before being eligible for parole. Judicial review procedures apply to offenders who have been sentenced to imprisonment for life without eligibility for parole until more than 15 years of their sentence has been served. Offenders can apply when they have served at least 15 years of their sentence. Judicial reviews are conducted in the province where the conviction took place.

Reported year periods reflect fiscal years. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

Number of Dangerous Offender designations

Figure E3 Number of Dangerous Offenders designated
Figure E3
Image description

Line graph showing the number of offenders designated as Dangerous Offenders between fiscal year 1978 to 1979 and fiscal year 2021 to 2022. The number of dangerous offender designations increased gradually, with sharp fluctuations, from less than 10 designations in fiscal year 1978 to 1979 to around 25 designations a year in the mid-1990s, there was a brief dip in the number of designations between fiscal years 2002 to 2003 and 2004 to 2005, after which point the number of designations starts to increase more rapidly until reaching a peak of around 65 designations in fiscal year 2015 to 2016, then dropping to around 40 designations in fiscal year 2020 to 2021 and remaining stable for fiscal year 2021 to 2022. Full data by province, distinguishing between indeterminate and determinate offenders, are available immediately below.

Source: Correctional Service of Canada.

Figure E3 Notes
The number of Dangerous Offenders designated per year does not include overturned decisions.

Offenders who have died since receiving designations are no longer classified as “active”; however, they are still represented in the above graph, which depicts the total number of offenders ‘”designated”.

The percentage of DOs who had at least 1 current conviction for a sexual offence is not available.

Dangerous Offender legislation came into effect in Canada on October 15, 1977, replacing the Habitual Offender and Dangerous Sexual Offender provisions that were abolished. A Dangerous Offender (DO) is an individual given an indeterminate or a determinate* sentence on the basis of a particularly violent crime or pattern of serious violent offences where it is judged that the offender’s behaviour is unlikely to be inhibited by normal standards of behavioural restraint (see section 753 of the Criminal Code of Canada).

In addition to the DOs, there were 9 Dangerous Sexual Offenders and 2 offenders with an Habitual Offender designation under the responsibility of Correctional Service Canada at the end of fiscal year 2021-22.

Determinate sentence for Dangerous Offenders must be a minimum punishment of imprisonment for a term of 2 years — and have an order that the offender be subject to long-term supervision for a period that does not exceed 10 years.

Reported year periods reflect fiscal years. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

Table E3 Number of Dangerous Offenders designated (2021-22)
Province/territory of designation All designations (designated
since 1978)
Active Dangerous Offenders
# of indeterminate offenders # of determinate offenders Total
Newfoundland & Labrador 15 7 2 9
Nova Scotia 28 18 3 21
Prince Edward Island 0 0 0 0
New Brunswick 8 4 0 4
Quebec 148 94 34 128
Ontario 471 287 105 392
Manitoba 34 26 4 30
Saskatchewan 110 60 36 96
Alberta 78 55 10 65
British Columbia 171 111 20 131
Yukon Territories 7 2 3 5
Northwest Territories 11 10 1 11
Nunavut 3 0 1 1
Total 1,084 674 219 893

Source: Correctional Service of Canada.

Table E3 Notes
The number of Dangerous Offenders declared per year does not include overturned decisions.

Offenders who have died since receiving designations are no longer classified as "active", however, they are still represented in the total number of offenders "designated".

Numbers presented are current up to the end of fiscal year 2021-22. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

Number of long-term supervision orders imposed

Figure E4 Number of long-term supervision orders imposed (2021-22)
Figure E4
Image description

Bar graph showing the number of long-term supervision orders that were imposed during the fiscal year 2021 to 2022, by length of supervision order imposed. There was a single supervision order of 1 year; 3 supervision orders of 2 years; there is a small jump to 14 supervision orders of 3 years; 17 supervision orders of 4 years; there is a large jump to 159 supervision orders of 5 years, which is the second highest number of long-term supervision orders; 62 supervision orders of 6 years, 106 supervision orders of 7 years, and 82 supervision orders of 8 years; and the largest number of long-term supervision orders by far were those of 10 years, of which there were 1,097 supervision orders. Full data are available immediately below.

