2019 Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview

PDF (5.4 MB)

Date: September 2020

© Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, 2020
Cat. No.: PSI-3E-PDF
ISSN: 1713-1073

Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview 2019

This document was produced by the Public Safety Canada Portfolio Corrections Statistics Committee which is composed of representatives of Public Safety Canada, Correctional Service Canada, Parole Board of Canada, the Office of the Correctional Investigator and the Canadian Centre for Justice and Community Safety Statistics (Statistics Canada).

Table of contents

Preface

This document provides a statistical overview of corrections and conditional release within a context of trends in crime and criminal justice. A primary consideration in producing this overview was to present general statistical information in a "user friendly" way that will facilitate understanding by a broad audience. Accordingly, there are several features of this document that make it different from typical statistical reports.

The Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview (CCRSO) has been published annually since 1998. Readers are advised that in some instances figures have been revised from earlier publications. Also, the total number of offenders will vary slightly depending on the characteristics of the data set.

Regarding police crime data from Statistics Canada, until the late 1980s, the Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) survey provided aggregate counts of the number of incidents reported to police and the number of persons charged by type of offence. With the advent of microdata reporting, the UCR has become an "incident-based" survey (UCR2), collecting in-depth information about each criminal incident. The update to this new survey, as well as revisions to the definitions of violent crime, property crime, and other Criminal Code offences has resulted in data only being available from 1998 to the present. It is worth noting that the Total Crime Rates presented in the CCRSO differ from those reported by Statistics Canada in their publications. The Total Crime Rates reported in the CCRSO include offences (i.e., traffic offences in the Canadian Criminal Code and violations of federal statutes) that are excluded in the rates published by Statistics Canada.

The CCRSO serves as a useful source of statistical information on corrections and conditional release which assists the public in gaining a better understanding of these important components of the criminal justice system. The format of this document has been updated to optimize the user experience by implementing industry-standard data visualization techniques to improve accessibility and usability. For more information, see the Standard on Web Accessibility and the Standard on Web Usability.

To continually improve this annual publication, we welcome your comments by email at: PS.CSCCBResearch-RechercheSSCRC.SP@canada.ca

Contributing Partners

Public Safety Canada

Public Safety Canada is Canada's lead federal department for public safety, which includes emergency management, national security and community safety. Its many responsibilities include developing legislation and policies that govern corrections, implementing innovative approaches to community justice, and providing research expertise and resources to the corrections community.

Correctional Service Canada

The Correctional Service of Canada (CSC) is the federal government agency responsible for administering sentences of a term of two years or more, as imposed by the courts. CSC is responsible for managing institutions of various security levels and supervising offenders under conditional release in the community.

Parole Board of Canada

The Parole Board of Canada is an independent administrative tribunal responsible for making decisions about the timing and conditions of release of offenders into the community on various forms of conditional release. The Board also makes pardon, record suspension and expungement decisions and recommendations respecting clemency through the Royal Prerogative of Mercy.

Office of the Correctional Investigator

The Office of the Correctional Investigator is an ombudsman for federal offenders. It conducts investigations into the problems of offenders related to decisions, recommendations, acts or omissions of the Correctional Service of Canada that affect offenders individually or as a group.

Canadian Centre for Justice and Community Safety Statistics (Statistics Canada)

The Canadian Centre for Justice and Community Safety Statistics (CCJCSS) is a division of Statistics Canada. The CCJCSS is the focal point of a federal-provincial-territorial partnership, known as the National Justice Statistics Initiative, for the collection of information on the nature and extent of crime and the administration of civil and criminal justice in Canada.


Section A. Context – Crime and the Criminal Justice System

Police-reported crime rate has declined

Figure A1

Rate per 100,000 population

Source: Table 35-10-0177-01, Uniform Crime Reporting Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice and Community Safety Statistics, Statistics Canada.

  • The overall crime rate has decreased 15.9% since 2009, from 7,281 per 100,000 to 6,123 in 2018.
  • Over the same period, there was a 19.0% decrease in the property crime rate, from 4,122 per 100,000 to 3,339 in 2018. The crime rate for drug offences has decreased 22.7% since 2009, from 291 per 100,000 population to 225.
  • Since 2009, The rate of violent crime has decreased 13.5%, from 1,322 per 100,000 to 1,144 per 100,000 in 2018.
  • In general, the crime rates for traffic offences and other Criminal Code offences* have fluctuated since 2009.

Notes:

*"Other Criminal Code offences" includes administration of justice violations, weapons/firearms violations, counterfeit, possession of, accessing, making or distribution of child pornography and prostitution.

Unlike Statistics Canada, the Total Crime Rate in the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview includes traffic offences and violations of federal statutes to provide a measure of all criminal offences. As a result, the Total Crime Rate reported here is higher than that reported by Statistics Canada.

The definitions for Violent, Property and Other Criminal Code offences have been revised by Statistics Canada to better reflect definitions used by the policing community. As a result of these changes, comparable data are only available starting in 1998 and the data presented in this year's report are not comparable to the data reported in previous versions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview.

These crime statistics are based on crimes that are reported to the police. Since not all crimes are reported to the police, these figures underestimate actual crime. See Figure F1 for rates based on victimization surveys (drawn from the General Social Survey), an alternative method of measuriTableau E2ng crime.

Table A1: Police-reported crime rate has declined
(Rate per 100,000 population)

Type of Offence

Year

Violent

Property

Traffic

Other CCC*

Drugs

Other Fed. Statutes

Total Charged

1998

1,345

5,696

469

1,051

235

40

8,836

1999

1,440

5,345

388

910

264

44

8,391

2000

1,494

5,189

370

924

287

43

8,307

2001

1,473

5,124

393

989

288

62

8,329

2002

1,441

5,080

379

991

296

54

8,241

2003

1,435

5,299

373

1,037

274

46

8,464

2004

1,404

5,123

379

1,072

305

50

8,333

2005

1,389

4,884

378

1,052

290

60

8,053

2006

1,387

4,809

376

1,050

295

57

7,974

2007

1,354

4,525

402

1,029

308

59

7,677

2008

1,334

4,258

437

1,039

308

67

7,443

2009

1,322

4,122

435

1,017

291

57

7,244

2010

1,292

3,838

420

1,029

321

61

6,961

2011

1,236

3,536

424

1,008

330

60

6,594

2012

1,199

3,438

407

1,000

317

67

6,428

2013

1,096

3,154

386

956

310

52

5,954

2014

1,044

3,099

365

918

295

49

5,770

2015

1,070

3,231

353

930

280

51

5,915

2016

1,076

3,239

346

982

267

59

5,969

2017

1,113

3,266

343

997

254

69

6,042

2018

1,144

3,339

339

1,006

225

57

6,110

Source: Table 35-10-0177-01, Uniform Crime Reporting Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice and Community Safety Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Notes:

*"Other Criminal Code offences" (Other CCC) includes administration of justice violations, weapons/firearms violations, counterfeit, possession of, accessing, making or distribution of child pornography and prostitution.

Unlike Statistics Canada, the Total Crime Rate in the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview includes traffic offences and violations of federal statutes to provide a measure of all criminal offences. As a result, the Total Crime Rate reported here is higher than that reported by Statistics Canada.

The definitions for Violent, Property, Other Criminal Code offences, and Total Other Federal Statutes have been revised by Statistics Canada to better reflect definitions used by the policing community. As a result of these changes, comparable data are only available starting in 1998 and the data presented in this year's report are not comparable to the data reported in previous versions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview.

Rates are based on incidents reported per 100,000 population.

Crime rates are higher in the West and highest in the North

Figure A2

Crime rate per 100,000 population (2018)

Source: Table 35-10-0177-01, Uniform Crime Reporting Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice and Community Safety Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Notes:

Rates are based on 100,000 population.

Unlike Statistics Canada, the Crime Rate in the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview includes traffic offences and violations of federal statutes to provide a measure of all criminal offences. As a result, the Crime Rate reported here is higher than that reported by Statistics Canada. In addition, the definitions for Violent, Property and Other Criminal Code offences have been revised by Statistics Canada to better reflect definitions used by the policing community. As a result of these changes, comparable data are only available starting in 1998 and the data presented in this year's report are not comparable to the data reported in previous versions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview.

Table A2: Crime rates are higher in the West and highest in the North
(Crime rate per 100,000 population (2018))

Crime Rate*

Province/Territory

2014

2015

2016

2017

2018

Newfoundland & Labrador

6,218

6,371

6,501

6,038

6,076

Prince Edward Island

5,364

4,750

5,013

4,708

5,363

Nova Scotia

6,253

5,727

5,590

5,728

5,663

New Brunswick

5,044

5,479

5,276

5,752

5,904

Quebec

4,349

4,252

4,233

4,332

4,169

Ontario

4,021

4,022

4,091

4,259

4,487

Manitoba

8,412

8,926

9,508

9,754

9,983

Saskatchewan

12,222

12,919

13,511

12,978

12,607

Alberta

8,034

8,917

9,026

9,329

9,308

British Columbia

8,492

8,608

8,489

8,102

8,210

Yukon Territories

26,203

25,795

23,543

22,214

21,628

Northwest Territories

46,659

47,230

43,320

44,492

45,695

Nunavut

32,715

34,483

35,935

36,906

39,637

Canada

5,793

5,934

5,987

6,057

6,123

Source: Table 35-10-0177-01, Uniform Crime Reporting Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice and Community Safety Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Notes:

*Rates are based on 100,000 population.

Unlike Statistics Canada, the Crime Rate in the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview includes traffic offences and violations of federal statutes to provide a measure of all criminal offences. As a result, the Crime Rate reported here is higher than that reported by Statistics Canada. In addition, the definitions for Violent, Property and Other Criminal Code offences have been revised by Statistics Canada to better reflect definitions used by the policing community. As a result of these changes, comparable data are only available starting in 1998 and the data presented in this year's report are not comparable to the data reported in previous versions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview.

Canada has a below average incarceration rate across Western European countries

Figure A3

Prison population per 100,000 (2019)

Source: World Prison Population List online (retrieved February 20, 2020 at www.prisonstudies.org/highest-to-lowest/prison-population-total).

Notes:

The incarceration rate, in this figure, is a measure of the number of people (i.e., adults and youth) in custody per 100,000 people in the general population. Incarceration rates from the World Prison Population List are based on the most recently available data at the time the list was compiled. The data was retrieved online on February 20, 2020 from http://www.prisonstudies.org which contains the most up-to-date information available. These data reflect incarceration rates based on the country's population. Additionally, different practices and variations in measurement in different countries limit the comparability of these figures.

Table A3*: Canada has a below average incarceration rate across Western European countries
(Prison population rate per 100,000)

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

2016

2017

2018

2019

United States

743

730

716

707

698

693

666

655

655

New Zealand

199

194

192

190

190

203

214

214

201

England & Wales

155

154

148

149

148

147

146

140

140

Scotland

155

151

147

144

144

142

138

143

149

Australia

133

129

130

143

151

152

168

172

170

Canada

117

114

118

118

106

114

114

114

107

Italy

110

109

106

88

86

90

95

98

101

Austria

104

104

98

99

95

93

94

98

98

France

102

102

101

102

100

103

103

100

105

Germany

87

83

79

81

78

78

77

75

77

Switzerland

79

76

82

87

84

83

82

81

81

Sweden

78

70

67

57

60

53

57

59

61

Denmark

74

74

73

67

61

58

59

63

63

Norway

73

73

72

75

71

74

74

63

60

Finland

59

59

58

55

57

55

57

51

53

Source: World Prison Population List online (retrieved February 20, 2020 at www.prisonstudies.org/highest-to-lowest/prison-population-total).

Notes:

Incarceration rates from the World Prison Population List are based on the most recently available data at the time the list was compiled. For 2019, the data was retrieved online on February 20, 2020 at www.prisonstudies.org which contains the most up to date information available. Additionally, different practices and variations in measurement in different countries limit the comparability of these figures. Rates are based on 100,000 population.

*Table A3 and A4 display the same data.

Canada's incarceration rate has declined

Figure A4

Prison population rate per 100,000

Source: World Prison Population List online (retrieved February 20, 2020 at www.prisonstudies.org/highest-to-lowest/prison-population-total).

Notes:

The incarceration rate, in this figure, is a measure of the number of people (i.e., adults and youth) in custody per 100,000 people in the general population. Incarceration rates from the World Prison Population List are based on the most recently available data at the time the list was compiled. The data was retrieved online on February 20, 2020 from http://www.prisonstudies.org which contains the most up-to-date information available. These data reflect incarceration rates based on the country's population. Additionally, different practices and variations in measurement in different countries limit the comparability of these figures. 

Table A4*: Canada's incarceration rate has declined
(Prison population rate per 100,000)

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

2016

2017

2018

2019

United States

743

730

716

707

698

693

666

655

655

New Zealand

199

194

192

190

190

203

214

214

201

England & Wales

155

154

148

149

148

147

146

140

140

Scotland

155

151

147

144

144

142

138

143

149

Australia

133

129

130

143

151

152

168

172

170

Canada

117

114

118

118

106

114

114

114

107

Italy

110

109

106

88

86

90

95

98

101

Austria

104

104

98

99

95

93

94

98

98

France

102

102

101

102

100

103

103

100

105

Germany

87

83

79

81

78

78

77

75

77

Switzerland

79

76

82

87

84

83

82

81

81

Sweden

78

70

67

57

60

53

57

59

61

Denmark

74

74

73

67

61

58

59

63

63

Norway

73

73

72

75

71

74

74

63

60

Finland

59

59

58

55

57

55

57

51

53

Source: World Prison Population List online (retrieved February 20, 2020 at www.prisonstudies.org/highest-to-lowest/prison-population-total).

Notes:

Incarceration rates from the World Prison Population List are based on the most recently available data at the time the list was compiled. For 2019, the data was retrieved online on February 20, 2020 at www.prisonstudies.org which contains the most up to date information available. Additionally, different practices and variations in measurement in different countries limit the comparability of these figures. Rates are based on 100,000 population.

*Table A3 and A4 display the same data.

The rate of adults charged has declined

Figure A5

Rate per 100,000 adult population

Source: Table 35-10-0177-01, Uniform Crime Reporting Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice and Community Safety Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Notes:

*"Other Criminal Code offences" includes administration of justice violations, weapons/firearms violations, counterfeit, possession of, accessing, making or distribution of child pornography and prostitution.

Unlike Statistics Canada, the Total Crime Rate in the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview includes traffic offences and violations of federal statutes to provide a measure of all criminal offences. As a result, the Total Crime Rate reported here is higher than that reported by Statistics Canada.

The definitions for Violent, Property and Other Criminal Code offences have been revised by Statistics Canada to better reflect definitions used by the policing community. As a result of these changes, comparable data are only available starting in 1998 and the data presented in this year's report are not comparable to the data reported in previous versions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview.

Violent crimes include homicide, attempted murder, assault, sexual offences, abduction, extortion, robbery, firearms, and other violent offences such as uttering threats and criminal harassment.

Property crimes include break and enter, motor vehicle thefts, other thefts, possession of stolen property, fraud, mischief and arson.

Table A5: The rate of adults charged has declined
(Rate per 100,000 adult population)

Type of Offence

Year

Violent

Property

Traffic

Other CCC*

Drugs

Total Other Fed. Stat.

Total Charged

1998

563

677

374

430

168

12

2,224

1999

590

632

371

396

185

18

2,192

2000

615

591

349

411

198

16

2,180

2001

641

584

349

451

202

18

2,245

2002

617

569

336

460

199

18

2,199

2003

598

573

326

476

172

15

2,160

2004

584

573

314

490

187

22

2,170

2005

589

550

299

479

185

22

2,124

2006

594

533

300

498

198

20

2,143

2007

577

499

298

521

208

20

2,123

2008

576

487

307

540

207

22

2,139

2009

585

490

311

532

201

20

2,139

2010

576

473

295

545

211

22

2,122

2011

548

441

271

527

213

23

2,023

2012

541

434

269

536

203

25

2,008

2013

505

417

242

519

200

18

1,901

2014

489

399

233

520

191

13

1,845

2015

501

403

230

535

182

15

1,866

2016

511

381

222

609

171

18

1,912

2017

515

375

208

635

157

12

1,902

2018

523

385

203

661

138

13

1,923

Source: Table 35-10-0177-01, Uniform Crime Reporting Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice and Community Safety Statistics, Statistics Canada

Notes:

*"Other Criminal Code offences" (Other CCC) includes administration of justice offences, counterfeit, weapons/firearms violations, possession of, accessing, making or distribution of child pornography and prostitution.

Unlike Statistics Canada, the Total Crime Rate in the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview includes traffic offences and violations of federal statutes to provide a measure of all criminal offences. As a result, the Total Crime Rate reported here is higher than that reported by Statistics Canada.

The definitions for Violent, Property, Other Criminal Code offences, and Total Other Federal Statutes have been revised by Statistics Canada to better reflect definitions used by the policing community. As a result of these changes, comparable data are only available starting in 1998 and the data presented in this year's report are not comparable to the data reported in previous versions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview.

Rates are based on 100,000 population, 18 years of age and older. Due to rounding, rates may not add up to totals.

Violent crimes include homicide, attempted murder, assault, sexual offences, abduction, extortion, robbery, firearms, and other violent offences such as uttering threats and criminal harassment.

Property crimes include break and enter, motor vehicle theft, other theft, possession of stolen property, fraud, mischief and arson.

Impaired Driving, Common Assault and Theft are the three most frequent cases in adult courts

Figure A6

Percentage of Criminal Code and Other Federal Statute Charges (2017-18)

Source: Table 35-10-0027-01, Integrated Criminal Court Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice and Community Safety Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Notes:

The concept of a case has changed to more closely reflect court processing. Statistics from the Integrated Criminal Court Survey used in this report should not be compared to editions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview prior to 2007. A case is one or more charges against an accused person or corporation, processed by the courts at the same time, and where all of the charges in the case received a final disposition. Where a case has more than one charge, it is necessary to select a charge to represent the case. An offence is selected by applying two rules. First, the "most serious decision" rule is applied. In cases where two or more offences have the same decision, the "most serious offence" rule is applied. All charges are ranked according to an offence seriousness scale. Superior Court data are not reported to the Integrated Criminal Court Survey for Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba and Saskatchewan. In addition, information from Quebec's municipal courts is not collected.

The Canadian Centre for Justice and Community Safety Statistics continues to make updates to the offence library used to classify offence data sent by the provinces and territories. These improvements have resulted in minor changes in the counts of charges and cases as well as the distributions by type of offence. Data presented have been revised to account for these updates.

Due to rounding, percentages may not add up to 100 percent.

Table A6: Impaired Driving, Common Assault and Theft are the three most frequent cases in adult courts

Type of Charge

Criminal Code and Other Federal Statute Charges

2015-16

2016-17

2017-18

#

%

#

%

#

%

Crimes Against the Person

80,824

23.56

85,112

23.96

87,691

25.51

Homicide and Related

259

0.08

364

0.10

358

0.10

Attempted Murder

206

0.06

203

0.06

184

0.05

Robbery

3,358

0.98

3,576

1.01

3,436

1.00

Sexual Assault

2,844

0.83

3,109

0.88

3,201

0.93

Other Sexual Offences

3,695

1.08

3,950

1.11

4,253

1.24

Major Assault (Levels 2 & 3)

18,900

5.51

20,201

5.69

20,433

5.94

Common Assault (Level 1)

30,494

8.89

31,647

8.91

34,660

10.08

Uttering Threats

14,879

4.34

15,261

4.30

13,715

3.99

Criminal Harassment

3,345

0.98

3,538

1.00

3,681

1.07

Other Crimes Against Persons

2,844

0.83

3,263

0.92

3,770

1.10

Crimes Against Property

81,187

23.67

85,467

24.06

81,476

23.70

Theft

35,197

10.26

36,138

10.18

32,400

9.43

Break and Enter

9,325

2.72

9,968

2.81

9,529

2.77

Fraud

11,476

3.35

12,728

3.58

12,407

3.61

Mischief

12,411

3.62

12,955

3.65

13,024

3.79

Possession of Stolen Property

10,929

3.19

11,646

3.28

11,799

3.43

Other Property Crimes

1,849

0.54

2,032

0.57

2,317

0.67

Administration of Justice

78,195

22.79

80,940

22.79

72,849

21.19

Fail to Appear

4,113

1.20

4,442

1.25

4,037

1.17

Breach of Probation

30,396

8.86

30,955

8.72

28,726

8.36

Unlawfully at Large

2,591

0.76

2,693

0.76

2,853

0.83

Fail to Comply with Order

33,290

9.70

34,632

9.75

29,676

8.63

Other Admin. Justice

7,805

2.28

8,218

2.31

7,557

2.20

Other Criminal Code

18,552

5.41

20,447

5.76

23,022

6.70

Weapons

10,340

3.01

10,958

3.09

11,066

3.22

Prostitution

172

0.05

402

0.11

49

0.01

Disturbing the Peace

1,054

0.31

938

0.26

729

0.21

Residual Criminal Code

6,986

2.04

8,149

2.29

11,178

3.25

Criminal Code Traffic

46,086

13.43

45,833

12.90

43,730

12.72

Impaired Driving

36,308

10.58

35,993

10.13

34,633

10.08

Other CC Traffic

9,778

2.85

9,840

2.77

9,097

2.65

Other Federal Statutes

38,214

11.14

37,360

10.52

34,946

10.17

Drug Possession

12,517

3.65

10,675

3.01

8,496

2.47

Other Drug Offences

8,550

2.49

8,506

2.39

7,903

2.30

Residual Federal Statutes

17,147

5.00

18,179

5.12

18,547

5.40

Total Charges

343,058

100.00

355,159

100.00

343,714

100.00

Source: Table 35-10-0027-01, Integrated Criminal Court Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice and Community Safety Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Notes:

The concept of a case has changed to more closely reflect court processing. Statistics from the Integrated Criminal Court Survey used in this report should not be compared to editions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview prior to 2007. Superior Court data are not reported to the Integrated Criminal Court Survey for Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba and Saskatchewan. In addition, information from Quebec's municipal courts is not collected. The Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics continues to make updates to the offence library used to classify offence data sent by the provinces and territories. These improvements have resulted in minor changes in the counts of charges and cases as well as the distributions by type of offence. Data presented have been revised to account for these updates. Due to rounding, percentages may not add up to 100 percent.

Most adult custodial sentences ordered by the court are short

Figure A7

Length of prison sentence (2017-18)

Source: Table 35-10-0032-01, Integrated Criminal Court Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice and Community Safety Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Notes:

*The decision type "guilty" includes guilty of the offence, of an included offence, of an attempt of the offence, or of an attempt of an included offence. This category also includes cases where an absolute or conditional discharge has been imposed.

The concept of a case has changed to more closely reflect court processing. Statistics from the Integrated Criminal Court Survey used in this report should not be compared to editions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview prior to 2007.

Excludes cases where length of prison sentence and/or sex was not known, data for Manitoba as information on sentence length was not available.

Superior Court data are not reported to the Integrated Criminal Court Survey for Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba and Saskatchewan. In addition, information from Quebec's municipal courts is not collected.

The Canadian Centre for Justice and Community Safety Statistics continues to make updates to the offence library used to classify offence data sent by the provinces and territories. These improvements have resulted in minor changes in the counts of charges and cases as well as the distributions by type of offence. Data presented have been revised to account for these updates.

Due to rounding, totals may not add up to 100 percent.

Table A7: Most adult custodial sentences ordered by the court are short

Length of Prison Sentence

2013-14

2014-15

2015-16

2016-17

2017-18

%

%

%

%

%

1 Month or Less

Women

63.1

62.7

64.4

63.7

63.0

Men

50.1

51.2

51.9

52.0

50.5

Total

47.7

48.6

49.4

49.4

48.0

More Than 1 Month up to 6 Months

Women

24.5

23.6

22.8

22.0

22.0

Men

32.2

31.1

30.4

29.9

30.1

Total

29.2

28.4

27.7

27.2

27.2

More Than 6 Months up to 12 Months

Women

3.9

3.7

3.3

3.3

3.6

Men

6.0

5.9

5.5

5.2

5.4

Total

5.5

5.4

5.0

4.7

4.9

More Than 1 Year up to Less Than 2 Years

Women

2.1

2.0

1.7

1.7

1.7

Men

3.7

3.3

3.3

3.0

3.1

Total

3.4

3.0

3.0

2.8

2.8

2 Years or More

Women

2.1

2.0

2.2

2.1

1.8

Men

3.9

3.5

3.6

3.4

3.6

Total

3.4

3.1

3.2

3.0

3.1

Source: Table 35-10-0032-01, Integrated Criminal Court Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice and Community Safety Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Notes:

Total includes the following categories: Males, Females, Company, and Sex Unknown.

The concept of a case has changed to more closely reflect court processing. Statistics from the Integrated Criminal Court Survey used in this report should not be compared to editions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview prior to 2007.

Excludes cases where length of prison sentence and/or sex was not known, data for Manitoba as information on both sentence length was not available.

Superior Court data are not reported to the Integrated Criminal Court Survey for Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba and Saskatchewan. In addition, information from Quebec's municipal courts is not collected.

The Canadian Centre for Justice and Community Safety Statistics continues to make updates to the offence library used to classify offence data sent by the provinces and territories. These improvements have resulted in minor changes in the counts of charges and cases as well as the distributions by type of offence. Data presented have been revised to account for these updates.

Due to rounding, totals may not add up to 100 percent.

Few cases with guilty findings result in admissions to federal jurisdiction

Figure A8

Sources: 1. Table 35-10-0027-01, Integrated Criminal Court Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice and Community Safety Statistics, Statistics Canada; 2. Table 35-10-0018-01, Uniform Crime Reporting Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice and Community Safety Statistics, Statistics Canada; 3. Correctional Service of Canada.

Notes:

*2018-19 data is available for warrant of committal admissions to federal jurisdiction (CSC). In 2018-19, there were 4,749 warrant of committal admissions to a federal institution or Healing Lodge. During the preparation of this report, other sources were unable to provide 2018-19 data therefore, 2017-18 data are displayed for all sources.

**The decision type "guilty" includes guilty of the offence, of an included offence, of an attempt of the offence, or of an attempt of an included offence. This category also includes cases where an absolute or conditional discharge has been imposed.

This figure only includes cases in provincial court and partial data from Superior Court. Superior Court data are not reported to the Integrated Criminal Court

Survey for Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba and Saskatchewan. Information from Quebec's municipal courts is not collected.

The concept of a case has changed to more closely reflect court processing. Statistics from the Integrated Criminal Court Survey used in this report should not be compared to editions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview prior to 2007. A case is one or more charges against an accused person or corporation, processed by the courts at the same time, and where all of the charges in the case received a final disposition.

Court and prison data are reported on a fiscal year basis (April 1 through March 31).

There is a lag in the data entry of admissions into CSC's Offender Management System. The admission figures for the most recent year are under-reported by 200-400 at the time of our year end extraction. More accurate figures will be available in the next year's publication. Please use caution when including the most recent year in any trend analysis.

Table A8: Few cases with guilty findings result in admissions to federal jurisdiction

2014-15

2015-16

2016-17

2017-18

2018-19

Total Case Decisions* in Adult Criminal Court1

346,571

344,234

356,170

344,585

Not available***

Cases with Guilty** Findings in Adult Criminal Court1

222,064

221,848

224,410

214,540

Not available***

Total Cases without Guilty Findings in Criminal Court1

124,507

122,386

131,760

130,045

Not available***

Acquitted1

11,839

11,086

13,029

12,532

Not available***

Stayed or withdrawn1

108,562

107,036

114,554

113,469

Not available***

Other decisions1

4,106

4,264

4,177

4,044

Not available***

Sentenced Admissions to Provincial/Territorial Custody2

62,279

62,771

84,543

79,056

Not available***

Warrant of Committal-Admission to FED (CSC)3

4,817

4,890

4,907

4,872

4,749

Sources:

1Table 35-10-0027-01, Integrated Criminal Court Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice and Community Safety Statistics, Statistics Canada;

2Table 35-10-0018-01, Uniform Crime Reporting Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice and Community Safety Statistics, Statistics Canada;

3Correctional Service of Canada.

Notes:

*The concept of a case has changed to more closely reflect court processing. Statistics from the Integrated Criminal Court Survey used in this report should not be compared to editions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview prior to 2007. A case is one or more charges against an accused person or corporation, processed by the courts at the same time, and where all of the charges in the case received a final disposition.

**The decision type "guilty" includes guilty of the offence, of an included offence, of an attempt of the offence, or of an attempt of an included offence. This category also includes cases where an absolute or conditional discharge has been imposed. This figure only includes cases convicted in provincial court and partial data from Superior Court. Superior Court data are not reported to the Integrated Criminal Court Survey for Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba and Saskatchewan. Information from Quebec's municipal courts is not collected.

Police data are reported on a calendar year basis whereas court and prison data are reported on a fiscal year basis (April 1 through March 31).

***Data from 2018-19 were not yet released during the preparation of this report.

There is a lag in the data entry of admissions into CSC's Offender Management System. The admission figures for the most recent year are under-reported by 200-400 at the time of our year end extraction. More accurate figures will be available in the next year's publication. Please use caution when including the most recent year in any trend analysis.   

The rate of youth charged has declined over the past ten years

Figure A9

Rate per 100,000 youth population

Source: Table 35-10-0177-01, Uniform Crime Reporting Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice and Community Safety Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Notes:

*For criminal justice purposes, youth are defined under Canadian law as persons age 12 to 17.

**"Other Criminal Code offences" includes administration of justice violations, weapons/firearms violations, counterfeit, possession of, accessing, making or distribution of child pornography and prostitution.

Rates are based on 100,000 youth population (12 to 17 years old). Violent crimes include homicide, attempted murder, assault, sexual offences, abduction, extortion, robbery, firearms, and other violent offences such as uttering threats and criminal harassment. Property crimes include break and enter, motor vehicle theft, other theft, possession of stolen property, fraud, mischief and arson. Unlike Statistics Canada, the Total Crime Rate in the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview includes traffic offences and violations of federal statutes to provide a measure of all criminal offences. As a result, the Total Crime Rate reported here is higher than that reported by Statistics Canada. In addition, the definitions for Violent, Property and Other Criminal Code offences have been revised by Statistics Canada to better reflect definitions used by the policing community. As a result of these changes, comparable data are only available starting in 1998 and the data presented in this year's report are not comparable to the data reported in previous versions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview.

Table A9: The rate of youth charged has declined over the past ten years
(Rate per 100,000 youth population)

Type of Offence

Year

Violent

Property

Traffic**

Other CCC*

Drugs

Total Other Fed. Stat.

Total Charged

1998

994

2,500

--

870

226

4

4,594

1999

1,060

2,237

--

728

266

2

4,293

2000

1,136

2,177

--

760

317

4

4,394

2001

1,157

2,119

--

840

343

6

4,465

2002

1,102

2,009

--

793

337

6

4,247

2003

953

1,570

--

726

208

5

3,462

2004

918

1,395

--

691

230

5

3,239

2005

924

1,276

--

660

214

10

3,084

2006

917

1,216

--

680

240

16

3,069

2007

943

1,211

75

732

260

17

3,238

2008

909

1,130

74

730

267

19

3,129

2009

888

1,143

68

698

238

30

3,065

2010

860

1,035

62

669

255

31

2,912

2011

806

904

58

636

263

31

2,698

2012

765

842

58

629

240

20

2,554

2013

692

722

45

554

229

10

2,252

2014

625

625

42

526

198

6

2,022

2015

614

603

44

518

159

10

1,948

2016

634

503

40

512

135

11

1,795

2017

668

459

37

482

117

6

1,769

2018

668

407

33

425

90

5

1,628

Source: Table 35-10-0177-01, Uniform Crime Reporting Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice and Community Safety Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Notes:

*"Other Criminal Code offences" (Other CCC) includes administration of justice violations, weapons/firearms violations, counterfeit, possession of, accessing, making or distribution of child pornography and prostitution.

**Data for Youth Charged and Youth Not Charged for Impaired Driving are not available prior to 2007. As a result, comparisons to Total Charged and Other CCC (including traffic) over time should be made with caution.

Unlike Statistics Canada, the Total Crime Rate in the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview includes traffic offences and violations of federal statutes to provide a measure of all criminal offences. As a result, the Total Crime Rate reported here is higher than that reported by Statistics Canada. In addition, the definitions for Violent, Property, Other Criminal Code offences, and Total Other Federal Statutes have been revised by Statistics Canada to better reflect definitions used by the policing community. As a result of these changes, comparable data are only available starting in 1998 and the data presented in this year's report are not comparable to the data reported in previous versions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview. Violent crimes include homicide, attempted murder, assault, sexual offences, abduction, extortion, robbery, firearms, and other violent offences such as uttering threats and criminal harassment. Property crimes include break and enter, motor vehicle theft, other theft, possession of stolen property, fraud, mischief and arson.

For criminal justice purposes, youth are defined under Canadian law as persons age 12 to 17.

Rates are based on 100,000 youth population (12 to 17 years old).

The most common youth court case is common assault

Figure A10

Percentage of all Criminal Code and Other Federal Statute Charges (2017-18)

Source: Table 35-10-0038-01, Integrated Criminal Court Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice and Community Safety Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Notes:

"Administration of Justice" includes the offences failure to appear, breach of probation, and unlawfully at large.

"Youth Criminal Justice Act offences" include failure to comply with a disposition or undertaking, contempt against youth court, assisting a youth to leave a place of custody and harbouring a youth unlawfully at large. Also included are similar offences under the Young Offenders Act, which preceded the Youth Criminal Justice Act.

"Drug Offences" includes possession and other drug offences.

The concept of a case has changed to more closely reflect court processing. Statistics from the Integrated Criminal Court Survey used in this report should not be compared to editions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview prior to 2007. A case is one or more charges against an accused person or corporation, processed by the courts at the same time, and where all of the charges in the case received a final disposition. Where a case has more than one charge, it is necessary to select a charge to represent the case. An offence is selected by applying two rules. First, the "most serious decision" rule is applied. In cases where two or more offences have the same decision, the "most serious offence" rule is applied. All charges are ranked according to an offence seriousness scale.

The Canadian Centre for Justice and Community Safety Statistics continues to make updates to the offence library used to classify offence data sent by the provinces and territories. These improvements have resulted in minor changes in the counts of charges and cases as well as the distributions by type of offence. Data presented have been revised to account for these updates.

Table A10: The most common youth court case is common assault

Number of Youth Court Cases

2013-14

2014-15

2015-16

2016-17

2017-18

Crimes Against the Person

11,985

9,984

9,653

9,917

10,395

Homicide and Attempted Murder

53

49

55

54

41

Robbery

1,934

1,481

1,475

1,516

1,618

Sexual Assault/Other Sexual Offences

1,453

1,330

1,442

1,536

1,658

Major Assault

2,462

2,136

2,094

2,149

2,126

Common Assault

3,664

2,796

2,586

2,641

2,894

Other Crimes Against the Person*

2,419

2,192

2,001

2,021

2,058

Crimes Against Property

13,668

11,016

10,652

9,627

8,490

Theft

4,751

3,670

3,671

3,280

2,796

Break and Enter

3,096

2,559

2,386

2,193

1,823

Fraud

478

376

377

423

389

Mischief

2,546

2,158

2,091

1,819

1,660

Possession of Stolen Property

2,361

1,901

1,817

1,621

1,466

Other Crimes Against Property

436

352

310

291

356

Administration of Justice

4,352

3,630

3,394

3,113

2,492

Failure to Comply with Order

2,900

2,390

2,209

2,067

1,573

Other Administration of Justice**

1,452

1,240

1,185

1,046

919

Other Criminal Code

2,232

2,086

1,946

1,888

1,833

Weapons/Firearms

1,492

1,425

1,406

1,408

1,407

Prostitution

11

15

7

14

3

Disturbing the Peace

86

64

65

50

33

Residual Criminal Code

643

582

468

416

390

Criminal Code Traffic

657

566

569

554

483

Other Federal Statutes

7,480

6,392

5,504

4,609

3,794

Drug Possession

2,331

1,788

1,551

1,129

917

Other Drug Offences

1,003

933

725

653

538

Youth Criminal Justice Act***

3,981

3,525

3,094

2,701

2,295

Residual Federal Statutes

165

146

134

126

44

Total

40,374

33,674

31,718

29,708

27,487

Source: Table 35-10-0038-01, Integrated Criminal Court Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice and Community Safety Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Notes:

*"Other Crimes Against the Person" includes the offences uttering threats and criminal harassment.

**"Other Administration of Justice" includes the offences failure to appear, breach of probation, and unlawfully at large.

***"Youth Criminal Justice Act offences" include failure to comply with a disposition or undertaking, contempt against youth court, assisting a youth to leave a place of custody and harbouring a youth unlawfully at large. Also included are similar offences under the Young Offenders Act, which preceded the Youth Criminal Justice Act.

The concept of a case has changed to more closely reflect court processing. Statistics from the Integrated Criminal Court Survey used in this report should not be compared to editions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview prior to 2007. A case is one or more charges against an accused person or corporation, processed by the courts at the same time, and where all of the charges in the case received a final disposition. Where a case has more than one charge, it is necessary to select a charge to represent the case. An offence is selected by applying two rules. First, the "most serious decision" rule is applied. In cases where two or more offences have the same decision, the "most serious offence" rule is applied. All charges are ranked according to an offence seriousness scale. The Canadian Centre for Justice and Community Safety Statistics continues to make updates to the offence library used to classify offence data sent by the provinces and territories. These improvements have resulted in minor changes in the counts of charges and cases as well as the distributions by type of offence. Data presented have been revised to account for these updates.

The most common sentence for youth is probation

Figure A11

Percentage of youth court sentence

Source: Table 35-10-0041-01, Integrated Criminal Court Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice and Community Safety Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Notes:

"Other Sentence" includes absolute discharge, restitution, prohibition, seizure, forfeiture, compensation, pay purchaser, essays, apologies, counselling programs and conditional discharge, conditional sentence, intensive support and supervision, attendance at non-residential program(s) and reprimand. This category also includes intensive support and supervision, attendance at non-residential program(s) and reprimand where sentencing data under the Youth Criminal Justice Act are not available.

Unlike previous years, this data represents the most serious sentence and therefore, sanctions are mutually exclusive. However, each case may receive more than one sentence.

The concept of a case has changed to more closely reflect court processing. Statistics from the Integrated Criminal Court Survey used in this report should not be compared to editions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview prior to 2007.

Table A11: The most common sentence for youth is probation

Type of Sentence

Gender

Year

2013-14

2014-15

2015-16

2016-17

2017-18

%

%

%

%

%

Probation

Female

49.2

47.6

47

50.1

47.7

Male

48.4

48.6

47.5

50.4

50.9

Total

48.5

48.4

47

49.6

50.2

Custody

Female

10.8

11.7

11.9

7.5

8.8

Male

16.3

15.9

16.5

13.6

13.4

Total

14.9

14.9

15.5

13

12.6

Community Service Order

Female

9.1

9.5

8.5

9.2

9.2

Male

7.9

8.4

7.9

8.1

7.3

Total

8.5

8.6

8.5

8.7

8.3

Fine

Female

2.3

2.5

2.6

2.2

2

Male

2.8

2.4

2.5

2.1

2

Total

2.7

2.4

2.5

2.2

2

Deferred Custody and Supervision

Female

4.1

3.1

3.7

3.3

3.4

Male

4.7

4.2

4.5

4.8

5.3

Total

4.5

3.9

4.3

4.5

4.8

Other Sentence

Female

24.5

25.6

26.3

27.7

28.9

Male

19.9

20.5

21.1

21

21.1

Total

20.9

21.8

22.2

22

22.1

Source: Table 35-10-0041-01, Integrated Criminal Court Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice and Community Safety Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Notes:

"Other Sentence" includes absolute discharge, restitution, prohibition, seizure, forfeiture, compensation, pay purchaser, essays, apologies, counselling programs and conditional discharge, conditional sentence, intensive support and supervision, attendance at non-residential program(s) and reprimand. This category also includes intensive support and supervision, attendance at non-residential program(s) and reprimand where sentencing data under the Youth Criminal Justice Act are not available.

Unlike previous years, this data represents the most serious sentence and therefore, sanctions are mutually exclusive. However, each case may receive more than one sentence.

The concept of a case has changed to more closely reflect court processing. Statistics from the Integrated Criminal Court Survey used in this report should not be compared to editions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview prior to 2007. 

Section B. Corrections Administration

Expenditures on corrections has increased

Figure B1

Sources: Correctional Service Canada; Parole Board of Canada; Office of the Correctional Investigator; Statistics Canada Consumer Price Index. Provincial figures derived from Table 35-10-0013-01, the Adult Correctional Services Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice and Community Safety Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Notes:

Adjusted costs are reported in constant dollars. Constant dollars (2002) represent dollar amounts calculated on a one-year base that adjusts for inflation, allowing the yearly amounts to be directly comparable. Changes in the Consumer Price Index were used to calculate constant dollars.

Federal expenditures on corrections include spending by Correctional Service Canada (CSC), the Parole Board of Canada (PBC), and the Office of the Correctional Investigator (OCI). Total expenditures represent gross expenditures and exclude revenues. Operating costs include Employee Benefit Plan expenditures. CSC expenditures exclude CORCAN (a Special Operating Agency that conducts industrial operations within penitentiaries). Provincial/Territorial expenditures do not include capital costs.

Table B1: Expenditures on corrections has increased

Year

Current Dollars

Constant 2002 Dollars

Operating

Capital

Total

Per capita

Operating

Capital

Total

Per capita

$'000

$

$'000

$

2013-14

CSC

2,371,700

378,372

2,750,072

78.22

2,161,429

344,826

2,506,256

70.48

PBC

50,400

- -

50,400

1.43

45,932

- -

45,932

1.29

OCI

4,946

- -

4,946

0.14

4,507

- -

4,507

0.13

Total

2,427,046

378,372

2,805,418

79.79

2,211,869

344,826

2,556,695

71.90

2014-15

CSC

2,373,604

200,606

2,574,210

72.42

2,144,868

181,274

2,326,142

64.93

PBC

50,100

- -

50,100

1.41

45,272

- -

45,272

1.26

OCI

4,659

- -

4,659

0.13

4,210

- -

4,210

0.12

Total

2,428,363

200,606

2,628,969

73.96

2,194,350

181,274

2,375,624

66.32

2015-16

CSC

2,189,101

168,684

2,357,785

65.77

1,986,217

153,051

2,139,268

59.00

PBC

46,300

- -

46,300

1.29

42,009

- -

42,009

1.16

OCI

4,656

- -

4,656

0.13

4,224

- -

4,224

0.12

Total

2,240,057

168,684

2,408,741

67.19

2,032,450

153,051

2,185,501

60.28

2016-17

CSC

2,209,048

153,757

2,362,804

65.12

2,031,172

141,376

2,172,548

59.17

PBC

46,800

- -

46,800

1.29

43,032

- -

43,032

1.17

OCI

4,693

- -

4,693

0.13

4,315

- -

4,315

0.12

Total

2,260,541

153,757

2,414,297

66.53

2,078,519

141,376

2,219,894

60.46

2017-18

CSC

2,442,488

185,624

2,628,112

70.57

2,248,407

170,874

2,419,282

64.97

PBC

47,700

- -

47,700

1.28

43,910

- -

43,910

1.18

OCI

4,631

- -

4,631

0.12

4,263

0

4,263

0.11

Total

2,494,819

185,624

2,680,443

71.98

2,296,580

170,874

2,467,454

66.26

Sources: Correctional Service Canada; Parole Board of Canada; Office of the Correctional Investigator; Statistics Canada Consumer Price Index.

Notes:

Due to rounding, constant dollar amounts may not add up to "Total".

Per capita cost is calculated by dividing the total expenditures by the total Canadian population and thus represents the cost per Canadian for federal correctional services.