Source: Correctional Service of Canada.

Figure E4 Notes
Long-Term Supervision Order (LTSO) legislation, which came into effect in Canada on August 1, 1997, allows the court to impose a sentence of 2 years or more for the predicate offence and order that the offender be supervised in the community for a further period not exceeding 10 years.

119 offenders under these provisions have died, and 383 offenders have completed their long-term supervision period.

The percentage of long-term supervision orders who had at least 1 current conviction for a sexual offence is not available.

Remand is the temporary detention of a person while awaiting trial, sentencing or the commencement of a custodial disposition.

Reported year periods reflect fiscal years. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

Table E4 Number of long-term supervision orders imposed (2021-22)
Province or territory of order Length of supervision order (years) Current status 2021-22
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Total Incarcerated DP, FP or SRFootnote * LTSO period LTSO interruptedFootnote ** Total
Sentencing province
Newfoundland & Labrador 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 13 14 2 1 5 1 9
Nova Scotia 0 0 0 0 4 0 1 3 0 16 24 3 0 6 1 10
Prince Edward Island 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 2 0 0 0 0 0
New Brunswick 0 0 1 0 2 0 0 1 0 8 12 1 0 4 2 7
Quebec 1 2 9 5 91 26 53 24 2 344 557 143 25 153 41 362
Ontario 0 0 1 8 20 16 25 31 0 347 448 72 15 172 29 288
Manitoba 0 0 0 0 1 2 3 2 0 39 47 5 0 8 7 20
Saskatchewan 0 1 1 1 11 10 13 11 3 88 139 29 4 41 25 99
Alberta 0 0 1 0 9 1 1 1 0 79 92 15 1 25 7 48
British Columbia 0 0 0 2 14 4 7 7 0 134 168 15 8 61 8 92
Yukon Territories 0 0 0 0 2 0 3 0 1 18 24 3 1 12 0 16
Northwest Territories 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 5 8 4 0 1 1 6
Nunavut 0 0 1 1 2 2 0 1 0 5 12 4 0 5 0 9
Total 1 3 14 17 159 62 106 82 6 1,097 1,547 296 55 493 122

966Footnote ***

Source: Correctional Service of Canada.

Number of record suspension and pardon applications received: 5-year trend

Figure E5 Number of record suspension and pardon applications receivedFootnote *
Figure E5
Image description

Line graph showing the number of record suspension and pardons applications received between fiscal year 2017 to 2018 and fiscal year 2021 to 2022. The number of record suspension applications is much higher than the number of pardons applications received in fiscal year 2017 to 2018, at 9,460 record suspension applications compared to 5,202 pardons applications. Record suspension applications then continue on a downward trend whereas pardons applications are on an upward trend, meeting each other in fiscal year 2018 to 2019 at around 7,000 applications. Pardons applications continue to increase to a peak of 9,003 applications in fiscal year 2021 to 2022, while record suspension applications continue to decrease to a low of 1,757 applications in fiscal year 2020 to 2021 which remains relatively stable into fiscal year 2021 to 2022. Full data are available immediately below.

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Table E5 Number of record suspension and pardon applications receivedFootnote *
2017-18 2018-19 2019-20 2020-21 2021-22
Record suspension applications processed
Received 9,460 7,360 4,667 1,757 1,978
Accepted 6,502 5,341 2,964 1,344 1,249
% accepted 68.7 72.6 63.5 76.5 63.1
Record suspensions
Ordered 7,037 6,028 5,287 1,403 1,559
Refused 142 225 209 103 56
Total ordered/refused 7,179 6,253 5,496 1,506 1,615
% ordered 98.0 96.4 96.2 93.2 96.5
Pardon applications processed
Received 5,202 6,466 7,774 7,383 9,003
Accepted 4,366 5,186 6,749 6,207 6,020
% accepted 83.9 80.2 86.8 84.1 66.9
Pardons
Granted 227 2,631 3,155 4,846 4,669
Issued 1,730 1,772 1,552 2,467 2,054
Denied 133 42 209 219 247
Total granted/issued/denied 2,090 4,445 4,916 7,532 6,970
% granted/issued 93.6 99.1 95.7 97.1 96.5
Pardon/record suspension revocations/cessations
RevocationsFootnote ** 85 59 410 314 251
Cessations 690 527 440 271 307
Total revocations/cessations 775 586 850 585 558
Cumulative # granted/issued and orderedFootnote *** 525,186 535,617 545,611 554,327 562,609
Cumulative # revocations/cessationsFootnote *** 26,683 27,269 28,119 28,704 29,262

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Section F: Federal Services to Registered Victims

Number of contacts with registered victims: 5-year trend

Figure F1 Number of contacts with registered victims
Figure F1
Image description

Line graph of the number of contacts with registered victims, over a five year period between fiscal year 2017 to 2018 and fiscal year 2021 to 2022. Total contacts rose steadily from 45,574 contacts in fiscal year 2017 to 2018 to 50,708 contacts in fiscal year 2019 to 2020, then dropping to 36,703 contacts in fiscal year 2020 to 2021 and rising again to 39,851 contacts in fiscal year 2021 to 2022. Total contacts to share offender information followed a similar trend, rising from 44,039 contacts in fiscal year 2017 to 2018 to 47,659 contacts in fiscal year 2019 to 2020. The number of contacts with registered victims fell precipitously in fiscal year 2020 to 2021 to 34,091 contacts, before increasing in fiscal year 2021 to 2022 to 36,442. Total contacts for administrative purposes were far lower, rising steadily from 1,535 contacts in fiscal year 2017 to 2018 to 3,049 contacts in fiscal year 2019 to 2020, dropping slightly to 2,612 contacts in fiscal year 2020 to 2021, before increasing again to 3,409 contacts in fiscal year 2021 to 2022. Full data are available immediately below.

Source: Correctional Service of Canada.

Figure F1 Notes
The Canadian Victims Bill of Rights defines a victim as any individual who has suffered physical or emotional harm, property damage, or economic loss as the result of the commission of an offence. The law also allows a spouse, a relative or dependant, an individual who is responsible for the care or support of the victim or the care or support of a dependant of the victim, to act on behalf of a victim, if the victim cannot act on their own behalf. Victims include persons harmed by the offender regardless of whether the offender has been prosecuted or not, as long as an official complaint has been made to the police or to the Crown.

Victims do not automatically receive information about the offender who harmed them. If they have been harmed by an offender serving a sentence of 2 years or more, victims must register with the Correctional Service of Canada (CSC) or the Parole Board of Canada to receive information or access services. Registration allows CSC to verify that the individual meets the definition of victim, which is required by law before sharing protected offender information. https://www.csc-scc.gc.ca/victims/003006-7001-en.shtml

Contacts to share offender information include those where the CSC Victim Services Unit communicates offender information to victims. This might include information such as temporary absences, transfers, travel permits, conditional release, and sentencing information. Contacts for administrative reasons include tasks such as updating contact information, discussing the Restorative Opportunities program, and referrals to provincial or community stakeholders.

Activity types that are used to document either a contact with a victim or an internal administrative task are excluded from the numbers above.

Note that due to an oversight, some contacts were incorrectly reported in the previous CCRSO. The error has been corrected in this version, and the new figures are more representative of the true number of contacts.

Reported data is current up to the end of each fiscal year. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

Table F1 Number of contacts with registered victims
2017-18 2018-19 2019-20 2020-21 2021-22
Total contacts to share offender information 44,039 44,494 47,659 34,091 36,442
Total contacts for administrative purposes 1,535 2,535 3,049 2,612 3,409
Total contacts 45,574 47,029 50,708 36,703 39,851

Source: Correctional Service of Canada.