Constant dollars represent dollar amounts calculated on a one-year base (2002) that adjusts for inflation allowing the yearly amounts to be directly comparable. Changes in the Consumer Price Index were used to calculate constant dollars.

CSC employees are concentrated in custody centres

Figure B2

At the end of fiscal year (2018-19)

Source: Correctional Service of Canada.

Notes:

CSC has changed its definition of employee. Previously the total number of employees included casual employees, employees on leave without pay and suspended employees. These categories have been removed from the total as of 2005-06. These numbers represent indeterminate and term equal to, or more than 3 months of substantive employment; and employee status of active and paid leave current up to March 31, 2019.

Due to rounding, the percentage may not add to 100.

Table B2: CSC employees are concentrated in custody centres

Service Area

March 31, 2009

March 31, 2019

#

%

#

%

Headquarters and Central Services

2,609

15.8

2,522

14.7

Administration

2,198

13.3

2,169

12.7

Health Care

111

0.7

78

0.5

Program Staff

108

0.7

61

0.4

Correctional Officers

44

0.3

37

0.2

Instructors/Supervisors

17

0.1

9

0.1

Parole Officers/Parole Supervisors

2

0

1

0

Other**

129

0.8

167

1

Custody Centres

12,590

76.1

13,122

76.7

Correctional Officers

6,382

38.6

7,262

42.5

Administration

2,126

12.9

1,785

10.4

Health Care

988

6

938

5.5

Program Staff

839

5.1

883

5.2

Parole Officers/Parole Supervisors*

727

4.4

611

3.6

Instructors/Supervisors

444

2.7

401

2.3

Other**

1,084

6.6

1,242

7.3

Community Supervision

1,337

8.1

1,457

8.5

Parole Officers/Parole Supervisors

714

4.3

763

4.5

Administration

336

2

368

2.2

Program Staff

198

1.2

244

1.4

Correctional Officers

18

0.1

0

0

Health Care

69

0.4

79

0.5

Other**

2

0

3

0

Total***

16,536

100

17,101

100

Source: Correctional Service of Canada.

Notes:

Due to changes in policy, Correctional Officers no longer occupy positions in the community.

*These parole officers are situated within institutions, with the responsibility of preparing offenders for release.

**The "Other" category represents job classifications such as trades and food services.

***CSC has changed its definition of employee. Previously the total number of employees included casual employees, employees on leave without pay and suspended employees. These categories have been removed from the total as of 2005-06. These numbers represent indeterminate and term equal to, or more than 3 months of substantive employment; and employee status of active and paid leave current up to March 31, 2019.

Due to rounding, the percentage may not add to 100.

The cost of keeping an inmate incarcerated has increased

Figure B3

Federal average daily inmate cost (current $)

Source: Correctional Service of Canada.

Notes:

The average daily inmate cost includes those costs associated with the operation of the institutions such as salaries and employee benefit plan contributions, but excludes capital expenditures and expenditures related to CORCAN (a Special Operating Agency that conducts industrial operations within federal institutions).

Total incarcerated and community includes additional NHQ & RHQ administrative costs which are not part of the Institutional and/or Community calculations. Offenders in the Community includes: Offenders on conditional release, statutory release or with Long-Term Supervision Order, under CSC supervision.

Figures may not add due to rounding.

Table B3: The cost of keeping an inmate incarcerated has increased

Categories

Annual Average Cost per Offender (current $)

2013-14

2014-15

2015-16

2016-17

2017-18

Incarcerated Offenders

Maximum Security (men only)

156,768

160,094

155,848

158,113

169,367

Medium Security (men only)

101,583

105,750

106,868

105,349

115,263

Minimum Security (men only)

83,182

86,613

81,528

83,450

86,603

Women's Facilities

219,884

213,800

192,742

191,843

212,005

*Exchange of Services Agreements (both)

108,388

111,839

114,974

122,998

114,188

Incarcerated Average

115,310

119,152

116,364

116,473

125,466

Offenders in the Community

34,432

33,067

31,052

30,639

32,327

Total Incarcerated and Community

99,923

99,982

94,545

95,654

100,425

Source: Correctional Service of Canada.

Notes:

*The intent of an Exchange of Service Agreement is to detail the roles and responsibilities of each jurisdiction and include specific protocols regarding per diem rates, offender information sharing, and invoicing pertaining to the reciprocal exchange of offenders between jurisdictions.

The average daily inmate cost includes those costs associated with the operation of the institutions such as salaries and employee benefit plan contributions, but excludes capital expenditures and expenditures related to CORCAN (a Special Operating Agency that conducts industrial operations within federal institutions).

Total incarcerated and community includes additional NHQ & RHQ administrative costs which are not part of the Institutional and/or Community calculations. Offenders in the Community includes: Offenders on conditional release, statutory release or with Long-Term Supervision Order, under CSC supervision.

Figures may not add due to rounding.

The number of Parole Board of Canada employees

Figure B4

Full-time equivalents – 10-year trend

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Note:

A full-time equivalent is a measure of the extent to which an employee represents a full person-year charge against a departmental budget. Section 103 of the Corrections and Conditional Release Act limits the Parole Board of Canada to 60 full-time members.

Table B4: The number of Parole Board of Canada employees

Full Time Equivalents

2014-15

2015-16

2016-17

2017-18

2018-19

Program Activity

Conditional Release Decisions

325

322

321

317

316

Conditional Release Openness and Accountability

54

42

44

42

43

Record Suspension and Clemency Recommendations

69

52

59

48

58

Internal Services

47

59

56

64

64

Total

495

475

480

471

481

Types of Employees

Full-time Board Members

42

41

39

38

41

Part-time Board Members

18

18

17

20

19

Staff

435

416

424

413

421

Total

495

475

480

471

481

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Note:

A full-time equivalent is a measure of the extent to which an employee represents a full person-year charge against a departmental budget. Section 103 of the Corrections and Conditional Release Act limits the Parole Board of Canada to 60 full-time members.

The number of employees in the Office of the Correctional Investigator

Figure B5

Full-time equivalents

Source: Office of the Correctional Investigator.

Notes:

The Office of the Correctional Investigator (OCI) may commence an investigation on receipt of a complaint by or on behalf of an offender or on its own initiative. Complaints are made by telephone, letter and during interviews with the OCI's investigative staff at federal correctional facilities. The dispositions in response to complaints involve a combination of internal responses (where the information or assistance sought by the offender can generally be provided by the OCI's investigative staff) and investigations (where, further to a review/analysis of law, policies and documentation, OCI investigative staff make an inquiry or several interventions with Correctional Service Canada and submit recommendations to address the complaint). Investigations vary considerably in terms of scope, complexity, duration and resources required.

Table B5: The number of employees in the Office of the Correctional Investigator

Full Time Equivalents

2014-15

2015-16

2016-17

2017-18

2018-19

Types of Employees

Correctional Investigator

1

1

1

1

1

Senior Management and Investigative Services

23

26

26

26

29

Internal Services

4

4

4

4

4

Legal Counsel, Policy and Research

4

5

5

5

5

Total

32

36

36

36

39

Source: Office of the Correctional Investigator.

Health care is the most common area of offender complaint received by the Office of the Correctional Investigator

Figure B6

Ten most common complaints in 2018-19

Source: Office of the Correctional Investigator.

Notes:

The values for 2018-19 are accurate at the time of reporting, but may change in subsequent reports as some pending cases are processed in the following fiscal year.

The Office of the Correctional Investigator (OCI) may commence an investigation on receipt of a complaint by or on behalf of an offender or on its own initiative. Complaints are made by telephone, letter and during interviews with the OCI's investigative staff at federal correctional facilities. The dispositions in response to complaints involve a combination of internal responses (where the information or assistance sought by the offender can generally be provided by the OCI's investigative staff) and investigations (where, further to a review/analysis of law, policies and documentation, OCI investigative staff make an inquiry or several interventions with Correctional Service Canada and submit recommendations to address the complaint). Investigations vary considerably in terms of scope, complexity, duration and resources required.

Table B6: Health care is the most common area of offender complaint received by the Office of the Correctional Investigator

Number of Complaints

Category of Complaint*

2014-15

2015-16

2016-17

2017-18

2018-19

Health Care

816

911

903

838

691

Conditions of Confinement

616

808

761

770

607

Staff

422

429

408

530

501

Cell Effects

360

426

497

412

407

Transfer

474

370

439

353

334

Administrative Segregation

383

272

269

223

187

Visits

244

290

285

214

192

Outside OCI Jurisdiction

238

245

259

193

128

Telephone

278

224

187

169

183

Grievance

195

188

173

177

127

Safety/Security of Offender(s)

143

197

208

127

177

Request for Information

181

152

213

126

159

Financial Matters

180

199

170

107

111

Programs

123

161

202

138

112

Correspondence

149

165

167

149

84

Security Classification

145

143

135

129

102

Case Preparation

137

102

115

55

73

Mental Health

77

133

122

76

59

Temporary Absence

98

100

93

74

65

Employment

70

90

112

100

54

Total of all categories**

6,382

6,651

6,844

5,846

5,113

Source: Office of the Correctional Investigator.

Notes:

*These top categories of complaints are based on the sum totals for the five reported fiscal years between 2014-15 and 2018-19. The values for 2018-19 are accurate at the time of reporting, but may change in subsequent reports as some pending cases are processed in the following fiscal year.

**These totals represent all complaint categories.

Due to ongoing efforts at the OCI (Office of the Correctional Investigator) to streamline our administrative database and ensure accuracy in reporting, the numbers in this table will not always match those of past Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overviews, or OCI Annual Reports.

Excludes the 128 complaints received on issues outside the OCIs jurisdiction.

Section C. Offender Population

Offenders under the responsibility of CSC

Figure C1

Total offender population (2018-19)*

Source: Correctional Service of Canada.

Definitions:

Total Offender Population includes all active offenders, who are incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, offenders who are temporarily detained, offenders who are actively supervised, and offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days.

In addition to the total offender population, there are excluded groups such as:

Federal jurisdiction offenders incarcerated in a Community Correctional Centre or in a non-CSC facility. Federal jurisdiction offenders deported /extradited including offenders for whom a deportation order has been enforced by Canada Border Services Agency. Federal offenders on bail which includes offenders on a judicial interim release; they have appealed their conviction or sentence and have been released to await the results of a new trial. Escaped includes offenders who have absconded from either a correctional facility or while on a temporary absence and whose whereabouts are unknown. Unlawfully at Large for 90 days or more. This includes offenders who have been released to the community on day parole, full parole, statutory release or a long-term supervision order for whom a warrant for suspension has been issued at least 90 days ago, but has not yet been executed.

CSC Facilities include all federal institutions and federally funded Healing Lodges.

Total Offender Population

In Custody includes all active offenders incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, offenders who are temporarily detained in a CSC facility and offenders on remand in a CSC facility.

In Community Under Supervision includes all active offenders on day parole, full parole, statutory release, in the community supervised on a long-term supervision order, offenders who are temporarily detained in a non-CSC facility, offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days, offenders on remand in a non-CSC facility, and offenders supervised and subject to an immigration hold by Canada Border Services Agency.

Actively Supervised includes all active offenders on day parole, full parole or statutory release, as well as those who are in the community on long-term supervision orders.

Temporarily Detained includes offenders who are physically held in a CSC facility or a non-CSC facility after being suspended for a breach of a parole condition or to prevent a breach of parole conditions.

Note:

*The definition of "offender population" changed from previous editions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview (CCRSO). As such, comparisons to editions of the CCRSO prior to 2016 should be done with caution.

Table C1: Offenders under the responsibility of CSC

Status

Offenders under the responsibility of CSC (2018-19)

#

%

In-Custody Population (CSC Facility)

14,149

60.3

Incarcerated in CSC Facility

13,363

57.0

Temporarily Detained in CSC Facility

786

3.3

In Community under Supervision

9,315

39.7

Temporarily Detained in Non-CSC Facility

159

0.7

Actively Supervised

9,156

39.0

Day Parole

1,666

7.1

Full Parole

4,408

18.8

Statutory Release

2,648

11.3

Long-Term Supervision Order

434

1.8

Total

23,464*

100.0

Source: Correctional Service of Canada.

Note:

*In addition to this total offender population, 289 offenders were on bail, 123 offenders had escaped, 201 offenders serving a federal sentence were in custody in a non-CSC facility, 325 offenders were unlawfully at large for 90 days or more, and 416 offenders were deported. The definition of "Offender Population" changed from previous editions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview (CCRSO). As such, comparisons to editions of the CCRSO prior to 2016 should be done with caution.

The number of offenders in custody

Figure C2 (A)

Number of in-custody offenders in a CSC facility at fiscal year* end

Source: Correctional Service of Canada

Figure C2 (B)

Number of in-custody offenders in a provincial/territorial facility

Source: Table: 35-10-0154-01, Corrections Key Indicator Report for Adults and Youth, Canadian Centre for Justice and Community Safety Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Notes:

*The data reflect the number of offenders in custody at the end of each fiscal year. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

The term "In Custody in a CSC Facility" includes all active offenders incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, offenders who are temporarily detained in a CSC facility and offenders on remand in a CSC facility.

Table C2: The number of offenders in custody

Year

In Custody Offenders

Total

In-Custody in a CSC Facility*1

Provincial/Territorial2

Sentenced

Remand

Other/Temporary Detention

Total

2009-10

14,197

10,045

13,739

308

24,092

38,289

2010-11

14,840

10,922

13,086

427

24,435

39,275

2011-12

15,131

11,138

13,369

308

24,814

39,945

2012-13

15,318

11,138

13,739

308

25,185

40,503

2013-14

15,342

9,888

11,494

322

21,704

37,046

2014-15

14,886

10,364

13,650

441

24,455

39,341

2015-16

14,712

10,091

14,899

415

25,405

40,117

2016-17

14,159

9,710

15,417

321

25,448

39,607

2017-18

14,092

9,543

15,417

303

24,658

38,750

2018-19

14,149

--

--

--

--

--

Sources: 1Correctional Service of Canada; 2Table 35-10-0154-01, Corrections Key Indicator Report for Adults and Youth, Canadian Centre for Justice and Community Safety Statistics.

Notes:

*The term "In Custody in a CSC Facility" includes all active offenders incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, offenders who are temporarily detained in a CSC facility and offenders on remand in a CSC facility.

The figures for provincial and territorial offenders reflect annual average counts.

-- data not available.

The number of admissions to federal jurisdiction is decreasing

Figure C3

Number of admissions

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Notes:

"Other" includes transfers from other jurisdictions (exchange of services), terminations, transfers from foreign countries, and admissions where a release is interrupted as a consequence of a new conviction.

"Revocation" is when the Parole Board of Canada makes a decision to reincarcerate an offender who was on conditional release, prior to the end of their sentence.

"Warrant of Committal" is a new admission to federal jurisdiction from the courts.

These numbers refer to the total number of admissions to a federal institution or Healing Lodge during each fiscal year and may be greater than the actual number of offenders admitted, since an individual offender may be admitted more than once in a given year. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year. 

There is a lag in the data entry of admissions into CSC's Offender Management System. The admission figures for the most recent year are under-reported by 200-400 at the time of our year end extraction. More accurate figures will be available in the next year's publication. Please use caution when including the most recent year in any trend analysis.   

Table C3: The number of admissions to federal jurisdiction is decreasing
 

2014-15

2015-16

2016-17

2017-18

2018-19

Women

Men

Women

Men

Women

Men

Women

Men

Women

Men

Warrant of Committal

 

1st Federal Sentence

302

3,308

348

3,321

377

3,355

326

3,278

322

3,287

2nd or Subsequent Federal Sentence

41

1,153

39

1,174

36

1,130

43

1,214

35

1,102

Provincial Sentence

0

13

1

7

1

8

1

10

0

3

Subtotal

343

4,474

388

4,502

414

4,493

370

4,502

357

4,392

Total

4,817

4,890

4,907

4,872

4,749

Revocations

123

2,380

149

2,327

132

2,014

149

1,981

147

2,103

Total

2,503

2,476

2,146

2,130

2,250

Other*

5

71

4

78

3

95

8

53

5

63

Total

76

82

98

61

68

Total Admissions

471

6,925

541

6,907

549

6,602

527

6,536

509

6,558

7,396

7,448

7,151

7,063

7,067

Source: Correctional Service of Canada.

Notes:

*"Other" includes transfers from other jurisdictions (exchange of services), terminations, transfers from foreign countries, and admissions where a release is interrupted as a consequence of a new conviction.

"Revocation" is when the Parole Board of Canada makes a decision to reincarcerate an offender who was on conditional release, prior to the end of their sentence.

 "Warrant of Committal" is a new admission to federal jurisdiction from the courts.

These numbers refer to the total number of admissions to a federal institution or Healing Lodge during each fiscal year and may be greater than the actual number of offenders admitted, since an individual offender may be admitted more than once in a given year. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

There is a lag in the data entry of admissions into CSC's Offender Management System. The admission figures for the most recent year are under-reported by 200-400 at the time of our year end extraction. More accurate figures will be available in the next year's publication. Please use caution when including the most recent year in any trend analysis.   

Over the last ten years, the number of women admitted from the courts to federal jurisdiction has increased

Figure C4

Number of warrant of committal admissions for women

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

A warrant of committal is a new admission to federal jurisdiction from the courts.

There is a lag in the data entry of admissions into CSC's Offender Management System. The admission figures for the most recent year are under-reported by 200-400 at the time of our year end extraction. More accurate figures will be available in the next year's publication. Please use caution when including the most recent year in any trend analysis. 

Table C4: Over the last ten years, the number of women admitted from the courts to federal jurisdiction has increased

Year

Warrant of Committal Admissions

Total

Women

Men

#

%

#

%

2009-10

307

6

4,833

94

5,140

2010-11

328

6.2

5,005

93.8

5,333

2011-12

337

6.7

4,694

93.3

5,031

2012-13

265

5.3

4,778

94.7

5,043

2013-14

312

6.2

4,759

93.8

5,071

2014-15

343

7.1

4,474

92.9

4,817

2015-16

388

7.9

4,502

92.1

4,890

2016-17

414

8.4

4,493

91.6

4,907

2017-18

370

7.6

4,502

92.4

4,872

2018-19

357

7.5

4,392

92.5

4,749

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

A warrant of committal is a new admission to federal jurisdiction from the courts.

There is a lag in the data entry of admissions into CSC's Offender Management System. The admission figures for the most recent year are under-reported by 200-400 at the time of our year end extraction. More accurate figures will be available in the next year's publication. Please use caution when including the most recent year in any trend analysis.

About half of the total offender population in CSC facilities is serving a sentence of less than five years

Figure C5

Sentence length of total offender population (2018-19)*

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Notes:

*Total Offender Population includes all active offenders, who are incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, offenders who are temporarily detained, offenders who are actively supervised, and offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days.

**Indeterminate means that the offender's term of imprisonment does not have an end date. The parole Board of Canada reviews the case after seven years and every two years after that.

The group of offenders serving a sentence less than two years includes offenders transferred from foreign countries or offenders under a long-term supervision order who received a new sentence of less than two years.  

Table C5: About half of the total offender population in CSC facilities is serving a sentence of less than five years

Sentence Length

2014-15

2015-16

2016-17

2017-18

2018-19

#

%

#

%

#

%

#

%

#

%

< than 2 years

287

1.2

306

1.3

307

1.3

348

1.5

307

1.3

2 years to < 3 years

5,241

22.8

5,367

23.3

5,391

23.4

5,412

23.3

5,457

23.3

3 years to < 4 years

3,631

15.8

3,503

15.2

3,377

14.7

3,378

14.5

3,436

14.6

4 years to < 5 years

2,422

10.5

2,393

10.4

2,382

10.3

2,342

10.1

2,368

10.1

5 years to < 6 years

1,672

7.3

1,692

7.3

1,691

7.3

1,674

7.2

1,711

7.3

6 years to < 7 years

1,104

4.8

1,136

4.9

1,143

5

1,186

5.1

1,172

5

7 years to < 10 years

1,788

7.8

1,805

7.8

1,810

7.9

1,811

7.8

1,857

7.9

10 years to < 15 years

936

4.1

940

4.1

951

4.1

979

4.2

998

4.3

15 years or more

564

2.5

522

2.3

501

2.2

474

2

445

1.9

Indeterminate

5,316

23.2

5,393

23.4

5,492

23.8

5,619

24.2

5,713

24.3

Total

22,961

100

23,057

100

23,045

100.0

23,223

100.0

23,464

100.0

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Notes:

Total Offender Population includes all active offenders, who are incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, offenders who are temporarily detained, offenders who are actively supervised, and offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days.

The group of offenders serving a sentence less than two years includes offenders transferred from foreign countries or offenders under a long-term supervision order who received a new sentence of less than two years.  

Admission of older offenders to federal jurisdiction is increasing

Figure C6

Percentage of warrant of committal admissions (2018-19)

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Notes:

A warrant of committal is a new admission to federal jurisdiction from the courts.

Due to rounding, percentages may not add to 100 percent.

There is a lag in the data entry of admissions into CSC's Offender Management System. The admission figures for the most recent year are under-reported by 200-400 at the time of our year end extraction. More accurate figures will be available in the next year's publication. Please use caution when including the most recent year in any trend analysis.

Table C6: Admission of older offenders to federal jurisdiction is increasing

Age at Admission

2009-10

2018-19

Women

Men

Total

Women

Men

Total

#

%

#

%

#

%

#

%

#

%

#

%

Under 18

0

0

1*

0

1*

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

18 and 19

4

1.3

178

3.7

182

3.5

3

0.8

58

1.3

61

1.3

20 to 24

54

17.6

876

18.1

930

18.1

46

12.9

575

13.1

621

13.1

25 to 29

66

21.5

880

18.2

946

18.4

81

22.7

880

20

961

20.2

30 to 34

49

16

729

15.1

778

15.1

69

19.3

767

17.5

836

17.6

35 to 39

43

14

569

11.8

612

11.9

47

13.2

603

13.7

650

13.7

40 to 44

35

11.4

564

11.7

599

11.7

33

9.2

445

10.1

478

10.1

45 to 49

24

7.8

431

8.9

455

8.9

32

9

361

8.2

393

8.3

50 to 59

27

8.8

415

8.6

442

8.6

34

9.5

464

10.6

498

10.5

60 to 69

4

1.3

149

3.1

153

3

12

3.4

169

3.8

181

3.8

70 and over

1

0.3

41

0.8

42

0.8

0

0

70

1.6

70

1.5

Total

307

4,833

5,140

357

4,392

4,749

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Notes:

*This offender was admitted to a youth correctional centre. 