Table F1 Notes
The Canadian Victims Bill of Rights defines a victim as any individual who has suffered physical or emotional harm, property damage, or economic loss as the result of the commission of an offence. The law also allows a spouse, a relative or dependant, an individual who is responsible for the care or support of the victim or the care or support of a dependant of the victim, to act on behalf of a victim, if the victim cannot act on their own behalf. Victims include persons harmed by the offender regardless of whether the offender has been prosecuted or not, as long as an official complaint has been made to the police or to the Crown.

Victims do not automatically receive information about the offender who harmed them. If they have been harmed by an offender serving a sentence of 2 years or more, victims must register with the Correctional Service of Canada (CSC) or the Parole Board of Canada to receive information or access services. Registration allows CSC to verify that the individual meets the definition of victim, which is required by law before sharing protected offender information. https://www.csc-scc.gc.ca/victims/003006-7001-en.shtml

Contacts to share offender information include those where the CSC Victim Services Unit communicates offender information to victims. This might include information such as temporary absences, transfers, travel permits, conditional release, and sentencing information. Contacts for administrative reasons include tasks such as updating contact information, discussing the Restorative Opportunities program, and referrals to provincial or community stakeholders.

Activity types that are used to document either a contact with a victim or an internal administrative task are excluded from the numbers above.

Note that due to an oversight, some contacts were incorrectly reported in the previous CCRSO. The error has been corrected in this version, and the new figures are more representative of the true number of contacts.

Reported data is current up to the end of each fiscal year. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

Number of victim statements received for consideration in release decisions: 5-year trend

Figure F2 Number of victim statements received for consideration in release decisions
Figure F2
Image description

Line graph showing the number of victim statements received for consideration in release decisions, over a five year period, from fiscal year 2017 to 2018 to fiscal year 2021 to 2022. 1,520 victim statements were received in fiscal year 2017 to 2018, dropping slightly to 1,397 victim statements in fiscal year 2018 to 2019, then rising to 1,556 statements in fiscal year 2019 to 2020, and dropping gradually to 1,412 victim statements in fiscal year 2021 to 2022. Full data are available immediately below.

Source: Correctional Service of Canada.

Figure F2 Notes
The Canadian Victims Bill of Rights defines a victim as any individual who has suffered physical or emotional harm, property damage, or economic loss as the result of the commission of an offence. The law also allows a spouse, a relative or dependant, an individual who is responsible for the care or support of the victim or the care or support of a dependant of the victim, to act on behalf of a victim, if the victim cannot act on their own behalf. Victims include persons harmed by the offender regardless of whether the offender has been prosecuted or not, as long as an official complaint has been made to the police or to the Crown.

CSC will consider statements from victims who choose not to register.

Not all statements received will be considered when release decisions are made; victims may choose to withdraw their statement before it is considered. In previous years, these withdrawn statements were included in the reported totals, but they have been excluded from the totals above given they are withdrawn before being considered.

Reported data is current up to the end of each fiscal year. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

Table F2 Number of victim statements received for consideration in release decisions
Fiscal year #
2017-18 1,520
2018-19 1,397
2019-20 1,556
2020-21 1,535
2021-22 1,412

Source: Correctional Service of Canada.

Table F2 Notes
The Canadian Victims Bill of Rights defines a victim as any individual who has suffered physical or emotional harm, property damage, or economic loss as the result of the commission of an offence. The law also allows a spouse, a relative or dependant, an individual who is responsible for the care or support of the victim or the care or support of a dependant of the victim, to act on behalf of a victim, if the victim cannot act on their own behalf. Victims include persons harmed by the offender regardless of whether the offender has been prosecuted or not, as long as an official complaint has been made to the police or to the Crown.

CSC will consider statements from victims who choose not to register.

Not all statements received will be considered when release decisions are made; victims may choose to withdraw their statement before it is considered. In previous years, these withdrawn statements were included in the reported totals, but they have been excluded from the totals above given they are withdrawn before being considered.