A warrant of committal is a new admission to federal jurisdiction from the courts.

Due to rounding, percentages may not add to 100 percent.

There is a lag in the data entry of admissions into CSC's Offender Management System. The admission figures for the most recent year are under-reported by 200-400 at the time of our year end extraction. More accurate figures will be available in the next year's publication. Please use caution when including the most recent year in any trend analysis.   

The average age at admission to federal jurisdiction is lower for Indigenous offenders

Figure C7

Percentage of warrant of committal admissions (2018-19)

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Notes:

A warrant of committal is a new admission to federal jurisdiction from the courts.

Due to rounding, percentages may not add to 100 percent.

There is a lag in the data entry of admissions into CSC's Offender Management System. The admission figures for the most recent year are under-reported by 200-400 at the time of our year end extraction. More accurate figures will be available in the next year's publication. Please use caution when including the most recent year in any trend analysis.

Table C7: The average age at admission to federal jurisdiction is lower for Indigenous offenders

Age at Admission

2009-10

2018-19

Indigenous

Non- Indigenous

Total

Indigenous

Non- Indigenous

Total

#

%

#

%

#

%

#

%

#

%

#

%

Under 18

1*

0.1

0

0

1*

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

18 and 19

59

5.2

123

3.1

182

3.5

25

2

36

1

61

1.3

20 to 24

262

23

668

16.7

930

18.1

199

15.6

422

12.2

621

13.1

25 to 29

246

21.6

700

17.5

946

18.4

308

24.1

653

18.8

961

20.2

30 to 34

173

15.2

605

15.1

778

15.1

239

18.7

597

17.2

836

17.6

35 to 39

135

11.8

477

11.9

612

11.9

186

14.6

464

13.4

650

13.7

40 to 44

121

10.6

478

12

599

11.7

117

9.2

361

10.4

478

10.1

45 to 49

83

7.3

372

9.3

455

8.9

87

6.8

306

8.8

393

8.3

50 to 59

48

4.2

394

9.9

442

8.6

83

6.5

415

11.9

498

10.5

60 to 69

11

1

142

3.6

153

3

26

2

155

4.5

181

3.8

70 and over

1

0.1

41

1

42

0.8

6

0.5

64

1.8

70

1.5

Total

1,140

4,000

5,140

1,276

3,473

4,749

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Notes:

*This offender was admitted to a youth correctional centre.

A warrant of committal is a new admission to federal jurisdiction from the courts.

Due to rounding, percentages may not add to 100 percent.

There is a lag in the data entry of admissions into CSC's Offender Management System. The admission figures for the most recent year are under-reported by 200-400 at the time of our year end extraction. More accurate figures will be available in the next year's publication. Please use caution when including the most recent year in any trend analysis.   

24% of the in-custody offender population is age 50 or over

Figure C8

Percentage of in-custody offender population (2018-19)* vs. Canadian adult population (2019)**

Sources: Correctional Service of Canada; Table 17-10-0005-01, Population estimates on July 1st (2019), by age and sex, Statistics Canada.

Notes:

*In-custody population includes all active offenders incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, offenders who are temporarily detained in a CSC facility and offenders on remand in a CSC facility.

**2019 Annual Demographic Estimates, Demographic Division, Statistics Canada includes only those age 18 and older.

***In Community Under Supervision includes all active offenders on day parole, full parole, statutory release, or in the community supervised on a long-term supervision order, offenders who are temporarily detained in a non-CSC facility, offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days, offenders on remand in a non-CSC facility, and offenders supervised and subject to an immigration hold by Canada Border Services Agency.

Due to rounding, percentage may not add to 100 percent.

Table C8: 24% of the in-custody offender population is age 50 or over

Age

In-Custody*

In Community Under Supervision**

Total

% of Canadian Adult Population***

#

%

#

%

#

%

%

Under 18

0

0.0

0

0.0

0

0.0

0.0

18 and 19

44

0.3

1

0.0

45

0.2

3.0

20 to 24

1,197

8.5

417

4.5

1,614

6.9

8.2

25 to 29

2,293

16.2

1,026

11.0

3,319

14.1

8.6

30 to 34

2,277

16.1

1,213

13.0

3,490

14.9

8.6

35 to 39

1,982

14.0

1,165

12.5

3,147

13.4

8.5

40 to 44

1,568

11.1

961

10.3

2,529

10.8

8.0

45 to 49

1,329

9.4

931

10.0

2,260

9.6

7.9

50 to 54

1,207

8.5

887

9.5

2,094

8.9

8.2

55 to 59

952

6.7

869

9.3

1,821

7.8

9.1

60 to 64

605

4.3

677

7.3

1,282

5.5

8.3

65 to 69

336

2.4

512

5.5

848

3.6

6.9

70 and over

359

2.5

656

7.0

1,015

4.3

14.8

Total

14,149

100.0

9,315

100.0

23,464

100.0

100.0

Sources: Correctional Service of Canada; Table 17-10-0005-01, Population estimates on July 1st (2019), by age and sex, Statistics Canada.

Notes:

*In-custody population includes all active offenders incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, offenders who are temporarily detained in a CSC facility and offenders on remand in a CSC facility.

**In Community Under Supervision includes all active offenders on day parole, full parole, statutory release, or in the community supervised on a long-term supervision order, offenders who are temporarily detained in a non-CSC facility, offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days, offenders on remand in a non-CSC facility, and offenders supervised and subject to an immigration hold by Canada Border Services Agency.

Due to rounding, percentage may not add to 100 percent.

***2019 Annual Demographic Estimates, Demographic Division, Statistics Canada includes only those age 18 and older.

54% of offenders are Caucasian

Figure C9

Percentage of total offender population by self-reported race (2018-19)

Source: Correctional Service of Canada.

Notes:

The data reflect all active offenders at the end of the fiscal year (April 1 – March 31), who are incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, offenders who are temporarily detained, offenders who are actively supervised, and offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days.

The offenders themselves identify to which race they belong. The list of categories may not fully account for all races and the race grouping information has changed starting in 2012-13; therefore, the comparison of the information before and after 2012-13 should be done with caution.

According to the Correctional Service of Canada, "Indigenous" includes offenders who are Inuit, Innu, Métis and North American Indian. "Asian" includes offenders who are Arab, Arab/West Asian, Asian-East and Southeast, Asian-South, Asian West, Asiatic, Chinese, East Indian, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, South Asian, South East Asian. "Hispanic" includes offenders who are Hispanic and Latin American. "Black" includes offenders who are black. "Other/Unknown" includes offenders who are European French, European-Eastern, European-Northern, European-Southern, European-Western, Multiracial/Ethnic, Oceania, British Isles, Caribbean, Sub-Sahara African, offenders unable to identify to one race, other and unknown.

Due to rounding, percentages may not add to 100 percent.

Table C9: 54% of offenders are Caucasian

Total Offender Population

2014-15

2018-19

#

%

#

%

Indigenous

5,009

21.8

5,914

25.2

Inuit

236

1.0

198

0.8

Métis

1,381

6.0

1,723

7.3

North American Indian

3,392

14.8

3,993

17.0

Asian

1,318

5.7

1,250

5.3

Arab

155

0.7

179

0.8

Arab / West Asian

195

0.8

176

0.8

Asiatic*

272

1.2

377

1.6

Chinese

134

0.6

95

0.4

East Indian

13

0.1

13

0.1

Filipino

71

0.3

85

0.4

Japanese

5

0.0

8

0.0

Korean

21

0.1

12

0.1

South East Asian

273

1.2

184

0.8

South Asian

179

0.8

121

0.5

Black

1,895

8.3

1,692

7.2

Caucasian

13,870

60.4

12,713

54.2

Hispanic

250

1.1

267

1.1

Hispanic

6

0.0

7

0.0

Latin American

244

1.1

260

1.1

Other/Unknown

619

2.7

1,628

6.9

Total

22,961

100.0

23,464

100.0

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Notes:

The data reflect all active offenders at the end of the fiscal year (April 1 – March 31), who are incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, offenders who are temporarily detained, offenders who are actively supervised, and offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days.

*Total for Asiatic includes Asian-East and Southeast, Asian South, Asian West, and Asiatic.

The offenders themselves identify to which race they belong. The list of categories may not fully account for all races and the race groupings information has changed starting in 2012-13; therefore, the comparisons before and after 2012-13 should be done with caution.

According to the Correctional Service of Canada, "Indigenous" includes offenders who are Inuit, Innu, Métis and North American Indian. "Asian" includes offenders who are Arab, Arab/West Asian, Asian-East and Southeast, Asian-South, Asian West, Asiatic, Chinese, East Indian, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, South Asian, South East Asian. "Asiatic" includes offenders who are Asian-East and Southeast, Asian-South, Asian West, and Asiatic. "Hispanic" includes offenders who are Hispanic and Latin American. "Black" includes offenders who are Black. "Other/Unknown" includes offenders who are European French, European-Eastern, European-Northern, European-Southern, European-Western, Multiracial/Ethnic, Oceania, British Isles, Caribbean, Sub-Sahara African, offenders unable to identify to one race, other and unknown.

Due to rounding, percentages may not add up to 100 percent.

The religious identification of the offender population is diverse

Figure C10

Percentage of total offender population (2018-19)

Source: Correctional Service of Canada.

Notes:

Religious identification is self-declared by offenders while they are incarcerated, and the categories are not comprehensive; therefore, the reader should interpret these data with caution. A detailed breakdown of each religious category is available in the notes section on page 58.

Table C10: The religious identification of the offender population is diverse

Total Offender Population

2014-15

2018-19

#

%

#

%

Buddhist

478

2.1

519

2.2

Christian

12,705

55.3

11,219

47.8

Hindu

40

0.2

64

0.3

Jewish

171

0.7

244

1.0

Muslim

1,280

5.6

1,695

7.2

Rastafarian

171

0.7

181

0.8

Sikh

155

0.7

183

0.8

Traditional Aboriginal Spirituality

1,276

5.6

1,591

6.8

Wicca/Pagan

170

0.7

352

1.5

Other Religions

488

2.1

579

2.5

No Religion Affiliation

3,808

16.6

3,695

15.7

Unknown

2,219

9.7

3,142

13.4

Total

22,961

100.0

23,464

100.0

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Notes:

Religious identification is self-declared by offenders while they are incarcerated, and the categories are not comprehensive; therefore, the reader should interpret these data with caution.

Buddhist includes offenders who are Buddhist, Mahayana Buddhist, Theravadan Buddhist and Vajrayana Buddhist. Christian includes offenders who are Amish, Anglican (Episcopal Church of England), Antiochian Orthodox, Apostolic Christian Church, Armenian Orthodox/Apostolic, Associated Gospel, Assyrian Chaldean Catholic, Baptist, Brethren In Christ, Bulgarian Orthodox, Canadian Reformed Church, Catholic- Greek, Catholic-Roman, Catholic-Ukranian, Catholic Non-Specific, Churches of Christ/Christian Churches, Charismatic, Christadelphian, Christian & Missionary Alliance, Christian Congregational, Christian Non Specific, Christian Or Plymouth Brethren, Christian Orthodox, Christian Reformed, Christian Reformed Church, Christian Science, Church of Christ Scientist, Church of God, Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saint, Community of Christ, Coptic Orthodox, Doukhobor, Dutch Reformed Church, Ethiopian Orthodox, Evangelical, Evangelical Free Church , Evangelical Missionary Church, Free Methodist, Free Reformed Church, Grace Communion International, Greek Orthodox, Hutterite, Iglesia Ni Cristo, Jehovah's Witnesses, Lutheran, Macedonian Orthodox, Maronite, Melkite, Mennonite, Methodist Christian, Metropolitan Community Church, Mission de l'Esprit Saint, Moravian, Mormon (Latter Day Saints), Nazarene Christian, Netherlands Reformed, New Apostolic, Pentecostal (4-Square), Pentecostal Assembly of God, Pentecôtiste, Philadelphia Church of God, Presbyterian, Protestant Non-Specific, Quaker (Society of Friends), Reformed Christian, Romanian Orthodox, Russian Orthodox, Salvation Army, Serbian Orthodox, Seventh Day Adventist, Shaker, Swedenborgian (New Church), Syrian/Syriac Orthodox, Ukrainian Catholic, Ukrainian Orthodox, United Church, United Reformed Church, Vineyard Christian Fellowship, Wesleyan Christian and Worldwide Church of God. Hindu includes offenders who are Hindu and Siddha Yoga. Jewish includes offenders who are Jewish Orthodox, Jewish Reformed and Judaism. Muslim includes offenders who are Muslim and Sufism. Rastafarian includes offenders who are Rastafarian. Sikh includes offenders who are Sikh. Traditional Aboriginal Spirituality includes offenders who are Aboriginal Spirituality Catholic, Aboriginal Spirituality Protestant, Native Spirituality, Catholic - Native Spirituality, Native Spirituality Protestant and Aboriginal Spirituality. Wiccan/Pagan includes offenders who are Asatru Paganism, Druidry Paganism, Pagan and Wicca. Other Religion includes offenders who are Baha'i, Eckankar, Gnostic, Independent Spirituality, Jain, Krishna, New Age, New Thought-Unity-Religious Science, Other, Pantheist, Rosicrucian, Satanist, Scientology, Shintoïste, Spiritualist, Taoism, Transcendental Meditation, Unification Church, Unitarian, Visnabha and Zoroastrian. No religion Affiliation includes offenders who are Agnostic, Atheist, Humanist and offenders who have no religion affiliation.

The data reflect all active offenders, who are incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, offenders who are temporarily detained, offenders who are actively supervised, and offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days.

The data reflect the number of offenders active at the end of each fiscal year. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year. 

Due to rounding, percentages may not add to 100 percent.

The proportion of Indigenous offenders in custody is higher than for non-Indigenous offenders

Figure C11

Percentage of in-custody offender population

Source: Correctional Service of Canada.

Notes:

Total Offender Population includes all active offenders, who are incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, offenders who are temporarily detained, offenders who are actively supervised, and offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days. 

In Custody includes all active offenders incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, offenders who are temporarily detained in a CSC facility and offenders on remand in a CSC facility.

In Community Under Supervision includes all active offenders on day parole, full parole, statutory release, in the community supervised on a long-term supervision order, offenders who are temporarily detained in a non-CSC facility, offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days, offenders on remand in a non-CSC facility, and offenders supervised and subject to an immigration hold by Canada Border Services Agency.

The data reflect the number of offenders active at the end of each fiscal year. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

Table C11: The proportion of Indigenous offenders in custody is higher than for non-Indigenous offenders

In-Custody Population

In Community Under Supervision

Total

#

%

#

%

Men

2015-16

Indigenous

3,532

73.2

1,293

26.8

4,825

Non-Indigenous

10,485

61.8

6,468

38.2

16,953

Total

14,017

64.4

7,761

35.6

21,778

2016-17

Indigenous

3,545

72.2

1,362

27.8

4,907

Non-Indigenous

9,922

59.0

6,885

41.0

16,807

Total

13,467

62.0

8,247

38.0

21,714

2017-18

Indigenous

3,647

71.4

1,464

28.6

5,111

Non-Indigenous

9,769

58.4

6,946

41.6

16,715

Total

13,416

61.5

8,410

38.5

21,826

2018-19

Indigenous

3,877

71.5

1,548

28.5

5,425

Non-Indigenous

9,571

57.6

7,036

42.4

16,607

Total

13,448

61.0

8,584

39.0

22,032

Women

2015-16

Indigenous

251

62.4

151

37.6

402

Non-Indigenous

444

50.6

433

49.4

877

Total

695

54.3

584

45.7

1,279

2016-17

Indigenous

253

61.0

162

39.0

415

Non-Indigenous

439

47.9

477

52.1

916

Total

692

52.0

639

48.0

1,331

2017-18

Indigenous

270

58.6

191

41.4

461

Non-Indigenous

406

43.4

530

56.6

936

Total

676

48.4

721

51.6

1,397

2018-19

Indigenous

291

59.5

198

40.5

489

Non-Indigenous

410

43.5

533

56.5

943

Total

701

49.0

731

51.0

1,432

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Notes:

Total Offender Population includes all active offenders, who are incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, offenders who are temporarily detained, offenders who are actively supervised, and offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days. 

In custody includes all active offenders incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, offenders who are temporarily detained in a CSC facility and offenders on remand in a CSC facility.

In Community Under Supervision includes all active offenders on day parole, full parole, statutory release, in the community supervised on a long-term supervision order, offenders who are temporarily detained in a non-CSC facility, offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days, offenders on remand in a non-CSC facility, and offenders supervised and subject to an immigration hold by Canada Border Services Agency.

The data reflect the number of offenders active at the end of each fiscal year. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

The majority of in-custody offenders are classified as medium security risk

Figure C12

Percentage of classified in-custody offenders (2018-19)

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

The data represent the offender security level decision as of end of fiscal year 2018-19.

In custody includes all active offenders incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, offenders who are temporarily detained in a CSC facility and offenders on remand in a CSC facility.

Table C12: The majority of in-custody offenders are classified as medium security risk
Total of classified in-custody offenders (2018-19)

Security Risk Level

Indigenous

Non-Indigenous

Total

#

%

#

%

#

%

Minimum

687

17.7

2,138

23.7

2,825

21.9

Medium

2,523

65.1

5,677

63.0

8,200

63.6

Maximum

667

17.2

1,195

13.3

1,862

14.4

Total

3,877

100.0

9,010

100.0

12,887

100.0

Not Yet Determined

291

971

1,262

Total

4,168

9,981

14,149

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Notes:

The data represent the offender security level decision as of end of fiscal year 2018-19.

The "Not yet determined" category includes offenders who have not yet been classified.

In-custody includes all active offenders incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, offenders who are temporarily detained in a CSC facility and offenders on remand in a CSC facility.

Admissions to federal jurisdiction with a life or indeterminate sentence has decreased

Figure C13

Number of warrant of committal admissions for life and indeterminate sentences

Source: Correctional Service of Canada.

Notes:

*Although life sentences and indeterminate sentences both may result in imprisonment for life, they are different. A life sentence is a sentence of life imprisonment, imposed by a judge at the time of sentence, for example for murder. An indeterminate sentence is a result of a designation, where an application is made to the court to declare an offender a Dangerous Offender, and the consequence of this designation is imprisonment for an indeterminate period.

A warrant of committal is a new admission to federal jurisdiction from the courts.

Total Offender Population includes all active offenders, who are incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, offenders who are temporarily detained, offenders who are actively supervised, and offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days.

There is a lag in the data entry of admissions into CSC's Offender Management System. The admission figures for the most recent year are under-reported by 200-400 at the time of our year end extraction. More accurate figures will be available in the next year's publication. Please use caution when including the most recent year in any trend analysis.   

Table C13: Admissions to federal jurisdiction with a life or indeterminate sentence has decreased

Year

Indigenous Offenders

Non-Indigenous Offenders

Total

Women

Men

Total

Women

Men

Total

Women

Men

Total

2009-10

5

48

53

8

133

141

13

181

194

2010-11

3

35

38

6

130

136

9

165

174

2011-12

6

47

53

11

109

120

17

156

173

2012-13

6

47

53

2

116

118

8

163

171

2013-14

7

39

46

7

121

128

14

160

174

2014-15

1

37

38

8

120

128

9

157

166

2015-16

5

50

55

6

125

131

11

175

186

2016-17

1

40

41

11

132

143

12

172

184

2017-18

6

72

78

10

134

144

16

206

222

2018-19

5

45

50

4

117

121

9

162

171

Source: Correctional Service of Canada.

Notes:

This table combines offenders serving life sentences and offenders serving indeterminate sentences.

Although life sentences and indeterminate sentences both may result in imprisonment for life, they are different. A life sentence is a sentence of life imprisonment, imposed by a judge at the time of sentence, for example for murder. An indeterminate sentence is a result of a designation, where an application is made to the court to declare an offender a Dangerous Offender, and the consequence of this designation is imprisonment for an indeterminate period.

A warrant of committal is a new admission to federal jurisdiction from the courts.

Total Offender Population includes all active offenders, who are incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, offenders who are temporarily detained, offenders who are actively supervised, and offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days.

There is a lag in the data entry of admissions into CSC's Offender Management System. The admission figures for the most recent year are under-reported by 200-400 at the time of our year end extraction. More accurate figures will be available in the next year's publication. Please use caution when including the most recent year in any trend analysis.

Offenders with life or indeterminate sentences represents 24% of the total offender population

Figure C14

Sentence imposed for the total offender population (2018-19)

Source: Correctional Service of Canada.

Notes:

*Although life sentences and indeterminate sentences both may result in imprisonment for life, they are different. A life sentence is a sentence of life imprisonment, imposed by a judge at the time of sentence, for example for murder. An indeterminate sentence is a result of a designation, where an application is made to the court to declare an offender a Dangerous Offender, and the consequence of this designation is imprisonment for an indeterminate period.  The Dangerous Sexual Offender and Habitual Offender designations were replaced with Dangerous Offender legislation in 1977.

Total Offender Population includes all active offenders, who are incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, offenders who are temporarily detained, offenders who are actively supervised, and offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days. In Custody includes all active offenders incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, offenders who are temporarily detained in a CSC facility and offenders on remand in a CSC facility. In Community Under Supervision includes all active offenders on day parole, full parole, statutory release, in the community supervised on a long-term supervision order, offenders who are temporarily detained in a non-CSC facility, offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days, offenders on remand in a non-CSC facility, and offenders supervised and subject to an immigration hold by the Canada Border Services Agency.

Table C14: Offenders with life or indeterminate sentences represents 24% of the total offender population
Total offender population (2018-19)

Total Offender Population

In Custody in a CSC Facility

In Community Under Supervision

Incarcerated

Day Parole

Full Parole

Other***

#

%

Offenders with a life sentence for:

1st Degree Murder

1,270

5.4

1,002

59

209

0

2nd Degree Murder

3,571

15.2

1,932

248

1,391

0

Other Offences*

199

0.8

117

7

75

0

Total

5,040

21.5

3,051

314

1,675

0

Offenders with indeterminate sentences resulting from the special designation of:

Dangerous Offender

635

2.7

605

14

16

0

Dangerous Sexual Offender

14

0.1

8

1

5

0

Habitual Offender

2

0

0

0

2

0

Total

651

2.8

613

15

23

0

Offenders serving an indeterminate sentence (due to a special designation) and a life sentence (due to an offence)

22

0.1

20

0

2

0

Total offenders with Life and/or Indeterminate sentence

5,713

24.3

3,684

329

1,700

0

Offenders Serving Determinate sentences**

17,751

75.7

10,465

1,363

2,729

3,194

Total

23,464

100

14,149

1,692

4,429

3,194

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Notes:

*"Other offences" include Schedule I Schedule II and Non-Schedule types of offences.

**This includes 170 offenders designated as Dangerous Offenders who were serving determinate sentences.

***"Other" in the Community Under Supervision includes offenders on statutory release or on a long-term supervision order.

Among the 22 offenders serving an indeterminate sentence (due to a special designation) and a life sentence (due to an offence), there was one offender with an Habitual Offender designation.

Although life sentences and indeterminate sentences both may result in imprisonment for life, they are different. A life sentence is a sentence of life imprisonment, imposed by a judge at the time of sentence, for example for murder. An indeterminate sentence is a result of a designation, where an application is made to the court to declare an offender a Dangerous Offender, and the consequence of this designation is imprisonment for an indeterminate period. The Dangerous Sexual Offender and Habitual Offender designations were replaced with Dangerous Offender legislation in 1977.

Total Offender Population includes all active offenders, who are incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, offenders who are temporarily detained, offenders who are actively supervised, and offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days. In Custody includes all active offenders incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, offenders who are temporarily detained in a CSC facility and offenders on remand in a CSC facility. In Community Under Supervision includes all active offenders on day parole, full parole, statutory release, in the community supervised on a long-term supervision order, offenders who are temporarily detained in a non-CSC facility, offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days, offenders on remand in a non-CSC facility, and offenders supervised and subject to an immigration hold by the Canada Border Services Agency.

70% of offenders are serving a sentence for a violent offence

Figure C15

Percentage of total offender population (2018-19)

Source: Correctional Service of Canada.

Notes:

*Violent offences include Murder I, Murder II, and Schedule I offences.

Schedule I is comprised of sexual offences and other violent crimes excluding first and second degree murder (see the Corrections and Conditional Release Act).
Schedule II is comprised of serious drug offences or conspiracy to commit serious drug offences (see the Corrections and Conditional Release Act).

In cases where the offender is serving a sentence for more than one offence, the data reflect the most serious offence.

Total Offender Population includes all active offenders, who are incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, offenders who are temporarily detained, offenders who are actively supervised, and offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days.

Table C15: 70% of offenders are serving a sentence for a violent offence
Total offender population (2018-19)

Offence Category

Indigenous

Non-Indigenous

Total

Women

Men

Total

Women

Men

Total

Women

Men

Total

Murder I

8

247

255

48

984

1,032

56

1,231

1,287

%

1.6

4.6

4.3

5.1

5.9

5.9

3.9

5.6

5.5

Murder II

68

762

830

118

2,650

2,768

186

3,412

3,598

%

13.9

14.0

14.0

12.5

16.0

15.8

13.0

15.5

15.3

Schedule I

247

3,303

3,550

265

7,831

8,096

512

11,134

11,646

%

50.5

60.9

60.0

28.1

47.2

46.1

35.8

50.5

49.6

Schedule II

104

508

612

338

3,204

3,542

442

3,712

4,154

%

21.3

9.4

10.3

35.8

19.3

20.2

30.9

16.8

17.7

Non-Schedule

62

605

667

174

1,938

2,112

236

2,543

2,779

%

12.7

11.2

11.3

18.5

11.7

12.0

16.5

11.5

11.8

Total

489

5,425

5,914

943

16,607

17,550

1,432

22,032

23,464

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Notes:

Schedule I is comprised of sexual offences and other violent crimes excluding first and second degree murder (see the Corrections and Conditional Release Act).

Schedule II is comprised of serious drug offences or conspiracy to commit serious drug offences (see the Corrections and Conditional Release Act).

In cases where the offender is serving a sentence for more than one offence, the data reflect the most serious offence.

Total Offender Population includes all active offenders, who are incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, offenders who are temporarily detained, offenders who are actively supervised, and offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days. 

The number of Indigenous offenders has increased

Figure C16

Source: Correctional Service of Canada.

Notes:

In-custody includes all active offenders incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, offenders who are temporarily detained in a CSC facility and offenders on remand in a CSC facility.

In Community Under Supervision includes all active offenders on day parole, full parole, statutory release, or in the community supervised on a long-term supervision order, offenders who are temporarily detained in a non-CSC facility, offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days, offenders on remand in a non-CSC facility, and offenders supervised and subject to an immigration hold by Canada Border Services Agency.

Table C16: The number of Indigenous offenders has increased

Indigenous Offenders

Fiscal Year

2014-15

2015-16

2016-17

2017-18

2018-19

In-Custody

Atlantic Region

Men

174

157

175

184

224

Women

11

12

8

14

19

Quebec Region

Men

443

425

384

392

449

Women

19

24

14

11

16

Ontario Region

Men

441

453

487

534

558

Women

34

39

37

43

50

Prairie Region

Men

1,757

1,868

1,861

1,879

1,955

Women

139

133

155

163

158

Pacific Region

Men

602

629

638

658

691

Women

37

43

39

39

48

National Total

Men

3,417

3,532

3,545

3,647

3,877

Women

240

251

253

270

291

Total

3,657

3,783

3,798

3,917

4,168

In Community Under Supervision

Atlantic Region

Men

60

68

71

88

83

Women

12

10

11

9

10

Quebec Region

Men

158

185

185

181

162

Women

12

18

10

6

9

Ontario Region

Men

178

204

201

231

239

Women

21

24

31

29

31

Prairie Region

Men

574

560

604

645

720

Women

52

77

78

111

113

Pacific Region

Men

268

276

301

319

344

Women

17

22

32

36

35

National Total

Men

1,238

1,293

1,362

1,464

1,548

Women

114

151

162

191

198

Total

1,352

1,444

1,524

1,655

1,746

Total In-Custody & In Community Under Supervision

5,009

5,227

5,322

5,572

5,914

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Notes:

In-custody population includes all active offenders incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, offenders who are temporarily detained in a CSC facility and offenders on remand in a CSC facility.

In Community Under Supervision includes all active offenders on day parole, full parole, statutory release, or in the community supervised on a long-term supervision order, offenders who are temporarily detained in a non-CSC facility, offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days, offenders on remand in a non-CSC facility, and offenders supervised and subject to an immigration hold by Canada Border Services Agency.

Regional statistics for the Correctional Service of Canada account for data relating to the northern territories in the following manner: data for Nunavut are reported in the Ontario Region, data for the Northwest Territories are reported in the Prairies Region, and data for the Yukon Territories are reported in the Pacific Region.

The total number of offenders admitted to administrative segregation has increased

Figure C17

Number of admissions to administrative segregation (2018-19)

Source: Correctional Service of Canada.

Notes:

These reports count admissions, not offenders. Offenders admitted multiple times to segregation are counted once for each admission. Offenders segregated under paragraph (f), subsection 44(1) of the Corrections and Conditional Release Act (Disciplinary Segregation) are not included.

Administrative segregation is the separation, when specific legal requirements are met, of an inmate from the general population, other than pursuant to a disciplinary decision. As per subsection 33(3) of the Corrections and Conditional Release Act: 31(3) The institutional head may order that an inmate be confined in administrative segregation if the institutional head is satisfied that there is no reasonable alternative to administrative segregation and he or she believes on reasonable grounds that (a) the inmate has acted, has attempted to act or intends to act in a manner that jeopardizes the security of the penitentiary or the safety of any person and allowing the inmate to associate with other inmates would jeopardize the security of the penitentiary or the safety of any person; (b) allowing the inmate to associate with other inmates would interfere with an investigation that could lead to a criminal charge or a charge under subsection 41(2) of a serious disciplinary offence; or (c) allowing the inmate to associate with other inmates would jeopardize the inmate's safety.

Table C17: The total number of offenders admitted to administrative segregation has increased

Year and Type of Administrative Segregation

By Gender

By Race

Women

Men

Total

Indigenous

Non-Indigenous

Total

2014-15

CCRA 31(3-A) Involuntary

425

5,290

5,715

1,736

3,979

5,715

CCRA 31(3-B)

7

329

336

108

228

336

CCRA 31(3-C)

27

2,242

2,269

805

1,464

2,269

Total

459

7,861

8,320

2,649

5,671

8,320

2015-16

CCRA 31(3-A) Involuntary

342

4,200

4,542

1,360

3,182

4,542

CCRA 31(3-B)

2

235

237

92

145

237

CCRA 31(3-C)

33

1,976

2,009

656

1,353

2,009

Total

377

6,411

6,788

2,108

4,680

6,788

2016-17

CCRA 31(3-A) Involuntary

270

3,826

4,096

1,373

2,723

4,096

CCRA 31(3-B)

3

273

276

75

201

276

CCRA 31(3-C)

16

1,649

1,665

639

1,026

1,665

Total

289

5,748

6,037

2,087

3,950

6,037

2017-18

CCRA 31(3-A) Involuntary

179

3,167

3,346

1,179

2,167

3,346

CCRA 31(3-B)

10

229

239

79

160

239

CCRA 31(3-C)

12

1,698

1,710

694

1,016

1,710

Total

201

5,094

5,295

1,952

3,343

5,295

2018-19

CCRA 31(3-A) Involuntary

134

3,011

3,145

1,155

1,990

3,145

CCRA 31(3-B)

5

162

167

49

118

167

CCRA 31(3-C)

18

2,111

2,129

881

1,248

2,129

Total

157

5,284

5,441

2,085

3,356

5,441

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Notes:

These reports count admissions, not offenders. Offenders admitted multiple times to segregation are counted once for each admission. Offenders segregated under paragraph (f), subsection 44(1) of the Corrections and Conditional Release Act (Disciplinary Segregation) are not included.

Administrative segregation is the separation, when specific legal requirements are met, of an inmate from the general population, other than pursuant to a disciplinary decision. As per subsection 33(3) of the Corrections and Conditional Release Act: 31(3) The institutional head may order that an inmate be confined in administrative segregation if the institutional head is satisfied that there is no reasonable alternative to administrative segregation and he or she believes on reasonable grounds that (a) the inmate has acted, has attempted to act or intends to act in a manner that jeopardizes the security of the penitentiary or the safety of any person and allowing the inmate to associate with other inmates would jeopardize the security of the penitentiary or the safety of any person; (b) allowing the inmate to associate with other inmates would interfere with an investigation that could lead to a criminal charge or a charge under subsection 41(2) of a serious disciplinary offence; or (c) allowing the inmate to associate with other inmates would jeopardize the inmate's safety.

75% of offenders admitted to administrative segregation stay for less than 30 days

Figure C18

Number of federal offenders admitted to administrative segregation (2018-19)

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Notes:

These reports count admissions, not offenders. Offenders admitted multiple times to segregation are counted once for each admission. Offenders segregated under paragraph (f), subsection 44(1) of the Corrections and Conditional Release Act (Disciplinary Segregation) are not included.

Administrative segregation is the involuntary or voluntary separation, when specific legal requirements are met, of an inmate from the general population, other than pursuant to a disciplinary decision. As per subsection 31(3) of the Corrections and Conditional Release Act: The institutional head may order that an inmate be confined in administrative segregation if the institutional head is satisfied that there is no reasonable alternative to administrative segregation and he or she believes on reasonable grounds that (a) the inmate has acted, has attempted to act or intends to act in a manner that jeopardizes the security of the penitentiary or the safety of any person and allowing the inmate to associate with other inmates would jeopardize the security of the penitentiary or the safety of any person; (b) allowing the inmate to associate with other inmates would interfere with an investigation that could lead to a criminal charge or a charge under subsection 41(2) of a serious disciplinary offence; or (c) allowing the inmate to associate with other inmates would jeopardize the inmate's safety.

Table C18: 75% of offenders admitted to administrative segregation stay for less than 30 days
Number of federal offenders admitted to administrative segregation (2018-19)

Length of Stay in Administrative Segregation

By Gender

By Race

Total

Women

Men

Indigenous

Non- Indigenous

#

%

#

%

#

%

#

%

#

%

2018-19

< 30 days

150

92.6

3,901

74.2

1,497

71.8

2,554

76.6

4,051

74.7

30-60 days

10

6.2

810

15.4

353

16.9

467

14

820

15.1

61-90 days

2

1.2

305

5.8

134

6.4

173

5.2

307

5.7

91-120 days

0

0

151

2.9

64

3.1

87

2.6

151

2.8

> 120 days

0

0

92

1.7

38

1.8

54

1.6

92

1.7

Total

162

100.0

5,259

100.0

2,086

100.0

3,335

100.0

5,421

100.0

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Notes:

These reports count admissions, not offenders. Offenders admitted multiple times to segregation are counted once for each admission. Offenders segregated under paragraph (f), subsection 44(1) of the Corrections and Conditional Release Act (Disciplinary Segregation) are not included.

Administrative segregation is the involuntary or voluntary separation, when specific legal requirements are met, of an inmate from the general population, other than pursuant to a disciplinary decision. As per subsection 31(3) of the Corrections and Conditional Release Act: The institutional head may order that an inmate be confined in administrative segregation if the institutional head is satisfied that there is no reasonable alternative to administrative segregation and he or she believes on reasonable grounds that (a) the inmate has acted, has attempted to act or intends to act in a manner that jeopardizes the security of the penitentiary or the safety of any person and allowing the inmate to associate with other inmates would jeopardize the security of the penitentiary or the safety of any person; (b) allowing the inmate to associate with other inmates would interfere with an investigation that could lead to a criminal charge or a charge under subsection 41(2) of a serious disciplinary offence; or (c) allowing the inmate to associate with other inmates would jeopardize the inmate's safety.

The number of offender deaths while in custody has increased

Figure C19

The number of deaths in federal and provincial/territorial custody by cause of death

Source: Adult Correctional Services Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice and Community Safety Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Notes:

Other causes of death include: natural causes, accidental deaths, death as a result of a legal intervention, other causes of death and where cause of death was unknown. Data for Alberta for 2013-14 and onward are now available.

*For the calculation of rates, the total actual in-count numbers between 2008-09 and 2017-18 was used as the denominator.

The data on cause of death are subject to change following an official review or investigation, and should be used/interpreted with caution. The data presented were provided by the Canadian Centre for Justice and Community Safety Statistics at Statistics Canada, and may not reflect the outcome of recent reviews or investigations or cause of death.

Table C19: The number of offender deaths while in custody has increased

Year

Type of Death

Homicide

Suicide

Other*

Total

Federal

#

%

#

%

#

%

#

2008/2009

2

3.1

9

13.8

54

83.1

65

2009/2010

1

2.0

9

18.4

39

79.6

49

2010/2011

5

10.0

4

8.0

41

82.0

50

2011/2012

3

5.7

8

15.1

42

79.2

53

2012/2013

1

1.8

11

20.0

43

78.2

55

2013/2014

1

2.1

9

18.8

38

79.2

48

2014/2015

1

1.5

13

19.4

53

79.1

67

2015/2016

3

4.6

9

13.8

53

81.5

65

2016/2017

0

0.0

3

6.4

44

93.6

47

2017/2018

2

3.6

6

10.9

47

85.5

55

Total

19

3.4

81

14.6

454

81.9

554

Provincial

2008/2009

1

3.0

7

21.2

25

75.8

33

2009/2010

1

2.6

5

12.8

33

84.6

39

2010/2011

0

0.0

5

14.3

30

85.7

35

2011/2012

0

0.0

16

42.1

22

57.9

38

2012/2013

1

2.3

8

18.2

35

79.5

44

2013/2014

1

2.4

10

24.4

30

73.2

41

2014/2015

0

0.0

9

24.3

28

75.7

37

2015/2016

0

0.0

6

14.3

36

85.7

42

2016/2017

0

0.0

7

17.1

34

82.9

41

2017/2018

0

0.0

14

25.0

42

75.0

56

Total

4

1.0

87

21.4

315

77.6

406

Total Federal and Provincial Offender Deaths

23

2.4

168

17.5

769

80.1

960

Source: Adult Correctional Services Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice and Community Safety Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Notes:

*Other causes of death include: natural causes, accidental deaths, death as a result of a legal intervention, other causes of death and where cause of death was unknown.

Data for Alberta for 2013-14 and onward are now available.

The data on cause of death are subject to change following an official review or investigation, and should be used/interpreted with caution. The data presented were provided by the Canadian Centre for Justice and Community Safety Statistics at Statistics Canada and may not reflect the outcome of recent reviews or investigations on cause of death.

The number of escapees has decreased

Figure C20

Number of escapees from federal institutions

Source: Correctional Service of Canada.

Notes:

The data represent the number of escape incidents from federal facilities during each fiscal year. An escape can involve more than one offender. These numbers are subject to change further to new information becoming available. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

Table C20: The number of escapees has decreased

Escapes

2014-15

2015-16

2016-17

2017-18

2018-19

Total Number of Escape Incidents

14

15

8

11

11

Total Number of Escapees

15

18

8

15

11

Source: Correctional Service of Canada.

Notes:

The data represent the number of escape incidents from federal facilities during each fiscal year. An escape can involve more than one offender. These numbers are subject to change further to new information becoming available. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

The population of offenders in the community under supervision has increased

Figure C21

In community under supervision population at fiscal year* end

Source: Correctional Service of Canada.

Notes:

*These cases reflect the number of offenders on active supervision at fiscal year-end. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

The data reflect the offender population in the community under supervision which includes all active offenders on day parole, full parole, statutory release, offenders who are temporarily detained in a non-CSC facility, offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days, offenders on remand in a non-CSC facility, and offenders supervised and subject to an immigration hold by Canada Border Services Agency.

** The data presented above do not include offenders who were on long-term supervision orders (See Figure/Table E4).

Day parole is a type of conditional release granted by the Parole Board of Canada whereby offenders are permitted to participate in community-based activities in preparation for full parole or statutory release. The conditions require offenders to return nightly to an institution or half-way house unless otherwise authorized by the Parole Board of Canada. Full parole is a type of conditional release granted by the Parole Board of Canada whereby the remainder of the sentence is served under supervision in the community. Statutory release refers to a conditional release that is subject to supervision after the offender has served two-thirds of the sentence.

Table C21: The population of offenders in the community under supervision has increased

Year

Supervision Type of Offenders

Day Parole

Full Parole

Statutory Release

Totals

% change*

Women

Men

Women

Men

Women

Men

Women

Men

Both

Both

2009-10

108

1,083

328

3,418

93

2,602

529

7,103

7,632

2010-11

79

1,017

314

3,441

109

2,598

502

7,056

7,558

-1.0

2011-12

123

1,123

257

3,154

127

2,661

507

6,938

7,445

-1.5

2012-13

116

1,106

225

2,932

136

2,801

477

6,839

7,316

-1.7

2013-14

106

1,104

225

3,017

153

2,858

484

6,979

7,463

2.0

2014-15

115

1,236

239

3,065

150

2,909

504

7,210

7,714

3.4

2015-16

124

1,248

273

3,276

177

2,849

574

7,373

7,947

3.0

2016-17

158

1,392

316

3,587

154

2,856

628

7,835

8,463

6.5

2017-18

197

1,462

369

3,864

145

2,644

711

7,970

8,681

2.6

2018-19

192

1,500

370

4,059

159

2,595

721

8,154

8,875

2.2

Source: Correctional Service of Canada.

Notes:

These cases reflect the number of offenders on active supervision at fiscal year-end. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

The data reflect the offender population in the community under supervision which includes all active offenders on day parole, full parole, statutory release, offenders who are temporarily detained in a non-CSC facility, offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days, offenders on remand in a non-CSC facility, and offenders supervised and subject to an immigration hold by Canada Border Services Agency.

The data presented above do not include offenders who were on long-term supervision orders (See Figure/Table E4).

Day parole is a type of conditional release granted by the Parole Board of Canada whereby offenders are permitted to participate in community-based activities in preparation for full parole or statutory release. The conditions require offenders to return nightly to an institution or half-way house unless otherwise authorized by the Parole Board of Canada. Full parole is a type of conditional release granted by the Parole Board of Canada whereby the remainder of the sentence is served under supervision in the community. Statutory release refers to a conditional release that is subject to supervision after the offender has served two-thirds of the sentence.

*Percent change is measured from the previous year.

The provincial/territorial community corrections population has remained stable

Figure C22

Average monthly offender counts

Source: Table 35-10-0154-01, Corrections Key Indicator Report for Adults and Youth, Canadian Centre for Justice and Community Safety Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Note:

A conditional sentence is a disposition of the court where the offender serves a term of imprisonment in the community under specified conditions. This type of sentence can only be imposed in cases where the term of imprisonment would be less than two years. Conditional sentences have been a provincial and territorial sentencing option since September 1996.