Reported data is current up to the end of each fiscal year. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

Requests for financial assistance to attend parole hearings: 5-year trend

Figure F3 Number of requests for financial assistance to attend parole hearings
Figure F3
Image description

Line graph of the number of requests for financial assistance to attend parole hearings between fiscal year 2017 to 2018 and fiscal year 2021 to 2022. The trend lines for the number of total applications and applications for victims follow a similar pattern because there are about three or four times more applications from victims as there are applications for support persons. The total number of applications fall from 539 applications in fiscal year 2017 to 2018 to 490 applications in fiscal year 2018 to 2019, then rising to 613 applications in fiscal year 2019 to 2020, before dropping dramatically in the following fiscal years to the lowest point of 7 applications in fiscal year 2021 to 2022.

The number of applications from victims falls from 397 in fiscal year 2017 to 2018 to 361 applications in 2018 to 2019, then rises to 456 requests in fiscal year 2019 to 2020, before dropping dramatically in the following fiscal years to the lowest point of 7 applications in fiscal year 2021 to 2022. In comparison, applications for support persons remained relatively stable, fluctuating between 129 applications and 157 applications from fiscal year 2017 to 2018 until fiscal year 2019 to 2020, after which point there is a dramatic drop to 2 applications in fiscal year 2020 to 2021 and 0 applications in the fiscal year 2021 to 2022. Full data are available immediately below.

Source: Justice Canada.

Figure F3 Notes
Victims can apply for financial assistance for a support person to accompany them to a parole hearing.

Reported year periods reflect fiscal years. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

Table F3 Number of requests for financial assistance to attend parole hearings
2017-18 2018-19 2019-20 2020-21 2021-22
Number of applications for financial assistance received from victims 397 361 456 29 7
Number of applications for financial assistance received from support persons 142 129 157 2 0

Total number of applications

539 490 613 31 7

Source: Justice Canada.

Table F3 Notes
Victims can apply for financial assistance for a support person to accompany them to a parole hearing.

Reported year periods reflect fiscal years. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

Number of Parole Board of Canada contacts with victims: 10-year trend

Figure F4 Number of PBC contacts with victims
Figure F4
Image description

Line graph of the number of victims that are formally contacted by the Parole Board of Canada, between fiscal year 2012 to 2013 and fiscal year 2021 to 2022. Between fiscal year 2012 to 2013 and 2013 to 2014, the number of contacts was relatively stable at around 22,500 contacts with victims. The number of contacts then rose from this level to crest at around 32,000 contacts between fiscal year 2016 to 2017 and fiscal year 2019 to 2020. In fiscal year 2021 to 2022 the number of contacts drops to 18,839 contacts with victims a year. Full data are available immediately below.

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Figure F4 Notes
The dotted line between 2019-20 and 2021-22 is intended to signify that the data for 2020-21 are not available as the Parole Board of Canada (PBC) transitioned from manual data collection to using an automated system, Victims Application Module, during this timeframe. The reduction in PBC contacts with victims between 2019-20 and 2021-22 is also the result of this transition to an automated system. A victim contact refers to each time the PBC has contact with a victim by mail, fax, telephone, in person, or through the Victims Portal.

Reported year periods reflect fiscal years. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

Table F4 Number of PBC contacts with victims
Fiscal yearFootnote * Number of contacts
2012-13 22,475
2013-14 22,323
2014-15 27,191
2015-16 29,771
2016-17 32,786
2017-18 33,370
2018-19 33,408
2019-20 31,587
2020-21

NA

2021-22 18,859

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Victim presentations at PBC Hearings: 10-year trend

Figure F5 Number of victim presentations and number of hearings with victim presentations
Figure F5
Image description

Line graph showing the number of victim presentations and the number of hearings with victim presentations, between fiscal year 2012 to 2013 and fiscal year 2021 to 2022. The two lines follow roughly the same trend, with victim presentations averaging around 100 counts higher than hearings with victim presentations. Victim presentations increase slightly from 254 victim presentations in fiscal year 2012 to 2013 to 264 victim presentations in fiscal year 2013 to 2014, followed by a drop to 231 victim presentations in fiscal year 2014 to 2015, after which point it gradually increases to 321 presentations in fiscal year 2017 to 2018. Victim presentations hover around 300 until the last year of available data, in fiscal year 2021 to 2022. Meanwhile, hearings with victims presentations saw a gradual increase – with slight fluctuations – from 140 hearings in fiscal year 2012 to 2013 to 205 hearings in fiscal year 2019 to 2020, before dropping to 166 hearings in fiscal year 2021 to 2022. Full data are available immediately below.

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Figure F5 Notes
Reported year periods reflect fiscal years. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

Table F5 Number of victim presentations and number of hearings with victim presentations
Fiscal year Number of hearings with presentations Number of presentations
2012-13 140 254
2013-14 142 264
2014-15 128 231
2015-16 171 244
2016-17 149 244
2017-18 181 328
2018-19 167 288
2019-20 205 319
2020-21 174 301
2021-22 166 288

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Table F5 Notes
Reported year periods reflect fiscal years. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

Number of requests made by victims to access the PBC decision registry: 10-year trend

Figure F6 Total number of requests to access the decision registry vs. number of requests made by victims to access the decision registryFootnote *
Figure F6
Image description

Line graph of the number of requests to access the decision registry and the number of requests made by victims to access the decision registry, between fiscal year 2010 to 2011 and fiscal year 2019 to 2020. The lines for total requests and requests made by victims follow a similar trend, with total requests averaging around 3,000 requests more. Total requests dropped briefly from 5,550 requests in fiscal year 2010 to 2011 to 5,252 requests in fiscal year 2011 to 2012, after which point there was an increase year-over-year until fiscal year 2015 to 2016 where it reached a peak of 7,276 requests. The number of total requests then declined drastically in fiscal year 2016 to 2017 to 4,502 requests and remained relatively stable until an uptick to 6,713 requests in fiscal year 2019 to 2020. Requests made by victims went from 2,914 requests in fiscal year 2010 to 2011 to a peak of 4,436 requests in fiscal year 2015 to 2016, then dropping to an all time low of 2,169 requests in fiscal year 2016 to 2017, after which point the number of requests made by victims rises gradually to 3,649 requests fiscal year 2019 to 2020. Full data are available immediately below.

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Table F6 Total number of requests to access the decision registry vs. number of requests made by victims to access the decision registryFootnote *
Fiscal year Requests made by victims Total number of requests
# %
2010-11 2,914 52.5 5,550
2011-12 2,970 56.5 5,252
2012-13 3,214 55.0 5,848
2013-14 3,474 55.1 6,309
2014-15 3,608 54.3 6,640
2015-16 4,436 61.0 7,276
2016-17 2,169 48.2 4,502
2017-18 2,227 49.9 4,467
2018-19 2,601 52.4 4,967
2019-20 3,649 54.4 6,713

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Number of decisions sent from PBC decision registry

Figure F7 Total number of decisions sent from the registry vs. number of decisions sent to victims from the registryFootnote *
Figure F7
Image description

Line graph describing the total number of decisions sent from Line graph showing the total number of decisions sent from the Parole Board of Canada decision registry and the number of decisions sent to victims, between fiscal year 2019 to 2020 and fiscal year 2021 to 2022. The total number of decisions increases from 5,973 decisions in fiscal year 2019 to 2020 to a peak of 6,901 decisions in fiscal year 2020 to 2021, before dropping slightly to 6,694 decisions in fiscal year 2021 to 2022. Decisions sent to victims increased from 2,831 decisions in fiscal year 2019 to 2020 to 3,088 decisions in fiscal year 2020 to 2021, before dropping slightly to 3,027 decisions in fiscal year 2021 to 2022. Full data are available immediately below.

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Table F7 Total number of decisions sent from the registry vs. number of decisions sent to victims from the registryFootnote *
Fiscal year Decisions sent to victims Total number of decisions sent
# %
2019-20 2,831 47.4 5,973
2020-21 3,088 44.7 6,901
2021-22 3,027 45.2 6,694

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

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