Table C22: The provincial/territorial community corrections population has remained stable

Year

Average Monthly Offender Counts on Probation

Average Monthly Offender Counts on Conditional Sentence

Total

2008-09

97,529

13,124

110,653

2009-10

99,498

13,105

112,603

2010-11

101,825

12,969

114,794

2011-12

98,843

12,616

111,459

2012-13

96,116

12,202

108,318

2013-14

84,905

10,077

94,982

2014-15

80,705

8,746

89,451

2015-16

85,845

8,259

94,104

2016-17

84,978

7,249

92,227

2017-18

87,342

6,529

93,871

Source: Table 35-10-0154-01, Corrections Key Indicator Report for Adults and Youth, Canadian Centre for Justice and Community Safety Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Note:

A conditional sentence is a disposition of the court where the offender serves a term of imprisonment in the community under specified conditions. This type of sentence can only be imposed in cases where the term of imprisonment would be less than two years. Conditional sentences have been a provincial and territorial sentencing option since September 1996.

The number of offenders on provincial parole increased

Figure C23

Average monthly count of offenders on provincial parole

Source: Table 35-10-0154-01, Corrections Key Indicator Report for Adults and Youth, Canadian Centre for Justice and Community Safety Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Note:

Provincial parole boards operate in Quebec and Ontario. On April 1, 2007, the Parole Board of Canada assumed responsibility for parole decisions relating to offenders serving sentences in British Columbia's provincial correctional facilities. The Parole Board of Canada has jurisdiction over granting parole to provincial offenders in the Atlantic and Prairie provinces, British Columbia, and to territorial offenders in Yukon, Nunavut and the Northwest Territories.

Table C23: The number of offenders on provincial parole increased

Year

Average Monthly Counts on Provincial Parole

Provincial Boards

Parole Board of Canada**

Total

% Change

Quebec

Ontario

British Columbia*

Total

2008-09

533

217

n/a

750

190

940

2009-10

506

194

n/a

700

168

868

-7.7

2010-11

482

171

n/a

653

167

820

-5.5

2011-12

481

179

n/a

660

144

804

-2.0

2012-13

462

164

n/a

626

143

769

-4.4

2013-14

527

172

n/a

699

154

853

10.9

2014-15

612

207

n/a

821

151

972

14.0

2015-16

639

207

n/a

846

139

985

1.5

2016-17

701

205

n/a

907

151

1,058

7.4

2017-18

792

242

n/a

1,034

163

1,197

13.2

Source: Table 35-10-0154-01, Corrections Key Indicator Report for Adults and Youth, Canadian Centre for Justice and Community Safety Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Notes:

*On April 1, 2007, the Parole Board of Canada assumed responsibility for parole decisions relating to offenders serving sentences in British Columbia's provincial correctional facilities.

**The data represent the number of provincial offenders who are released from custody on the authority of the Parole Board of Canada and supervised by the Correctional Service of Canada.

Provincial parole boards operate in Quebec and Ontario. The Parole Board of Canada has jurisdiction over granting parole to provincial offenders in the Atlantic and Prairie provinces, British Columbia, and to territorial offenders in Yukon, Nunavut and the Northwest Territories.


Section D. Conditional Release

The percentage of offenders released from a federal institution or Healing Lodge at statutory release has decreased

Figure D1

Percentage of offenders released on statutory release*

Source: Correctional Service of Canada.

Notes:

*Percentage is calculated based on the number of statutory releases compared to the total releases for each offender group.

The data includes all releases from a federal institution or Healing Lodge in a given fiscal year excluding offenders with quashed sentences, offenders who died in custody, LTSO (Long-Term Supervision Orders) releases, offenders released at warrant expiry and offenders transferred to foreign countries. An offender may be released more than once a year in cases where a previous release was subject to revocation, suspension, temporary detention, or interruption.

Statutory release refers to a conditional release that is subject to supervision after the offender has served two-thirds of the sentence.

A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

Table D1: The percentage of offenders released from a federal institution or Healing Lodge at statutory release has decreased

Year

Indigenous

Non-Indigenous

Total Offender Population

Statutory Release

Total Releases

%*

Statutory Release

Total Releases

%*

Statutory Release

Total Releases

%*

2009-10

1,420

1,733

81.9

4,118

6,073

67.8

5,538

7,806

70.9

2010-11

1,341

1,604

83.6

3,739

5,642

66.3

5,080

7,246

70.1

2011-12

1,476

1,778

83.0

3,825

5,462

70.0

5,301

7,240

73.2

2012-13

1,603

1,928

83.1

3,985

5,605

71.1

5,588

7,533

74.2

2013-14

1,709

2,009

85.1

3,927

5,672

69.2

5,636

7,681

73.4

2014-15

1,724

2,043

84.4

3,648

5,489

66.5

5,372

7,532

71.3

2015-16

1,668

2,019

82.6

3,640

5,597

65.0

5,308

7,616

69.7

2016-17

1,578

2,025

77.9

3,305

5,551

59.5

4,883

7,576

64.5

2017-18

1,520

2,042

74.4

2,899

5,206

55.7

4,419

7,248

61.0

2018-19

1,420

2,004

70.9

2,758

5,068

54.4

4,178

7,072

59.1

Source: Correctional Service of Canada.

Notes:

*Percentage is calculated based on the number of statutory releases compared to the total releases for each offender group.

The data includes all releases from a federal institution or Healing Lodge in a given fiscal year excluding offenders with quashed sentences, offenders who died in custody, LTSO (Long-Term Supervision Orders) releases, offenders released at warrant expiry and offenders transferred to foreign countries. An offender may be released more than once a year in cases where a previous release was subject to revocation, suspension, temporary detention, or interruption.

Statutory release refers to a conditional release that is subject to supervision after the offender has served two-thirds of the sentence.

A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

The percentage of offenders released from a federal institution or Healing Lodge on day parole has increased

Figure D2

Percentage of offenders released*

Source: Correctional Service of Canada.

Notes:

*Percentage is calculated based on the number of day and full paroles compared to the total releases for each offender group.

The data includes all releases from a federal institution or Healing Lodge in a given fiscal year excluding offenders with quashed sentences, offenders who died in custody, LTSO releases, offenders released at warrant expiry and offenders transferred to foreign countries. An offender may be released more than once a year in cases where a previous release was subject to revocation, suspension, temporary detention, or interruption.

Day parole is a type of conditional release granted by the Parole Board of Canada whereby offenders are permitted to participate in community-based activities in preparation for full parole or statutory release. The conditions require offenders to return nightly to an institution or half-way house unless otherwise authorized by the Parole Board of Canada.

Full parole is a type of conditional release granted by the Parole Board of Canada whereby the remainder of the sentence is served under supervision in the community.

A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

Table D2: The percentage of offenders released from a federal institution or Healing Lodge on day parole has increased

Year

Indigenous

Non-Indigenous

Total Offender Population

Day Parole

Full Parole

Total Releases

Day Parole

Full Parole

Total Releases

Day Parole

Full Parole

Total Releases

2009-10

#

301

12

1,733

1,795

160

6,073

2,096

172

7,806

%

17.4

0.7

29.6

2.6

26.9

2.2

2010-11

#

252

11

1,604

1,766

137

5,642

2,018

148

7,246

%

15.7

0.7

31.3

2.4

27.8

2.0

2011-12

#

290

12

1,778

1,521

116

5,462

1,811

128

7,240

%

16.3

0.7

27.8

2.1

25.0

1.8

2012-13

#

318

7

1,928

1,510

110

5,605

1,828

117

7,533

%

16.5

0.4

26.9

2.0

24.3

1.6

2013-14

#

282

18

2,009

1,600

145

5,672

1,882

163

7,681

%

14.0

0.9

28.2

2.6

24.5

2.1

2014-15

#

309

10

2,043

1,666

175

5,489

1,975

185

7,532

%

15.1

0.5

30.4

3.2

26.2

2.5

2015-16

#

337

14

2,019

1,793

164

5,597

2,130

178

7,616

%

16.7

0.7

32.0

2.9

28.0

2.3

2016-17

#

434

13

2,025

2,093

153

5,551

2,527

166

7,576

%

21.4

0.6

37.7

2.8

33.4

2.2

2017-18

#

497

25

2,042

2,124

183

5,206

2,621

208

7,248

%

24.3

1.2

40.8

3.5

36.2

2.9

2018-19

#

549

35

2,004

2,138

172

5,068

2,687

207

7,072

%

27.4

1.7

42.2

3.4

38.0

2.9

Source: Correctional Service of Canada.

Notes:

The data includes all releases from a federal institution or Healing Lodge in a given fiscal year excluding offenders with quashed sentences, offenders who died in custody, LTSO releases, offenders released at warrant expiry and offenders transferred to foreign countries. An offender may be released more than once a year in cases where a previous release was subject to revocation, suspension, temporary detention, or interruption. Day parole is a type of conditional release granted by the Parole Board of Canada whereby offenders are permitted to participate in community-based activities in preparation for full parole or statutory release. The conditions require offenders to return nightly to an institution or half-way house unless otherwise authorized by the Parole Board of Canada.

Full parole is a type of conditional release granted by the Parole Board of Canada whereby the remainder of the sentence is served under supervision in the community.

A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

Due to rounding, percentages may not add up to 100 percent.

Federal day and full parole grant rates increased

Figure D3

Federal parole grant rate

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Notes:

The grant rate represents the percentage of pre-release reviews resulting in a grant by the Parole Board of Canada.

Day parole is a type of conditional release granted by the Parole Board of Canada in which offenders are permitted to participate in community-based activities in preparation for full parole or statutory release. The conditions require offenders to return nightly to an institution, half-way house, or other location deemed appropriate for managing their risk, unless otherwise authorized by the Parole Board of Canada. Not all offenders apply for day parole, and some apply more than once before being granted day parole.

Full parole is a type of conditional release granted by the Parole Board of Canada in which the remainder of the sentence is served under supervision in the community. The Parole Board of Canada must review the cases of all offenders for full parole at the time prescribed by legislation, unless the offender advises the Parole Board of Canada in writing that he/she does not wish to be considered for full parole.

On March 28, 2011, Bill C-59 (Abolition of Early Parole Act) eliminated the accelerated parole review (APR) process, affecting first-time non-violent offenders serving sentences for Schedule II and non-Schedule offences, who in 2011-12 were no longer eligible for an APR review. These offenders are now assessed on general reoffending as compared to the APR risk assessment, which considered the risk of committing a violent offence only. To better illustrate historical trends, APR decisions were excluded.

Even though comparisons were made between federal regular day parole and full parole grant rates only, they nevertheless contain an APR residual effect between 2011-12 and 2015-16 as a sufficiently large proportion of the APR-affected population was granted regular federal day parole and full parole, perhaps inflating the grant rates.

Table D3: Federal day and full parole grant rates increased

Type of Release

Year

Granted

Denied

Grant Rate (%)

APR*

Women

Men

Women

Men

Women

Men

Total

Directed

Total

Day Parole

2009-10

153

1,957

40

967

79.3

66.9

67.7

947

1,491

2010-11

136

1,854

43

1,148

76.0

61.8

62.6

970

1,591

2011-12

249

2,491

65

1,442

79.3

63.3

64.5

0

0

2012-13

289

2,821

73

1,415

79.8

66.6

67.6

14

21

2013-14

248

2,824

52

1,274

82.7

68.9

69.8

39

47

2014-15

297

3,024

52

1,281

85.1

70.2

71.4

38

45

2015-16

291

3,093

52

1,078

84.8

74.2

75.0

86

90

2016-17

399

3,445

48

1,041

89.3

76.8

77.9

80

83

2017-18

437

3,612

30

1,039

93.6

77.7

79.1

100

106

2018-19

470

3,736

28

1,055

94.4

78.0

79.5

56

58

Full Parole

2009-10

32

461

89

2,080

26.4

18.1

18.5

1,004

1,010

2010-11

20

436

88

2,204

18.5

16.5

16.6

1,046

1,059

2011-12

77

644

126

2,317

37.9

21.7

22.8

0

0

2012-13

90

914

143

2,327

38.6

28.2

28.9

26

26

2013-14

84

904

103

2,202

44.9

29.1

30.0

126

142

2014-15

87

969

106

2,307

45.1

29.6

30.4

119

137

2015-16

96

1,063

127

2,154

43.0

33.0

33.7

166

185

2016-17

138

1,237

158

2,383

46.6

34.2

35.1

122

126

2017-18

153

1,363

175

2,357

46.6

36.6

37.5

161

165

2018-19

157

1,446

176

2,419

47.1

37.5

38.2

66

67

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Notes:

The grant rate represents the percentage of pre-release reviews resulting in a grant by the Parole Board of Canada.

Day parole is a type of conditional release granted by the Parole Board of Canada in which offenders are permitted to participate in community-based activities in preparation for full parole or statutory release. The conditions require offenders to return nightly to an institution, half-way house, or other location deemed appropriate for managing their risk, unless otherwise authorized by the Parole Board of Canada. Not all offenders apply for day parole, and some apply more than once before being granted day parole.

Full parole is a type of conditional release granted by the Parole Board of Canada in which the remainder of the sentence is served under supervision in the community. The Parole Board of Canada must review the cases of all offenders for full parole at the time prescribed by legislation, unless the offender advises the Parole Board of Canada in writing that he/she does not wish to be considered for full parole. Grant rates should be read with caution.

*On March 28, 2011, Bill C-59 (Abolition of Early Parole Act) eliminated the accelerated parole review (APR) process, affecting first-time non-violent offenders serving sentences for Schedule II and non-Schedule offences, who in 2011-12 were no longer eligible for an APR review. These offenders are now assessed on general reoffending as compared to the APR risk assessment, which considered the risk of committing a violent offence only. To better illustrate historical trends, APR decisions were excluded. However, the information on APR (the number of paroles directed and the total number of APR decisions) is presented in a separate section of the table. Grant rates should be read with caution. Even though comparisons were made between federal regular day parole and full parole grant rates only, they nevertheless contain an APR residual effect between 2011-12 and 2015-16 as a sufficiently large proportion of the APR-affected population were granted regular federal day parole and full parole, perhaps inflating the grant rates.

*As a result of court challenges, the Pacific Region (in 2012) and the Quebec Region (in 2013) have been processing active APR cases for offenders sentenced or convicted prior to the abolition of APR. Following the Canada (Attorney General) v. Whaling decision on March 20, 2014, the accelerated parole review process was reinstated across all regions for offenders sentenced prior to the abolition of APR.

Federal day and full parole grant rates for Indigenous offenders increased

Figure D4

Federal parole grant rate

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Notes:

The grant rate represents the percentage of pre-release reviews resulting in a grant by the Parole Board of Canada.

Day parole is a type of conditional release granted by the Parole Board of Canada in which offenders are permitted to participate in community-based activities in preparation for full parole or statutory release. The conditions require offenders to return nightly to an institution, half-way house, or other location deemed appropriate for managing their risk, unless otherwise authorized by the Parole Board of Canada. Not all offenders apply for day parole, and some apply more than once before being granted day parole.

Full parole is a type of conditional release granted by the Parole Board of Canada in which the remainder of the sentence is served under supervision in the community. The Parole Board of Canada must review the cases of all offenders for full parole at the time prescribed by legislation, unless the offender advises the Parole Board of Canada in writing that he/she does not wish to be considered for full parole.

On March 28, 2011, Bill C-59 (Abolition of Early Parole Act) eliminated the accelerated parole review (APR) process, affecting first-time non-violent offenders serving sentences for schedule II and non-scheduled offences, who in 2011-12 were no longer eligible for an APR review. These offenders are now assessed on general reoffending as compared to the APR risk assessment, which considered the risk of committing a violent offence only. To better illustrate historical trends, APR were excluded. Grant rates should be read with caution. Even though comparisons were made between federal regular day parole and full parole grant rates only, they nevertheless contain an APR residual effect between 2011-12 and 2015-16 as a sufficiently large proportion of the APR-affected population were granted regular federal day parole and full parole, perhaps inflating the grant rates.

Table D4: Federal day and full parole grant rates for Indigenous offenders increased

Type of Release

Year

Granted

Denied

Grant Rate (%)

Total

Indigenous

Non-Ind.

Indigenous

Non-Ind.

Indigenous

Non-Ind.

Granted/Denied

Grant Rate (%)

Day Parole

2009-10

410

1,700

217

790

65.4

68.3

3,117

67.7

2010-11

376

1,614

290

901

56.5

64.2

3,181

62.6

2011-12

475

2,265

350

1,157

57.6

66.2

4,247

64.5

2012-13

565

2,545

322

1,166

63.7

68.6

4,598

67.6

2013-14

526

2,546

307

1,019

63.1

71.4

4,398

69.8

2014-15

567

2,754

268

1,065

67.9

72.1

4,654

71.4

2015-16

606

2,778

264

866

69.7

76.2

4,514

75.0

2016-17

715

3,129

258

831

73.5

79.0

4,933

77.9

2017-18

818

3,231

288

781

74.0

80.5

5,118

79.1

2018-19

937

3,269

286

797

76.6

80.4

5,289

79.5

Full Parole

2009-10

50

443

420

1,749

10.6

20.2

2,662

18.5

2010-11

71

385

480

1,812

12.9

17.5

2,748

16.6

2011-12

76

645

473

1,970

13.8

24.7

3,164

22.8

2012-13

103

901

475

1,995

17.8

31.1

3,474

28.9

2013-14

124

864

425

1,880

22.6

31.5

3,293

30.0

2014-15

108

948

452

1,961

19.3

32.6

3,469

30.4

2015-16

136

1,023

435

1,846

23.8

35.7

3,440

33.7

2016-17

155

1,220

469

2,072

24.8

37.1

3,916

35.1

2017-18

168

1,348

572

1,960

22.7

40.7

4,048

37.5

2018-19

235

1,372

607

1,988

27.9

40.8

4,202

38.2

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Notes:

The grant rate represents the percentage of pre-release reviews resulting in a grant by the Parole Board of Canada.

Day parole is a type of conditional release granted by the Parole Board of Canada in which offenders are permitted to participate in community-based activities in preparation for full parole or statutory release. The conditions require offenders to return nightly to an institution, half-way house, or other location deemed appropriate for managing their risk, unless otherwise authorized by the Parole Board of Canada. Not all offenders apply for day parole, and some apply more than once before being granted day parole.

Full parole is a type of conditional release granted by the Parole Board of Canada in which the remainder of the sentence is served under supervision in the community. The Parole Board of Canada must review the cases of all offenders for full parole at the time prescribed by legislation, unless the offender advises the Parole Board of Canada in writing that he/she does not wish to be considered for full parole.

On March 28, 2011, Bill C-59 (Abolition of Early Parole Act) eliminated the accelerated parole review (APR) process, affecting first-time non-violent offenders serving sentences for schedule II and non-scheduled offences, who in 2011-12 were no longer eligible for an APR review. These offenders are now assessed on general reoffending as compared to the APR risk assessment, which considered the risk of committing a violent offence only. To better illustrate historical trends, APR were excluded. Grant rates should be read with caution. Even though comparisons were made between federal regular day parole and full parole grant rates only, they nevertheless contain an APR residual effect between 2011-12 and 2015-16 as a sufficiently large proportion of the APR-affected population were granted regular federal day parole and full parole, perhaps inflating the grant rates.

The number of federal Elder-Assisted parole hearings increased

Figure D5

Federal Elder-Assisted parole hearings

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Notes:

The presence of an Elder is an alternative approach to the traditional parole hearing, and was introduced by the Parole Board of Canada to ensure that conditional release hearings are sensitive to Indigenous cultural values and traditions. This type of hearing is available to both Indigenous and non-Indigenous offenders.

The term "Elder" also refers to a Cultural Advisor as defined in section 11.1.1.5 of the Decision-Making Policy Manual.

Table D5: The number of federal Elder-Assisted parole hearings increased

Year

Elder-Assisted Hearings

Indigenous Offenders

Non-Indigenous Offenders

All Offenders

Total Hearings

With an Elder

Total Hearings

With an Elder

Total Hearings

With an Elder

#

#

%

#

#

%

#

#

%

2009-10

1,215

363

29.9

4,393

54

1.2

5,608

417

7.4

2010-11

1,234

440

35.7

4,266

49

1.1

5,500

489

8.9

2011-12

1,275

431

33.8

4,590

38

0.8

5,865

469

8.0

2012-13

1,313

423

32.2

4,631

46

1.0

5,944

469

7.9

2013-14

930

347

37.3

3,658

29

0.8

4,588

376

8.2

2014-15

889

360

40.5

3,827

43

1.1

4,716

403

8.5

2015-16

961

374

38.9

3,969

30

0.8

4,930

404

8.2

2016-17

1,297

554

42.7

4,496

49

1.1

5,793

603

10.4

2017-18

1,539

635

41.3

4,848

42

0.9

6,387

677

10.6

2018-19

1,630

681

41.8

4,932

38

0.8

6,562

719

11.0

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Notes:

The presence of an Elder is an alternative approach to the traditional parole hearing, and was introduced by the Parole Board of Canada to ensure that conditional release hearings are sensitive to Indigenous cultural values and traditions. This type of hearing is available to both Indigenous and non-Indigenous offenders.

The term "Elder" also refers to a Cultural Advisor as defined in section 11.1.1.5 of the Decision-Making Policy Manual.

Proportion of sentence served prior to being released on parole decreased for women

Figure D6

Percentage of sentence served

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Notes:

Timing of parole in the sentence refers to the percentage of the sentence served at the time the first day parole or full parole starts during the sentence. In most cases a full parole is preceded by a day parole. These calculations are based on sentences under federal jurisdiction, excluding life sentences and indeterminate sentences. Offenders (other than those serving life or indeterminate sentences or subject to judicial determination) normally become eligible for full parole after serving 1/3 of their sentence or seven years, whichever is less. Eligibility for day parole is normally at six months before full parole eligibility.

The increases in the average proportion of time served after 2010-11 are in part due to the effect of Bill C-59 and were driven primarily by offenders serving sentences for Schedule II and non-Schedule offences (some of whom were former APR-eligible offenders).

Table D6: Proportion of sentence served prior to being released on parole decreased for women

Year

Type of Supervision

First Federal Day Parole

First Federal Full Parole

Women

Men

Total  

Women

Men

Total

Percentage of Sentence Served (%)

2009-10

29.5

33.2

32.8

36.1

38.5

38.2

2010-11

29.2

31.8

31.6

36.6

38.1

37.9

2011-12

35.0

38.1

37.8

40.3

41.7

41.6

2012-13

38.9

38.3

38.4

45.6

46.9

46.7

2013-14

34.9

38.3

38.0

44.2

46.8

46.6

2014-15

35.3

37.9

37.7

44.9

45.9

45.8

2015-16

36.9

38.7

38.5

45.2

46.6

46.5

2016-17

33.6

37.5

37.1

43.5

46.1

45.8

2017-18

33.4

37.2

36.8

42.5

45.0

44.7

2018-19

32.6

38.0

37.4

41.8

45.3

44.9

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Notes:

Timing of parole in the sentence refers to the percentage of the sentence served at the time the first day parole or full parole starts during the sentence. In most cases a full parole is preceded by a day parole. These calculations are based on sentences under federal jurisdiction, excluding life sentences and indeterminate sentences. Offenders (other than those serving life or indeterminate sentences or subject to judicial determination) normally become eligible for full parole after serving 1/3 of their sentence or seven years, whichever is less. Eligibility for day parole is normally at six months before full parole eligibility.

The increases in the average proportion of time served after 2010-11 are in part due to the effect of Bill C-59 and were driven primarily by offenders serving sentences for Schedule II and non-Schedule offences (some of whom were former APR-eligible offenders).

Indigenous offenders serve a higher proportion of their sentences before being released on parole

Figure D7

Percentage of sentence served in custody before first federal parole

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Notes:

Timing of parole in the sentence refers to the percentage of the sentence served at the time the first day parole or full parole starts during the sentence. In most cases a full parole is preceded by a day parole.

These calculations are based on sentences under federal jurisdiction, excluding life sentences and indeterminate sentences.

Offenders (other than those serving life or indeterminate sentences or subject to judicial determination) normally become eligible for full parole after serving 1/3 of their sentence or seven years, whichever is less. Eligibility for day parole is normally at six months before full parole eligibility.

The increases in the average proportion of time served after 2010-11 are in part due to the effect of Bill C-59 and were driven primarily by offenders serving sentences for Schedule II and non-Schedule offences (some of whom were former APR-eligible offenders).

Table D7: Indigenous offenders serve a higher proportion of their sentences before being released on parole

Year

Type of Supervision

First Federal Day Parole

First Federal Full Parole

Indigenous

Non- Indigenous

Total

Indigenous

Non- Indigenous

Total

Percentage of Sentence Served (%)

2009-10

38.7

31.8

32.8

41.0

37.9

38.2

2010-11

37.2

30.8

31.6

41.6

37.5

37.9

2011-12

41.7

37.1

37.8

43.7

41.4

41.6

2012-13

42.2

37.6

38.4

49.2

46.5

46.7

2013-14

42.9

37.1

38.0

49.3

46.2

46.6

2014-15

40.9

37.1

37.7

47.1

45.6

45.8

2015-16

44.0

37.5

38.5

50.8

46.0

46.5

2016-17

41.0

36.2

37.1

49.0

45.4

45.8

2017-18

41.6

35.7

36.8

48.1

44.3

44.7

2018-19

42.2

36.2

37.4

47.8

44.5

44.9

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Notes:

Timing of parole in the sentence refers to the percentage of the sentence served at the time the first day parole or full parole starts during the sentence. In most cases a full parole is preceded by a day parole.

These calculations are based on sentences under federal jurisdiction, excluding life sentences and indeterminate sentences.

Offenders (other than those serving life or indeterminate sentences or subject to judicial determination) normally become eligible for full parole after serving 1/3 of their sentence or seven years, whichever is less. Eligibility for day parole is normally at six months before full parole eligibility.

The increases in the average proportion of time served after 2010-11 are in part due to the effect of Bill C-59 and were driven primarily by offenders serving sentences for Schedule II and non-Schedule offences (some of whom were former APR-eligible offenders).

The successful completion rate of federal day parole supervision periods remained stable

Figure D8

Day parole outcomes – 10-year trend

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Notes:

*Revocation for Breach of Conditions includes revocation with outstanding charges.

A day parole supervision period is considered successful if it was completed without a return to prison for a breach of conditions or for a new offence.

Table D8: The successful completion rate of federal day parole supervision periods remained stable

Federal Day Parole Outcomes

2014-15

2015-16

2016-17

2017-18

2018-19

#

%

#

%

#

%

#

%

#

%

Successful Completion

Regular

2,784

90.4

2,982

90.5

3,172

91.5

3,467

91.0

3,619

91.3

Accelerated

36

100.0

38

100.0

86

97.7

84

93.3

75

98.7

Total

2,820

90.5

3,020

90.6

3,258

91.7

3,551

91.1

3,694

91.4

Revocation for Breach of Conditions*

Regular

260

8.4

272

8.3

249

7.2

284

7.5

304

7.7

Accelerated

0

0.0

0

0.0

2

2.3

6

6.7

1

1.3

Total

260

8.3

272

8.2

251

7.1

290

7.4

305

7.5

Revocation with Non-Violent Offence

Regular

35

1.1

32

1.0

37

1.1

53

1.4

37

0.9

Accelerated

0

0.0

0

0.0

0

0.0

0

0.0

0

0.0

Total

35

1.1

32

1.0

37

1.0

53

1.4

37

0.9

Revocation with Violent Offence**

Regular

1

0.0

9

0.3

7

0.2

6

0.2

5

0.1

Accelerated

0

0.0

0

0.0

0

0.0

0

0.0

0

0.0

Total

1

0.0

9

0.3

7

0.2

6

0.2

5

0.1

Total

Regular

3,080

98.8

3,295

98.9

3,465

97.5

3,810

97.7

3,965

98.1

Accelerated

36

1.2

38

1.1

88

2.5

90

2.3

76

1.9

Total

3,116

100.0

3,333

100.0

3,553

100.0

3,900

100.0

4,041

100.0

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Notes:

*Revocation for Breach of Conditions includes revocation with outstanding charges.

**Violent offences include murder and Schedule I offences (listed in the Corrections and Conditional Release Act) such as assaults, sexual offences, arson, abduction, robbery and some weapon offences.

A day parole supervision period is considered successful if it was completed without a return to prison for a breach of conditions or for a new offence.

The successful completion rate of federal full parole supervision periods decreased

Figure D9

Full parole outcomes* – 10-year trend

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Notes:

*Excludes offenders serving indeterminate sentences because they do not have a warrant expiry date and can only successfully complete full parole upon [their] death.

**Revocation for Breach of Conditions includes revocation with outstanding charges.

A full parole supervision period is considered successful if it was completed without a return to prison for a breach of conditions or for a new offence.

Table D9: The successful completion rate of federal full parole supervision periods decreased

Federal Full Parole Outcomes*

2014-15

2015-16

2016-17

2017-18

2018-19

#

%

#

%

#

%

#

%

#

%

Successful Completion

Regular

734

86.9

757

87.5

846

89.7

968

90.6

1,054

87.0

Accelerated

97

87.4

95

86.4

89

88.1

102

88.7

118

95.2

Total

831

86.9

852

87.4

935

89.6

1,070

90.4

1,172

87.8

Revocation for Breach of Conditions**

Regular

77

9.1

76

8.8

65

6.9

75

7.0

126

10.4

Accelerated

11

9.9

12

10.9

10

9.9

8

7.0

5

4.0

Total

88

9.2

88

9.0

75

7.2

83

7.0

131

9.8

Revocation with Non-Violent Offence

Regular

33

3.9

25

2.9

27

2.9

21

2.0

26

2.1

Accelerated

3

2.7

3

2.7

1

1.0

5

4.3

1

0.8

Total

36

3.8

28

2.9

28

2.7

26

2.2

27

2.0

Revocation with Violent Offence***

Regular

1

0.1

7

0.8

5

0.5

5

0.5

5

0.4

Accelerated

0

0.0

0

0.0

1

1.0

0

0.0

0

0.0

Total

1

0.1

7

0.7

6

0.6

5

0.4

5

0.4

Total

Regular

845

88.4

865

88.7

943

90.3

1,069

90.3

1,211

90.7

Accelerated

111

11.6

110

11.3

101

9.7

115

9.7

124

9.3

Total

956

100.0

975

100.0

1,044

100.0

1,184

100.0

1,335

100.0

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Notes:

*Excludes offenders serving indeterminate sentences because they do not have a warrant expiry date and can only successfully complete full parole upon [their] death.

**Revocation for Breach of Conditions includes revocation with outstanding charges.

***Violent offences include murder and Schedule I offences (listed in the Corrections and Conditional Release Act) such as assaults, sexual offences, arson, abduction, robbery and some weapon offences.

A full parole supervision period is considered successful if it was completed without a return to prison for a breach of conditions or for a new offence.

The successful completion rate of statutory release supervision periods remained stable

Figure D10

Statutory release outcomes – 10-year trend

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Notes:

*Revocation for Breach of Conditions includes revocation with outstanding charges.

A statutory release supervision period is considered successful if it was completed without a return to prison for a breach of conditions or for a new offence.

An offender serving a determinate sentence, if he/she is not detained, will be subject to statutory release after serving 2/3 of his/her sentence if he/she is not on full parole at that time. On statutory release, an offender is subject to supervision until the end of his/her sentence.

Table D10 : The successful completion rate of statutory release supervision periods remained stable

Statutory Release Outcomes

2014-15

2015-16

2016-17

2017-18

2018-19

#

%

#

%

#

%

#

%

#

%

Successful

Completion

3,756

62.7

3,779

62.8

3,781

66.8

3,572

66.3

3,262

65.7

Revocation for Breach of

Conditions*

1,648

27.5

1,663

27.6

1,412

25.0

1,299

24.1

1,279

25.8

Revocation with

Non-Violent Offence

491

8.2

485

8.1

382

6.8

445

8.3

366

7.4

Revocation with Violent

Offence**

91

1.5

95

1.6

83

1.5

70

1.3

56

1.1

Total

5,986

100.0

6,022

100.0

5,658

100.0

5,386

100.0

4,963

100.0

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Notes:

*Revocation for Breach of Conditions includes revocation with outstanding charges.

**Violent offences include murder and Schedule I offences (listed in the Corrections and Conditional Release Act) such as assaults, sexual offences, arson, abduction, robbery and some weapon offences.

A statutory release supervision period is considered successful if it was completed without a return to prison for a breach of conditions or for a new offence.

An offender serving a determinate sentence, if he/she is not detained, will be subject to statutory release after serving 2/3 of his/her sentence if he/she is not on full parole at that time. On statutory release, an offender is subject to supervision until the end of his/her sentence.

Over the last ten years, the rates of conviction for violent offences for offenders on federal conditional release has declined

Figure D11

Rate of conviction for violent offences* per 1,000 supervised offenders**

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Notes:

*Violent offences include murder and Schedule I offences (listed in the Corrections and Conditional Release Act) such as assaults, sexual offences, arson, abduction, robbery and some weapon offences.

**Supervised offenders include offenders who are on parole, statutory release, those temporarily detained in federal institutions, and those who are unlawfully at large.

Day and full parole include those offenders serving determinate and indeterminate sentences.

The dotted line between 2017-18 and 2018-19 is intended to signify that due to delays in the court process, the numbers for 2018-19 under-represent the actual number of convictions, as verdicts may have not been reached by year-end.

Table D11: Over the last ten years, the rates of conviction for violent offences for offenders on federal conditional release has declined

Year

# of Convictions for Violent Offences***

Rates per 1,000 Supervised Offenders*

Day Parole

Full Parole

Statutory Release

Total

Day Parole

Full Parole

Statutory Release

2008-09

22

17

153

192

18

4

46

2009-10

17

16

149

182

13

4

46

2010-11

10

19

129

158

8

5

40

2011-12

8

10

135

153

6

3

38

2012-13

9

11

136

156

7

3

39

2013-14

7

10

119

136

6

3

33

2014-15

1

4

91

96

1

1

25

2015-16

9

9

95

113

6

2

26

2016-17

7

9

83

99

4

2

22

2017-18

6

7

70

83

3

2

20

2018-19**

5

8

56

69

3

2

16

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Notes:

*Supervised offenders include offenders who are on parole, statutory release, those temporarily detained in federal institutions, and those who are unlawfully at large.

**Due to delays in the court processes, the numbers for 2018-19 under-represent the actual number of convictions, as verdicts may not have been reached by year-end.

Day and full parole include those offenders serving determinate and indeterminate sentences.

***Violent offences include murder and Schedule I offences (listed in the Corrections and Conditional Release Act) such as assaults, sexual offences, arson, abduction, robbery and some weapon offences.

The number of offenders granted temporary absences remain stable

Figure D12

Number of offenders

Source: Correctional Service of Canada.

Notes:

A temporary absence is permission given to an eligible offender to be away from the normal place of confinement for medical, administrative, community service, family contact, personal development for rehabilitative purposes, or compassionate reasons, including parental responsibilities.

A work release is a structured program of release of specified duration for work or community service outside the penitentiary, under the supervision of a staff member or other authorized person or organization.

These numbers depict the number of offenders who received at least one temporary absence permit (excluding those for medical purposes) or at least one work release. An offender may be granted more than one temporary absence permit or work release over a period of time.

Table D12: The number of offenders granted temporary absences remain stable

Year

Temporary Absences

Work Releases

Escorted

Unescorted

# of Offenders

# of Permits

# of Offenders

# of Permits

# of Offenders

# of Permits

2009-10

2,222

35,815

388

3,295

254

1,063

2010-11

2,301

40,072

353

3,117

339

1,343

2011-12

2,685

44,399

418

3,891

435

875

2012-13

2,753

47,814

448

3,709

455

815

2013-14

2,740

49,502

447

4,004

400

643

2014-15

2,574

49,633

411

3,563

345

489

2015-16

2,430

47,065

445

4,077

304

418

2016-17

2,537

48,568

442

3,778

323

481

2017-18

2,556

50,518

428

3,167

313

444

2018-19

2,536

56,124

411

2,830

304

436

Source: Correctional Service of Canada.

Notes:

A temporary absence is permission given to an eligible offender to be away from the normal place of confinement for medical, administrative, community service, family contact, personal development for rehabilitative purposes, or compassionate reasons, including parental responsibilities.

A work release is a structured program of release of specified duration for work or community service outside the penitentiary, under the supervision of a staff member or other authorized person or organization.

These numbers depict the number of offenders who received at least one temporary absence permit (excluding those for medical purposes) or at least one work release. An offender may be granted more than one temporary absence permit or work release over a period of time.

Section E. Statistics on Special Applications of Criminal Justice

The number of initial detention reviews decreased

Figure E1

Number of initial detention reviews

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Notes:

According to the Corrections and Conditional Release Act, an offender entitled to statutory release after serving two-thirds of the sentence may be held in custody until warrant expiry if it is established that the offender is likely to commit, before the expiry of his/her sentence, an offence causing death or serious harm, a serious drug offence or a sex offence involving a child.

Table E1: The number of initial detention reviews decreased

Year

Outcome of Initial Detention Reviews

Detained

Statutory Release

Total

Total

Ind.*

Non- Ind.**

Total

%

Ind.*

Non- Ind.**

Total

%

Ind.*

Non- Ind.**

2004-05

72

153

225

91.1

6

16

22

8.9

78

169

247

2005-06

75

158

233

89.3

11

17

28

10.7

86

175

261

2006-07

67

155

222

88.8

4

24

28

11.2

71

179

250

2007-08

92

155

247

93.2

7

11

18

6.8

99

166

265

2008-09

109

147

256

95.9

5

6

11

4.1

114

153

267

2009-10

99

162

261

93.9

2

15

17

6.1

101

177

278

2010-11

113

126

239

94.5

5

9

14

5.5

118

135

253

2011-12

89

118

207

96.7

3

4

7

3.3

92

122

214

2012-13

91

141

232

98.3

4

0

4

1.7

95

141

236

2013-14

87

113

200

96.2

4

4

8

3.8

91

117

208

2014-15

70

94

164

94.3

5

5

10

5.7

75

99

174

2015-16

73

94

167

96.5

2

4

6

3.5

75

98

173

2016-17

55

76

131

97.0

2

2

4

3.0

57

78

135

2017-18

50

60

110

92.4

6

3

9

7.6

56

63

119

2018-19

38

39

77

90.6

5

3

8

9.4

43

42

85

Total

1,180

1,791

2,971

96.5

71

123

194

6.3

1,251

1,914

3,080

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Notes:

*Ind. is short form for Indigenous.

**non-Ind. is short form for non-Indigenous.

According to the Corrections and Conditional Release Act, an offender entitled to statutory release after serving two-thirds of the sentence may be held in custody until warrant expiry if it is established that the offender is likely to commit, before the expiry of his/her sentence, an offence causing death or serious harm, a serious drug offence or a sex offence involving a child.

76% of judicial review hearings result in earlier parole eligibility

Figure E2

Judicial review hearings at the end of the fiscal year (2018-19)

Source: Correctional Service of Canada.

Notes:

*Of the 48 offenders who were no longer under active supervision, five were in custody, 36 were deceased, six were deported, and one was unlawfully at large.

Judicial review is an application to the court for a reduction in the time required to be served before being eligible for parole. Judicial review procedures apply to offenders who have been sentenced to imprisonment for life without eligibility for parole until more than fifteen years of their sentence has been served. Offenders can apply when they have served at least 15 years of their sentence.

Judicial reviews are conducted in the province where the conviction took place.

Table E2 : 76% of judicial review hearings result in earlier parole eligibility
Judicial review hearings at the end of the fiscal year (2018-19)

Province/Territory of Judicial Review

Parole Ineligibility Reduced by Court

Reduction Denied by Court

Total

1st Degree Murder

2nd Degree Murder

1st Degree Murder

2nd Degree Murder

1st Degree Murder

2nd Degree Murder

Northwest Territories

0

0

0

0

0

0

Nunavut

0

0

0

0

0

0

Yukon Territories

0

0

0

0

0

0

Newfoundland & Labrador

0

0

0

0

0

0

Prince Edward Island

0

0

0

0

0

0

Nova Scotia

1

1

1

0

2

1

New Brunswick

1

0

0

0

1

0

Quebec

74

15

6

2

80

17

Ontario

23

0

29

1

52

1

Manitoba

8

3

1

0

9

3

Saskatchewan

7

0

3

0

10

0

Alberta

19

0

7

1

26

1

British Columbia

23

1

6

0

29

1

Sub-total

156

20

53

4

209

24

Total

176

57

233

Source: Correctional Service of Canada.

Notes:

These numbers represent total decisions at the end of fiscal year 2018-19.

Judicial reviews are conducted in the province where the conviction took place.

The number of dangerous offender designations

Figure E3

Number of dangerous offenders* designated- 10-year trend

Source: Correctional Service of Canada.

Notes:

*A Dangerous Offender (DO) is an individual given an indeterminate or a determinate sentence on the basis of a particularly violent crime or pattern of serious violent offences where it is judged that the offender's behaviour is unlikely to be inhibited by normal standards of behavioural restraint (see section 753 of the Criminal Code of Canada).

The number of Dangerous Offenders designated per year does not include overturned decisions.

Offenders who have died since receiving designations are no longer classified as "active"; however, they are still represented in the above graph, which depicts the total number of offenders "designated". Dangerous Offender legislation came into effect in Canada on October 15, 1977, replacing the Habitual Offender and Dangerous Sexual Offender provisions that were abolished.

In addition to the DOs, there were 14 Dangerous Sexual Offenders and 3 offenders with an Habitual Offender designation under the responsibility of Correctional Service Canada at the end of fiscal 2018-19.

Determinate sentence for Dangerous Offenders must be a minimum punishment of imprisonment for a term of two years — and have an order that the offender be subject to long-term supervision for a period that does not exceed 10 years.

Table E3: The number of dangerous offender designations

Province/Territory of Designation

All Designations (Designated

Since 1978)

Active Dangerous Offenders

# of Indeterminate Offenders

# of Determinate Offenders

Total

Newfoundland & Labrador

14

8

1

9

Nova Scotia

25

16

2

18

Prince Edward Island

0

0

0

0

New Brunswick

8

4

0

4

Quebec

126

92

22

114

Ontario

411

271

81

352

Manitoba

29

25

2

27

Saskatchewan

104

58

36

94

Alberta

65

52

3

55

British Columbia

165

116

18

134

Yukon Territories

6

1

4

5

Northwest Territories

11

11

0

11

Nunavut

3

1

2

3

Total

967

655

171

826

Source: Correctional Service of Canada.

Notes:

Numbers presented are as of end of fiscal year 2018-19.

The number of Dangerous Offenders declared per year does not include overturned decisions.

Offenders who have died since receiving designations are no longer classified as "active"; however, they are still represented in the total number of offenders "designated".

Most long-term supervision orders are for a 10-year period

Figure E4

Number of Long-term Supervision Orders imposed

Source: Correctional Service of Canada.

Notes:

Long-Term Supervision Order (LTSO) legislation, which came into effect in Canada on August 1, 1997, allows the court to impose a sentence of two years or more for the predicate offence and order that the offender be supervised in the community for a further period not exceeding 10 years.

Eighty-six offenders under these provisions have died, and 245 offenders have completed their long-term supervision period.

Remand is the temporary detention of a person while awaiting trial, sentencing or the commencement of a custodial disposition.

Table E4: Most long-term supervision orders are for a 10-year period

Province or Territory of Order

Length of Supervision Order (Years)

Current Status 2018-19

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

Total

Incarcerated

DP, FP or SR*

LTSO period

LTSO** interrupted

Total

Sentencing Province

Newfoundland & Labrador

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

11

12

3

0

6

0

9

Nova Scotia

0

0

0

0

5

0

1

3

0

13

22

5

1

6

1

13

Prince Edward Island

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

1

2

0

0

0

0

0

New Brunswick

0

0

1

0

2

0

0

1

0

8

12

3

0

1

3

7

Quebec

1

1

7

4

70

20

43

15

2

279

442

116

17

148

31

312

Ontario

0

0

1

7

20

14

21

26

0

290

379

76

16

150

35

277

Manitoba

0

0

0

0

1

2

3

1

0

38

45

9

0

8

8

25

Saskatchewan

0

1

0

1

11

9

13

12

2

80

129

42

10

32

18

102

Alberta

0

0

0

0

8

1

0

1

0

69

79

14

2

26

7

49

British Columbia

0

0

0

2

14

4

5

6

0

123

154

30

11

49

7

97

Yukon Territories

0

0

0

0

1

0

3

0

0

16

20

7

0

8

0

15

Northwest Territories

0

0

0

0

1

1

0

0

0

2

4

0

0

2

1

3

Nunavut

0

0

0

0

2

2

0

1

0

3

8

0

0

4

2

6

Total

1

2

9

14

136

53

89

67

4

933

1,308

305

57

440

113

915

Source: Correctional Service of Canada.

Notes:

*This category includes offenders whose current status is either supervised on day parole (DP), full parole (FP) or statutory release (SR).

**This category includes offenders convicted of a new offence while on the supervision portion of an LTSO. When this occurs, the LTSO supervision period is interrupted until the offender has served the new sentence to its warrant expiry date. At that time, the LTSO supervision period resumes where it left off. From the 113, 92 offenders were in custody, 18 were supervised in the community on statutory release and three offenders were unlawfully at large. 

Long-Term Supervision Order (LTSO) legislation, which came into effect in Canada on August 1, 1997, allows the court to impose a sentence of two years or more for the predicate offence and order that the offender be supervised in the community for a further period not exceeding 10 years.

Eighty-six offenders under these provisions have died, and 245 offenders have completed their long-term supervision period.

The number of record suspension applications received has decreased

Figure E5

Number of record suspension and pardon applications received*

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Notes:

*Refers to pardon applications processed for residents of Ontario and British Columbia following the reversal of the amendments to the CRA (Canada Revenue Agency) by Supreme Court decisions in those provinces.

On March 13, 2012, Bill C-10 amended the CRA by replacing the term "pardon" with the term "record suspension". The Record Suspension and Clemency program involves the review of record suspension applications, the ordering of record suspensions and the making of clemency recommendations. The amendments to the CRA increased the waiting periods for a record suspension to five years for all summary convictions and to ten years for all indictable offences. Individuals convicted of sexual offences against minors (with certain exceptions) and those who have been convicted of more than three indictable offences, each with a sentence of two or more years, became ineligible for a record suspension.

Table E5: The number of record suspension applications received has decreased

Record Suspension Applications Processed

2014-15

2015-16

2016-17

2017-18

2018-19

Received

12,415

12,384

11,563

9,461

7,364

Accepted

9,071

8,917

8,191

7,1671

5,420

% Accepted

73.1%

72.0%

70.8%

75.8%

73.6%

Record Suspensions

Ordered

8,422

8,428

8,340

7,038

6,026

Refused

726

525

439

142

227

Total Ordered/Refused

9,148

8,953

8,779

7,180

6,253

% Ordered

92.1%

94.1%

95.0%

98.0%

96.4%

Pardon Applications Processed

Received

--

--

--

5,2002

6,4622

Accepted

--

--

--

4,4292

5,2492

% Accepted

--

--

--

85.2%

81.2%

Pardons

Granted

5,625

1,628

3,740

222

2,630

Issued

--

--

--

1,734

1,772

Denied

681

349

125

133

42

Total Granted/Issued/Denied

6,3063

1,9773

3,8653

2,0892

4,4442

% Granted

89.2%

82.3%

96.8%

93.6%

99.1%

Pardon/Record Suspension Revocations/Cessations

Revocations4

438

670

501

85

58

Cessations

578

636

776

692

527

Total Revocations/Cessations

1,016

1,306

1,277

777

585

Cumulative # Granted/Issued and Ordered5

494,057

504,113

516,193

525,187

535,615

Cumulative # Revocations/Cessations5

23,337

24,643

25,920

26,697

27,282

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Notes:

1Includes 638 record suspension applications that were discontinued and reclassified as pardon applications for residents of Ontario and British Columbia following the reversal of the amendments to the CRA by Supreme Court decisions in those provinces. 2Refers to pardon applications processed for residents of Ontario and British Columbia following the reversal of the amendments to the CRA by Supreme Court decisions in those provinces. 3Refers to pardon applications received on or before March 12, 2012 (C-10). 4Revocations fluctuate due to resource re-allocation to deal with backlogs. 5Cumulative data reflects activity since 1970, when the pardon process was established under the Criminal Records Act. On June 29, 2010, Bill C-23A amended the CRA by extending the ineligibility periods for certain applications for pardon. Additionally, the bill resulted in significant changes to program operations. The process was modified to include additional inquiries and new, more exhaustive investigations by staff for some applications and required additional review time by Board members. New concepts of merit and disrepute to the administration of justice form part of the statute. As a result of these new changes, application processing time increased. On March 13, 2012, Bill C-10 amended the CRA by replacing the term "pardon" with the term "record suspension". The Record Suspension and Clemency program involves the review of record suspension applications, the ordering of record suspensions and the making of clemency recommendations. The amendments to the CRA increased the waiting periods for a record suspension to five years for all summary convictions and to ten years for all indictable offences. Individuals convicted of sexual offences against minors (with certain exceptions) and those who have been convicted of more than three indictable offences, each with a sentence of two or more years, became ineligible for a record suspension.

Section F. Victims of Crime

Victimization rates for theft of personal property and assault decreased in 2014

Figure F1

Rate of victimization per 1,000 population

Source: General Social Survey, Statistics Canada, 1999, 2004, 2009 and 2014.

Notes:

The General Social Survey is administered every five years by Statistics Canada. Updated data were not available during the preparation of this report. It is anticipated that updated data will be available in 2020.

Assault data includes incidents of spousal violence. In previous editions of this document, the victimization data excluded incidents of spousal violence.

Rates are based on 1,000 population, 15 years of age and older, across the 10 provinces.

Table F1: Victimization rates for theft of personal property and assault decreased in 2014

Type of Incident

Year

1999

2004

2009

2014

Theft of Personal Property

75

93

108

73

Sexual Assault

21

21

24

22

Robbery

9

11

13

6

Assault*

80

75

80

48

Source: General Social Survey, Statistics Canada, 1999, 2004, 2009 and 2014.

Notes:

The General Social Survey is administered every five years by Statistics Canada. Updated data were not available during the preparation of this report. It is anticipated that updated data will be available in 2020.

*Assault data includes incidents of spousal violence. In previous editions of this document, the victimization data excluded incidents of spousal violence.

Rates are based on 1,000 population, 15 years of age and older, across the 10 provinces.

The majority of victims of violent crime are under age 30

Figure F2

Percentage of victims of violent crime by age group (2012)

Source: Incident-based Uniform Crime Reporting Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice and Community Safety Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Notes:

Updated data were not available during the preparation of this report.

*Population estimates are as of July 1, 2010.

The data excludes traffic violations, victims whose age is above 89, victims whose age is unknown and victims whose gender is unknown.

Due to rounding, totals may not add up to 100 percent.

Table F2: The majority of victims of violent crime are under age 30
Victims of violent crime by age group (2012)

Age of Victim

Men

Women

Total

#

%

#

%

#

%

0 to 4 years

1,761

1.0

2,053

1.1

3,814

1.1

5 to 9 years

3,803

2.2

3,724

2.0

7,527

2.1

10 to 14 years

11,716

6.7

12,109

6.5

23,825

6.6

15 to 19 years

25,294

14.4

27,674

14.9

52,968

14.6

20 to 24 years

24,712

14.1

29,380

15.8

54,092

15.0

25 to 29 years

21,477

12.2

23,897

12.9

45,374

12.5

30 to 34 years

17,282

9.8

20,001

10.8

37,283

10.3

35 to 39 years

14,829

8.4

17,403

9.4

32,232

8.9

40 to 44 years

14,607

8.3

15,456

8.3

30,063

8.3

45 to 49 years

13,568

7.7

13,038

7.0

26,606

7.4

50 to 54 years

10,965

6.2

9,051

4.9

20,016

5.5

55 to 59 years

6,983

4.0

5,149

2.8

12,132

3.4

60 to 64 years

4,081

2.3

2,792

1.5

6,873

1.9

65 to 69 years

2,321

1.3

1,605

0.9

3,926

1.1

70 to 74 years

1,128

0.6

977

0.5

2,105

0.6

75 and over

1,228

0.7

1,507

0.8

2,735

0.8

Total

175,755

100.0

185,816

100.0

361,571

100.0

Source: Incident-based Uniform Crime Reporting Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice and Community Safety Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Notes:

Updated data were not available during the preparation of this report.

The data excludes traffic violations, victims whose age is above 89, victims whose age is unknown and victims whose gender is unknown.

Due to rounding, totals may not add up to 100 percent. 

The majority of victims receiving services are victims of violent crime

Figure F3

Sources: Victim Services in Canada, 2011/2012; Canadian Centre for Justice and Community Safety Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Notes:

Updated data were not available during the preparation of this report.

Victim services are defined as agencies that provide direct services to primary or secondary victims of crime, and that are funded in whole or in part by a ministry responsible for justice matters. Survey respondents included 684 victim service providers. 

Table F3: The majority of victims receiving services are victims of violent crime

Type of Crime

Gender of Victim

Women

Men

Not Reported

Total

Snapshot on May 27, 2010

#

%

#

%

#

%

#

%

Homicide

154

2.4

70

3.3

3

0.5

227

2.5

Other offences causing death

95

1.5

77

3.7

8

1.4

180

2.0

Sexual assault

1,922

30.0

379

18.1

160

28.3

2,461

27.1

Other violent offences

3,323

51.8

917

43.8

262

46.4

4,502

49.6

Other criminal offences*

496

7.7

357

17.0

73

12.9

926

10.2

Other incidents**

421

6.6

295

14.1

59

10.4

775

8.5

Total without unknown

6,411

100.0

2,095

100.0

565

100.0

9,071

100.0

Unknown type of crime

197

81

113

391

Total

6,608

2,176

678

9,462

Snapshot on May 24, 2012

Homicide

179

2.6

126

5.3

3

0.9

308

3.2

Other offences causing death

90

1.3

47

2.0

0

0.0

137

1.4

Sexual assault

2,105

30.2

356

15.1

37

11.6

2,498

25.9

Other violent offences

3,461

49.7

1,103

46.8

179

56.1

4,743

49.2

Other criminal offences*

676

9.7

507

21.5

66

20.7

1,249

13.0

Other incidents**

448

6.4

220

9.3

34

10.7

702

7.3

Total without unknown

6,959

100.0

2,359

100.0

319

100.0

9,637

100.0

Unknown type of crime

310

81

636

1,027

Total

7,269

2,440

955

10,664

Sources: Victim Services in Canada, 2011/2012; Canadian Centre for Justice and Community Safety Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Notes:

Updated data were not available during the preparation of this report.

*Other criminal offences include arson, property crimes, traffic offences, and other Criminal Code offences.

**Other incidents include those of a non-criminal nature as well as those that are still under investigation to determine if they are criminal offences.

Victim services are defined as agencies that provide direct services to primary or secondary victims of crime, and that are funded in whole or in part by a ministry responsible for justice matters. Survey respondents included 684 victim service providers. 

The number of victims registered with the federal correctional system has increased

Figure F4

Number of registered victims*

Source: Correctional Service of Canada.

Notes:

*Indicator new as of the 2016-17 reporting cycle; therefore, data not available from 2013-14 to 2015-16.

A 'marker' was set for the new 2016-17 indicator, estimating the number of registered victims. This was done because CSC was changing from management of victim files within OMS, offender file based, to the newly built Victims Application Module (VAM), victim file based and no data was available until year end due to data migration. When Victim Services used OMS as its database, the prior indicator could not account for victims who were registered for more than one offender. Since the move to VAM, CSC can accurately capture the number of registered victims. For example, in the old system (OMS), one victim who was registered for six offenders would have counted as six registered victims; whereas in the new system (VAM), one registered victim who is registered for six offenders is accurately counted as one registered victim.

Table F4: The number of victims registered with the federal correctional system has increased

Year

Target

Number of Registered Victims

Marker

2015-16

N/A

N/A

7,500

2016-17*

7,500 Marker**

7,806***

- -

2017-18

7,800

8,053

- -

2018-19

8,500

8,517

- -

2019-20

8,900

- -

- -

Source: Correctional Service of Canada.

Notes:

*Indicator new as of the 2016-17 reporting cycle; therefore, data not available from 2013-14 to 2015-16.

**A 'marker' was set for the new 2016-17 indicator, estimating the number of registered victims. This was done because CSC Services was changing from management of victim files within OMS, offender file based, to the newly built Victims Application Module (VAM), victim file based and no data was available until year end due to data migration.

***When Victim Services used OMS as its database, the prior indicator could not account for victims who were registered for more than one offender. Since the move to VAM, CSC can accurately capture the number of registered victims. For example, in the old system (OMS), one victim who was registered for six offenders would have counted as six registered victims; whereas in the new system (VAM), one registered victim who is registered for six offenders is accurately counted as one registered victim.

- - data not available.

74% of registered victims were victims of an offence causing death

Figure F5

Offences of victimization* (2015-16)

Source: Correctional Service of Canada.

Notes:

In 2016, CSC implemented the new Victims Application Module (VAM). Following some implementation and development challenges, CSC has worked towards greater stabilization of the VAM system. This caused a delay in the creation of a new reporting mechanism. For this reason, CSC is unable to report beyond the number of registered victims and is working to develop a new reporting mechanism for VAM.

In order to register to receive information under sections 26 and 142 of the Corrections and Conditional Release Act (CCRA), a person must meet the definition of a victim that appears in section 2, or subsections 26(3) or 142(3) of the Act. Victims can register with the Correctional Service of Canada or the Parole Board of Canada by completing a Victims Request for Information form, though a signed letter of request can be considered as meeting this requirement.

*Some victims were harmed by more than one offence; therefore, the number of Offences of Victimization are higher than the actual number of Registered Victims. The percentages represent the number of registered victims who were harmed by that offence.

**Under the CCRA, a person is a victim of a crime if: they are a spouse, conjugal partner, relative of, or person legally responsible for, a victim who has died.

Table F5 : 74% of registered victims were victims of an offence causing death

Type of Offence** That Harmed Victim*

2011-12

2012-13

2013-14

2014-15

2015-16

#

%

#

%

#

%

#

%

#

%

Offences Causing Death***

4,056

55.4

4,292

56.6

4,533

57.8

5,432

68.5

6,151

74.1

Sexual Offences

2,114

28.9

2,169

28.6

2,237

28.5

2,493

31.4

2,817

33.9

Assaults

998

13.6

965

12.7

941

12.0

1,178

14.9

1,401

16.9

Involving Violence or Threats

707

9.7

710

9.4

720

9.2

849

10.7

706

8.5

Property Crimes

534

7.3

551

7.3

541

6.9

617

7.8

558

6.7

Other Offences

452

6.2

441

5.8

475

6.1

583

7.4

377

4.5

Deprivation of Freedom

272

3.7

281

3.7

249

3.2

330

4.2

157

1.9

Attempts to Cause Death

241

3.3

246

3.2

283

3.6

299

3.8

318

3.8

Driving Offences

125

1.7

152

2.0

153

2.0

163

2.1

157

1.9

Offence Not Recorded

6

0.1

4

0.1

9

0.1

85

1.1

0

0.0

Total Number of Victims**

7,322

7,585

7,838

7,929

8,303

Source: Correctional Service of Canada.

Notes:

In 2016, CSC implemented the new Victims Application Module (VAM). Following some implementation and development challenges, CSC has worked towards greater stabilization of the VAM system. This caused a delay in the creation of a new reporting mechanism. For this reason, CSC is unable to report beyond the number of registered victims and is working to develop a new reporting mechanism for VAM.

*In order to register to receive information under sections 26 and 142 of the Corrections and Conditional Release Act (CCRA), a person must meet the definition of a victim that appears in section 2, or subsections 26(3) or 142(3) of the Act. Victims can register with the Correctional Service of Canada or the Parole Board of Canada by completing a Victims Request for Information form, though a signed letter of request can be considered as meeting this requirement.

**Some victims were harmed by more than one offence; therefore, the number of Offences of Victimization are higher than the actual number of Registered Victims. The percentages represent the number of registered victims who were harmed by that offence.

***Under the CCRA, a person is a victim of a crime if: they are a spouse, conjugal partner, relative of, or person legally responsible for, a victim who has died.

51% of notifications to registered victims were temporary absences

Figure F6

Frequency of type of information disclosed (2015-16)

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Notes:

In 2016, CSC implemented the new Victims Application Module (VAM). Following some implementation and development challenges, CSC has worked towards greater stabilization of the VAM system. This caused a delay in the creation of a new reporting mechanism. For this reason, CSC is unable to report beyond the number of registered victims and is working to develop a new reporting mechanism for VAM.

Temporary absence information includes information on unescorted and escorted temporary absences and work release. Conditional release information includes information regarding day and full parole, statutory release, suspensions, detention, and long-term supervision orders. Sentencing information includes information on the offender's sentence, offender information, warrant expiry date, judicial review, and public domain. Disclosure means a type of information identified in section 26 of the Corrections and Conditional Release Act (CCRA) that has been disclosed to a registered victim during a notification. As of December 2, 2011, as per Bill S6, Correctional Service Canada now provides information to some victims who are not registered which requires providing information to family members of murdered victims where the offender is still eligible to apply for Judicial Review including when the offender does not apply for a Judicial Review within the allotted time period, as well as the next date the offender can apply. Notification to unregistered victims are excluded for the data.

In order to register to receive information under sections 26 and 142 of the CCRA, a person must meet the definition of a victim that appears in section 2, or subsections 26(3) or 142(3) of the Act. Victims can register with the Correctional Service of Canada or the Parole Board of Canada by completing a Victims Request for Information form, though a signed letter of request can be considered as meeting this requirement.

Table F6: 51% of notifications to registered victims were temporary absences

Information disclosed to victim

2011-12

2012-13

2013-14

2014-15

2015-16

Temporary Absences

75,848

93,609

100,934

96,131

89,866

Travel Permits

10,877

28,763

34,294

34,501

31,176

Institutional Location

6,859

14,434

17,495

16,242

13,127

Program & Disciplinary Offence Information

--

11,208

14,826

16,790

13,092

Conditional Release

10,870

11,803

12,318

13,253

15,055

Sentencing Information

16,268

12,813

10,333

10,792

12,246

Custody

2,414

2,569

2,476

2,423

3,536

Total

123,136

175,199

192,676

190,132

178,098

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Notes:

In 2016, CSC implemented the new Victims Application Module (VAM). Following some implementation and development challenges, CSC has worked towards greater stabilization of the VAM system. This caused a delay in the creation of a new reporting mechanism. For this reason, CSC is unable to report beyond the number of registered victims and is working to develop a new reporting mechanism for VAM.

Temporary Absence information includes information on unescorted and escorted temporary absences and work release. Conditional Release information includes information regarding day and full parole, statutory release, suspensions, detention, and long-term supervision orders. Sentencing information includes information on the offender's sentence, offender information, warrant expiry date, judicial review, and public domain.

Disclosure means a type of information identified in section 26 of the Corrections and Conditional Release Act (CCRA) that has been disclosed to a registered victim during a notification.

As of December 2, 2011, as per Bill S6, Correctional Service Canada now provides information to some victims who are not registered which requires providing information to family members of murdered victims where the offender is still eligible to apply for Judicial Review including when the offender does not apply for a Judicial Review within the allotted time period, as well as the next date the offender can apply. Notification to unregistered victims are excluded for the data.

In order to register to receive information under section 26 and 142 of the CCRA, a person must meet the definition of a victim that appears in section 2 or subsection 26(3) or 142(3) of the Act. Victims can register with the Correctional Service of Canada or the Parole Board of Canada by completing a Victims Request for Information form, though a signed letter of request can be considered as meeting this requirement.

Parole Board of Canada contacts with victims has increased

Figure F7

Total number of PBC contacts with victims

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Note:

*A victim contact refers to each time the Parole Board of Canada has contact with a victim by mail, fax, or by telephone.

Table F7 : Parole Board of Canada contacts with victims has increased

Year

Total Number of Contacts*

2009-10

22,181

2010-11

22,483

2011-12

21,449

2012-13

22,475

2013-14

22,323

2014-15

27,191

2015-16

29,771

2016-17

32,786

2017-18

33,370

2018-19

33,408

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Note:

*A victim contact refers to each time the Parole Board of Canada has contact with a victim by mail, fax, or by telephone.

Victims presenting a statement at PBC hearings

Figure F8

Total number of victim presentations vs. the number of hearings with victim presentations

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Table F8: Victims presenting a statement at PBC hearings

Year

Number of Hearings with Presentations

Number of Presentations

2009-10

127

231

2010-11

137

237

2011-12

140

223

2012-13

140

254

2013-14

142

264

2014-15

128

231

2015-16

171

244

2016-17

149

244

2017-18

181

328

2018-19

167

288

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Victims requesting access to the decision registry

Figure F9

Total number of requests for access to the decision registry vs. requests for access made by victims

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Notes:

Victims also include victims' agents and victims' organizations.

*Since November 1, 1992, the Corrections and Conditional Release Act (CCRA) requires the Parole Board of Canada (PBC) to maintain a registry of its decisions along with the reasons for those decisions. Anyone may request, in writing, a copy of these decisions.

Table F9 : Victims requesting access to the decision registry

Year

Request made by victims*

Total number of requests

#

%

2009-10

2,803

50.1

5,591

2010-11

2,914

52.5

5,550

2011-12

2,970

56.5

5,252

2012-13

3,214

55.0

5,848

2013-14

3,474

55.1

6,309

2014-15

3,608

54.3

6,640

2015-16

4,436

61.0

7,276

2016-17

2,169

48.2

4,502

2017-18

2,227

49.9

4,467

2018-19

2,601

52.4

4,967

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Note:

*Also include victims' agents and victims' organizations.

Date modified: