2018 Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview

PDF (2.24 MB)

Public Works and Government Services Canada

Cat. No.: PS1-3E-PDF

ISSN: 1713-1073

This document was produced by the Public Safety Canada Portfolio Corrections Statistics Committee which is composed of representatives of Public Safety Canada, Correctional Service Canada, Parole Board of Canada, the Office of the Correctional Investigator and the Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics (Statistics Canada).

Table of contents

Preface

This document provides a statistical overview of corrections and conditional release within a context of trends in crime and criminal justice. A primary consideration in producing this overview was to present general statistical information in a "user friendly" way that will facilitate understanding by a broad audience. Accordingly, there are a number of features of this document that make it different from typical statistical reports.

The Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview (CCRSO) has been published annually since 1998. Readers are advised that in some instances figures have been revised from earlier publications. Also, the total number of offenders will vary slightly depending on the characteristics of the data set.

It is hoped that this document will serve as a useful source of statistical information on corrections and conditional release and assist the public in gaining a better understanding of these important components of the criminal justice system.

Regarding police crime data from Statistics Canada, until the late 1980s, the Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) survey provided aggregate counts of the number of incidents reported to police and the number of persons charged by type of offence. With the advent of microdata reporting, the UCR has become an "incident-based" survey (UCR2), collecting in-depth information about each criminal incident. The update to this new survey, as well as revisions to the definitions of violent crime, property crime, and other Criminal Code offences has resulted in data only being available from 1998 to the present. It is worth noting that the Total Crime Rates presented in the CCRSO differ from those reported by Statistics Canada in their publications. The Total Crime Rates reported in the CCRSO include offences (i.e., traffic offences in the Canadian Criminal Code and violations of federal statutes) that are excluded in the rates published by Statistics Canada.

Contributing Partners

Public Safety Canada
Public Safety Canada is Canada's lead federal department for public safety, which includes emergency management, national security and community safety. Its many responsibilities include developing legislation and policies that govern corrections, implementing innovative approaches to community justice, and providing research expertise and resources to the corrections community.
Correctional Service Canada
The Correctional Service of Canada (CSC) is the federal government agency responsible for administering sentences of a term of two years or more, as imposed by the courts. CSC is responsible for managing institutions of various security levels and supervising offenders under conditional release in the community.
Parole Board of Canada
The Parole Board of Canada is an independent administrative tribunal responsible for making decisions about the timing and conditions of release of offenders into the community on various forms of conditional release. The Board also makes pardon decisions and recommendations respecting clemency through the Royal Prerogative of Mercy.
Office of the Correctional Investigator
The Office of the Correctional Investigator is an ombudsman for federal offenders. It conducts investigations into the problems of offenders related to decisions, recommendations, acts or omissions of the Correctional Service of Canada that affect offenders individually or as a group.
Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics (Statistics Canada)
The Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics (CCJS) is a division of Statistics Canada. The CCJS is the focal point of a federal-provincial-territorial partnership, known as the National Justice Statistics Initiative, for the collection of information on the nature and extent of crime and the administration of civil and criminal justice in Canada.

Section A. Context - Crime and the Criminal Justice System

Police-reported crime rate has been decreasing since 1998

Figure A1

Detailed information can be found in the surrounding text.

Source: Table 35-10-0177-01, Uniform Crime Reporting Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Note:

*Unlike Statistics Canada, the Total Crime Rate in the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview includes traffic offences and violations of federal statutes to provide a measure of all criminal offences. As a result, the Total Crime Rate reported here is higher than that reported by Statistics Canada.
**The definitions for Violent, Property and Other Criminal Code offences have been revised by Statistics Canada to better reflect definitions used by the policing community. As a result of these changes, comparable data are only available starting in 1998 and the data presented in this year's report are not comparable to the data reported in previous versions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview.
These crime statistics are based on crimes that are reported to the police. Since not all crimes are reported to the police, these figures underestimate actual crime. See Figure F1 for rates based on victimization surveys (drawn from the General Social Survey), an alternative method of measuring crime.

Police-reported crime rate has been decreasing since 1998

Table A1
Year Type of Offence
Violent** Property** Traffic Other CC** Drugs Total Other Fed. Stat- Total*
1998 1,345 5,696 496 1,051 235 40 8,915
1999 1,440 5,345 388 910 264 44 8,474
2000 1,494 5,189 370 924 287 43 8,376
2001 1,473 5,124 393 989 288 62 8,390
2002 1,441 5,080 379 991 296 55 8,315
2003 1,435 5,299 373 1,037 274 46 8,532
2004 1,404 5,123 379 1,072 306 50 8,391
2005 1,389 4,884 378 1,052 290 60 8,090
2006 1,387 4,809 376 1,050 295 57 8,004
2007 1,354 4,525 402 1,029 308 59 7,707
2008 1,334 4,258 437 1,039 308 67 7,475
2009 1,322 4,122 435 1,017 291 57 7,281
2010 1,292 3,838 420 1,029 321 62 6,996
2011 1,236 3,536 424 1,008 330 60 6,627
2012 1,198 3,435 406 1,000 317 67 6,459
2013 1,093 3,147 386 954 310 52 5,971
2014 1,041 3,090 364 915 294 49 5,777
2015 1,066 3,218 351 926 278 50 5,913
2016 1,052 3,207 345 965 263 59 5,962
2017 1,098 3,245 342 991 247 69 6,006

Source: Table 35-10-0177-01, Uniform Crime Reporting Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Note:

*Unlike Statistics Canada, the Total Crime Rate in the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview includes traffic offences and violations of federal statutes to provide a measure of all criminal offences. As a result, the Total Crime Rate reported here is higher than that reported by Statistics Canada.

**The definitions for Violent, Property and Other Criminal Code offences, and Total Other Federal Statutes have been revised by Statistics Canada to better reflect definitions used by the policing community. As a result of these changes, comparable data are only available starting in 1998 and the data presented in this year's report are not comparable to the data reported in previous versions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview.

Rates are based on incidents reported per 100,000 population.

Due to rounding, rates may not add up to totals.

Crime rates are higher in the west and highest in the north

Figure A2

Detailed information can be found in the surrounding text.

Source: Table 35-10-0177-01, Uniform Crime Reporting Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Note:

Rates are based on 100,000 population.

Unlike Statistics Canada, the Crime Rate in the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview includes traffic offences and violations of federal statutes to provide a measure of all criminal offences. As a result, the Crime Rate reported here is higher than that reported by Statistics Canada. In addition, the definitions for Violent, Property and Other Criminal Code offences have been revised by Statistics Canada to better reflect definitions used by the policing community. As a result of these changes, comparable data are only available starting in 1998 and the data presented in this year’s report are not comparable to the data reported in previous versions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview.

Crime rates are higher in the west and highest in the north

Table A2
Province/Territory Crime Rate*
2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Newfoundland & Labrador 6,677 6,216 6,362 6,490 6,010
Prince Edward Island 6,541 5,304 4,677 4,929 4,620
Nova Scotia 6,414 6,229 5,697 5,555 5,694
New Brunswick 5,476 5,072 5,514 5,318 5,780
Quebec 4,701 4,317 4,212 4,184 4,269
Ontario 4,182 4,003 3,998 4,061 4,119
Manitoba 8,720 8,399 8,904 9,479 9,708
Saskatchewan 12,545 12,138 12,803 13,362 12,785
Alberta 7,962 7,986 8,846 8,940 9,198
British Columbia 8,535 8,602 8,758 8,670 8,263
Yukon Territories 26,150 26,430 26,072 23,828 22,866
Northwest Territories 48,550 46,677 47,254 43,351 44,524
Nunavut 34,650 32,628 34,370 35,740 36,485
Canada 5,970 5,777 5,913 5,961 6,006

Source: Table 35-10-0177-01, Uniform Crime Reporting Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Note:

*Rates are based on 100,000 population.

Unlike Statistics Canada, the Crime Rate in the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview includes traffic offences and violations of federal statutes to provide a measure of all criminal offences. As a result, the Crime Rate reported here is higher than that reported by Statistics Canada. In addition, the definitions for Violent, Property and Other Criminal Code offences have been revised by Statistics Canada to better reflect definitions used by the policing community. As a result of these changes, comparable data are only available starting in 1998 and the data presented in this year's report are not comparable to the data reported in previous versions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview.

Canada’s Incarceration Rate Relative to Other Western European Countries

Figure A3

Detailed information can be found in the surrounding text.

Source: World Prison Population List online (retrieved February 12, 2019 at https://www.prisonstudies.org/highest-to-lowest/prison-population-total).

Note:

The incarceration rate, in this figure, is a measure of the number of people (i.e., adults and youth) in custody per 100,000 people in the general population. Incarceration rates from the World Prison Population List are based on the most recently available data at the time the list was compiled. Due to variations in the availability of information, the 2006 and 2008 dates reported in Figure A3 refer to when the World Prison Population Lists (Seventh and Eighth Editions respectively) were published, but may not necessarily correspond to the date the data were obtained. For 2018, the data was retrieved online on February 12, 2019 from https://www.prisonstudies.org which contains the most up-to-date information available. These data reflect incarceration rates based on the country's population. Additionally, different practices and variations in measurement in different countries limit the comparability of these figures.

Canada’s Incarceration Rate Relative to Other Western European Countries

Table A3
  20061* 20082* 20113* 20124* 20135* 20146* 20157* 20168* 20179* 201810*
United States 738 756 743 730 716 707 698 693 666 655
New Zealand 186 185 199 194 192 190 190 203 214 214
England & Wales 148 153 155 154 148 149 148 147 146 140
Scotland 139 152 155 151 147 144 144 142 138 143
Australia 126 129 133 129 130 143 151 152 168 172
Canada 107 116 117 114 118 118 106 114 114 114
Italy 104 92 110 109 106 88 86 90 95 98
Austria 105 95 104 104 98 99 95 93 94 98
France 85 96 102 102 101 102 100 103 103 100
Germany 95 89 87 83 79 81 78 78 77 75
Switzerland 83 76 79 76 82 87 84 83 82 81
Sweden 82 74 78 70 67 57 60 53 57 59
Denmark 77 63 74 74 73 67 61 58 59 63
Norway 66 69 73 73 72 75 71 74 74 63
Finland 75 64 59 59 58 55 57 55 57 51

Source: International Centre for Prison Studies: 1World Prison Population List (Seventh Edition); 2World Prison Population List (Eighth Edition); 3World Prison Population List online (retrieved October 7, 2011 at https://www.prisonstudies.org/info/worldbrief/index.php), 4World Prison Population List online (retrieved October 15, 2012 at https://www.prisonstudies.org/info/worldbrief/index.php). 5World Prison Population List online (retrieved November 20, 2013 at https://www.prisonstudies.org/info/worldbrief/index.php). 6World Prison Population List online (retrieved December 8, 2014 at https://www.prisonstudies.org/world-prison-brief). 7World Prison Population List (retrieved November 20, 2015 at https://www.prisonstudies.org/highest-to-lowest/prison-population-total). 8World Prison Population List online (retrieved December 6, 2016 at https://www.prisonstudies.org/highest-to-lowest/prison-population-total). 9World Prison Population List online (retrieved November 10, 2017 at https://www.prisonstudies.org/highest-to-lowest/prison-population-total). 10World Prison Population List (Twelfth Edition) online (retrieved February 12, 2019 at https://www.prisonstudies.org/highest-to-lowest/prison-population-total).

Note:

*Incarceration rates from the World Prison Population List are based on the most recently available data at the time the list was compiled. Due to variations in the availability of information, the 2006 and 2008 dates reported in Table A3 refer to when the World Prison Population Lists (Seventh and Eighth Editions respectively) were published, but may not necessarily correspond to the date the data were obtained. For 2018, the data was retrieved online on February 12, 2019 at https://www.prisonstudies.org which contains the most up to date information available. Additionally, different practices and variations in measurement in different countries limit the comparability of these figures. Rates are based on 100,000 population.

The rate of adults charged has declined

Figure A4

Detailed information can be found in the surrounding text.

Source: Table 35-10-0177-01, Uniform Crime Reporting Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Note:

*Unlike Statistics Canada, the Total Crime Rate in the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview includes traffic offences and violations of federal statutes to provide a measure of all criminal offences. As a result, the Total Crime Rate reported here is higher than that reported by Statistics Canada.

**The definitions for Violent, Property and Other Criminal Code offences have been revised by Statistics Canada to better reflect definitions used by the policing community. As a result of these changes, comparable data are only available starting in 1998 and the data presented in this year's report are not comparable to the data reported in previous versions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview.

Violent crimes include homicide, attempted murder, assault, sexual offences, abduction, extortion, robbery, firearms, and other violent offences such as uttering threats and criminal harassment.

Property crimes include break and enter, motor vehicle thefts, other thefts, possession of stolen property, fraud, mischief and arson.

The rate of adults charged has declined

Table A4
Year Type of Offence
Violent** Property** Traffic Other CCC** Drugs Total Other Fed. Stat- Total Charged*
1998 563 677 374 430 168 12 2,236
1999 590 632 371 396 185 18 2,203
2000 615 591 349 411 198 16 2,190
2001 641 584 349 451 202 18 2,256
2002 617 569 336 460 199 18 2,211
2003 598 573 326 476 172 15 2,168
2004 584 573 314 490 187 22 2,180
2005 589 550 299 479 185 22 2,131
2006 594 533 300 498 198 20 2,150
2007 577 499 298 521 208 20 2,132
2008 576 487 307 540 207 22 2,149
2009 585 490 311 532 201 20 2,152
2010 576 473 295 545 211 22 2,132
2011 548 441 271 527 213 23 2,034
2012 540 434 268 535 202 25 2,016
2013 504 415 242 518 200 18 1,904
2014 486 397 232 518 190 13 1,840
2015 498 401 228 531 180 15 1,859
2016 506 378 220 603 169 17 1,900
2017 506 371 206 636 155 12 1,881

Source: Table 35-10-0177-01, Uniform Crime Reporting Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Note:

*Unlike Statistics Canada, the Total Crime Rate in the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview includes traffic offences and violations of federal statutes to provide a measure of all criminal offences. As a result, the Total Crime Rate reported here is higher than that reported by Statistics Canada.

**The definitions for Violent, Property and Other Criminal Code offences, and Total Other Federal Statutes have been revised by Statistics Canada to better reflect definitions used by the policing community. As a result of these changes, comparable data are only available starting in 1998 and the data presented in this year's report are not comparable to the data reported in previous versions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview.

Rates are based on 100,000 population, 18 years of age and older.

Due to rounding, rates may not add up to totals.

Violent crimes include homicide, attempted murder, assault, sexual offences, abduction, extortion, robbery, firearms, and other violent offences such as uttering threats and criminal harassment.

Property crimes include break and enter, motor vehicle theft, other theft, possession of stolen property, fraud, mischief and arson.

Administration of Justice Cases, Crimes Against the Person Cases and Crimes Against Property Cases Each Account for 23% of Cases* in Adult Courts

Figure A5

Detailed information can be found in the surrounding text.

Source: Table 35-10-0027-01, Integrated Criminal Court Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Note:

*Cases completed in adult criminal courts.

The concept of a case has changed to more closely reflect court processing. Statistics from the Integrated Criminal Court Survey used in this report should not be compared to editions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview prior to 2007. A case is one or more charges against an accused person or corporation, processed by the courts at the same time, and where all of the charges in the case received a final disposition. Where a case has more than one charge, it is necessary to select a charge to represent the case. An offence is selected by applying two rules. First, the "most serious decision" rule is applied. In cases where two or more offences have the same decision, the "most serious offence" rule is applied. All charges are ranked according to an offence seriousness scale.

Superior Court data are not reported to the Integrated Criminal Court Survey for Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba and Saskatchewan. In addition, information from Quebec's municipal courts is not collected.

The Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics continues to make updates to the offence library used to classify offence data sent by the provinces and territories. These improvements have resulted in minor changes in the counts of charges and cases as well as the distributions by type of offence. Data presented have been revised to account for these updates.

Due to rounding, percentages may not add up to 100 percent.

Administration of Justice Cases, Crimes Against the Person Cases and Crimes Against Property Cases Each Account for 23% of Cases* in Adult Courts

Table A5
Type of Charge Criminal Code and Other Federal Statute Charges
2014-15 2015-16 2016-17
  # % # % # %
Crimes Against the Person 80,994 23.01 82,387 23.47 85,270 23.84
Homicide and Related 262 0.07 247 0.07 328 0.09
Attempted Murder 158 0.04 195 0.06 197 0.06
Robbery 3,318 0.94 3,512 1.00 3,594 1.00
Sexual Assault 2,753 0.78 2,925 0.83 3,086 0.86
Other Sexual Offences 3,564 1.01 3,823 1.09 4,015 1.12
Major Assault (Levels 2 & 3) 18,644 5.30 19,164 5.46 20,034 5.60
Common Assault (Level 1) 30,517 8.67 30,748 8.76 31,554 8.82
Uttering Threats 15,849 4.50 15,677 4.47 15,897 4.44
Criminal Harassment 3,006 0.85 3,114 0.89 3,251 0.91
Other Crimes Against Persons 2,923 0.83 2,982 0.85 3,314 0.93
Crimes Against Property 80,467 22.86 81,959 23.35 85,125 23.80
Theft 35,195 10.00 35,537 10.12 36,112 10.10
Break and Enter 9,458 2.69 9,830 2.80 10,207 2.85
Fraud 11,371 3.23 11,623 3.31 12,634 3.53
Mischief 12,418 3.53 12,471 3.55 12,921 3.61
Possession of Stolen Property 10,441 2.97 10,872 3.10 11,460 3.20
Other Property Crimes 1,584 0.45 1,626 0.46 1,791 0.50
Administration of Justice 78,365 22.26 79,312 22.59 80,950 22.63
Fail to Appear 3,892 1.11 4,111 1.17 4,305 1.20
Breach of Probation 30,716 8.73 31,047 8.84 31,337 8.76
Unlawfully at Large 2,616 0.74 2,607 0.74 2,734 0.76
Fail to Comply with Order 33,159 9.42 33,546 9.56 34,341 9.60
Other Admin. Justice 7,982 2.27 8,001 2.28 8,233 2.30
Other Criminal Code 15,419 4.38 16,162 4.60 16,590 4.64
Weapons 9,693 2.75 10,545 3.00 10,906 3.05
Prostitution 388 0.11 198 0.06 425 0.12
Disturbing the Peace 1,136 0.32 1,056 0.30 938 0.26
Residual Criminal Code 4,202 1.19 4,363 1.24 4,321 1.21
Criminal Code Traffic 49,346 14.02 46,728 13.31 45,812 12.81
Impaired Driving 39,585 11.25 36,825 10.49 36,000 10.07
Other CC Traffic 9,761 2.77 9,903 2.82 9,812 2.74
Other Federal Statutes 47,428 13.47 44,513 12.68 43,895 12.27
Drug Possession 13,677 3.89 12,515 3.56 10,571 2.96
Other Drug Offences 9,228 2.62 8,547 2.43 8,273 2.31
Residual Federal Statutes 23,621 6.71 22,554 6.42 24,330 6.80
Total Offences 352,019 100.00 351,061 100.00 357,642 100.00

Source: Table 35-10-0027-01, Integrated Criminal Court Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Note:

*Cases completed in adult criminal courts.

The concept of a case has changed to more closely reflect court processing. Statistics from the Integrated Criminal Court Survey used in this report should not be compared to editions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview prior to 2007. Superior Court data are not reported to the Integrated Criminal Court Survey for Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba and Saskatchewan. In addition, information from Quebec's municipal courts is not collected. The Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics continues to make updates to the offence library used to classify offence data sent by the provinces and territories. These improvements have resulted in minor changes in the counts of charges and cases as well as the distributions by type of offence. Data presented have been revised to account for these updates.

Due to rounding, percentages may not add up to 100 percent.

Most adult custodial sentences ordered by the court are short

Figure A6

Detailed information can be found in the surrounding text.

Source: Table 35-10-0032-01, Integrated Criminal Court Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Note:

*The decision type guilty" includes guilty of the offence, of an included offence, of an attempt of the offence, or of an attempt of an included offence. This category also includes cases where an absolute or conditional discharge has been imposed

The concept of a case has changed to more closely reflect court processing. Statistics from the Integrated Criminal Court Survey used in this report should not be compared to editions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview prior to 2007.

Excludes cases where length of prison sentence and/or sex was not known, data for Manitoba as information on sentence length was not available.

Superior Court data are not reported to the Integrated Criminal Court Survey for Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba and Saskatchewan. In addition, information from Quebec's municipal courts is not collected.

The Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics continues to make updates to the offence library used to classify offence data sent by the provinces and territories. These improvements have resulted in minor changes in the counts of charges and cases as well as the distributions by type of offence. Data presented have been revised to account for these updates.

Due to rounding, totals may not add up to 100 percent.

Most adult custodial sentences ordered by the court are short

Table A6
Length of Prison Sentence 2012-13 2013-14 2014-15 2015-16 2016-17
  % % % % %
1 Month or Less
Women 67.1 65.4 65.4 66.6 66.8
Men 52.9 52.6 53.8 54.2 55.2
Total 50.6 50.0 51.1 51.6 52.6
More Than 1 Month up to 6 Months
Women 23.9 24.9 24.1 25.0 22.4
Men 32.4 32.6 31.5 30.9 30.4
Total 29.5 29.6 28.8 28.2 27.7
More Than 6 Months up to 12 Months
Women 4.2 4.1 4.0 4.0 3.4
Men 6.3 6.2 6.2 5.8 5.4
Total 5.8 5.7 5.6 5.3 4.9
More Than 1 Year up to Less Than 2 Years
Women 2.0 2.2 2.1 2.1 1.8
Men 3.9 3.9 3.6 3.6 3.2
Total 3.6 3.6 3.3 3.2 3.0
2 Years or More
Women 1.8 2.0 2.2 2.5 2.1
Men 3.8 3.9 3.6 3.7 3.4
Total 3.4 3.4 3.2 3.3 3.1

Source: Table 35-10-0032-01, Integrated Criminal Court Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Note:

The concept of a case has changed to more closely reflect court processing. Statistics from the Integrated Criminal Court Survey used in this report should not be compared to editions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview prior to 2007.

Excludes cases where length of prison sentence and/or sex was not known, data for Manitoba as information on both sentence length was not available.

Superior Court data are not reported to the Integrated Criminal Court Survey for Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba and Saskatchewan. In addition, information from Quebec's municipal courts is not collected.

The Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics continues to make updates to the offence library used to classify offence data sent by the provinces and territories. These improvements have resulted in minor changes in the counts of charges and cases as well as the distributions by type of offence. Data presented have been revised to account for these updates.

Due to rounding, totals may not add up to 100 percent.

Relatively few crimes result in sentences to federal penitentiaries

Figure A7

Detailed information can be found in the surrounding text.

Source: 1Table 35-10-0177-01, Uniform Crime Reporting Survey-2, Table 35-10-0027-01, Integrated Criminal Court Survey; and Table 35-10-0018-01, Adult Correctional Services Survey, all Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada; 2Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

*The decision type "guilty" includes guilty of the offence, of an included offence, of an attempt of the offence, or of an attempt of an included offence. This category also includes cases where an absolute or conditional discharge has been imposed.

**This figure only includes cases in provincial court and partial data from Superior Court. Superior Court data are not reported to the Integrated Criminal Court Survey for Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba and Saskatchewan. Information from Quebec's municipal courts is not collected.

The concept of a case has changed to more closely reflect court processing. Statistics from the Integrated Criminal Court Survey used in this report should not be compared to editions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview prior to 2007. A case is one or more charges against an accused person or corporation, processed by the courts at the same time, and where all of the charges in the case received a final disposition.

Police data are reported on a calendar year basis whereas court and prison data are reported on a fiscal year basis (April 1 through March 31).

Relatively few crimes result in sentences to federal penitentiaries

Table A7
  2013-14 2014-15 2015-16 2016-17 2017-18
Total Number of Incidents Reported to Police1 2,098,776 2,052,925 2,118,681 2,161,927 2,204,812
Cases With Guilty*Findings in Adult Criminal Court1** 244,742 227,031 227,279 226,231 Not available***
Sentenced Admissions to Provincial/Territorial Custody1 64,604 62,279 62,771 84,543 Not available***
Warrant of Committal Admissions to Federal Facilities2 5,071 4,818 4,891 4,908 4,718

Source: 1Table 35-10-0177-01, Uniform Crime Reporting Survey-2, Table 35-10-0027-01, Integrated Criminal Court Survey; and Table 35-10-0018-01, Adult Correctional Services Survey, all Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada; 2Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

*The decision type "guilty" includes guilty of the offence, of an included offence, of an attempt of the offence, or of an attempt of an included offence. This category also includes cases where an absolute or conditional discharge has been imposed.

**This figure only includes cases in provincial court and partial data from Superior Court. Superior Court data are not reported to the Integrated Criminal Court Survey for Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba and Saskatchewan. Information from Quebec's municipal courts is not collected.

The concept of a case has changed to more closely reflect court processing. Statistics from the Integrated Criminal Court Survey used in this report should not be compared to editions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview prior to 2007. A case is one or more charges against an accused person or corporation, processed by the courts at the same time, and where all of the charges in the case received a final disposition.

Police data are reported on a calendar year basis whereas court and prison data are reported on a fiscal year basis (April 1 through March 31).

***Data from 2017-2018 were not yet released during the preparation of this report.

The rate of youth charged has declined over the past ten years

Figure A8

Detailed information can be found in the surrounding text.

Source: Table 35-10-0177-01, Uniform Crime Reporting Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Note:

*Unlike Statistics Canada, the Total Crime Rate in the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview includes traffic offences and violations of federal statutes to provide a measure of all criminal offences. As a result, the Total Crime Rate reported here is higher than that reported by Statistics Canada. In addition, the definitions for Violent, Property and Other Criminal Code offences have been revised by Statistics Canada to better reflect definitions used by the policing community. As a result of these changes, comparable data are only available starting in 1998 and the data presented in this year's report are not compa rable to the data reported in previous versions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview.

**For criminal justice purposes, youth are defined under Canadian law as persons age 12 to 17.

Rates are based on 100,000 youth population (12 to 17 years old).

Violent crimes include homicide, attempted murder, assault, sexual offences, abduction, extortion, robbery, firearms, and other violent offences such as uttering threats and criminal harassment.

Property crimes include break and enter, motor vehicle theft, other theft, possession of stolen property, fraud, mischief and arson.

The rate of youth charged has declined over the past ten years

Table A8
Year Type of Offence
Violent* Property* Traffic** Other CCC* Drugs Total Other Fed. Stat- Total Charged*
1998 994 2,500 -- 870 226 4 4,775
1999 1,060 2,237 -- 728 266 2 4,500
2000 1,136 2,177 -- 760 317 4 4,589
2001 1,157 2,119 -- 840 343 6 4,656
2002 1,102 2,009 -- 793 337 6 4,476
2003 953 1,570 -- 726 208 5 3,662
2004 918 1,395 -- 691 230 5 3,457
2005 924 1,276 -- 660 214 10 3,287
2006 917 1,216 -- 680 240 16 3,269
2007 943 1,211 75 732 260 17 3,461
2008 909 1,130 74 730 267 19 3,369
2009 888 1,143 68 698 238 30 3,294
2010 860 1,035 62 669 255 31 3,147
2011 805 903 58 635 263 31 2,915
2012 764 841 58 629 240 20 2,768
2013 692 723 45 555 229 10 2,437
2014 629 629 43 530 200 6 2,199
2015 623 612 44 525 161 10 2,125
2016 648 514 41 523 138 12 2,003
2017 686 474 37 492 121 6 1,930

Source: Table 35-10-0177-01, Uniform Crime Reporting Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Note:

*Unlike Statistics Canada, the Total Crime Rate in the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview includes traffic offences and violations of federal statutes to provide a measure of all criminal offences. As a result, the Total Crime Rate reported here is higher than that reported by Statistics Canada. In addition, the definitions for Violent, Property and Other Criminal Code offences, and Total Other Federal Statutes have been revised by Statistics Canada to better reflect definitions used by the policing community. As a result of these changes, comparable data are only available starting in 1998 and the data presented in this year's report are not compa rable to the data reported in previous versions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview.

**Data for Youth Charged and Youth Not Charged for Impaired Driving are not available prior to 2007. As a result, comparisons to Total Charged and Other CCC (including traffic) over time should be made with caution.

For criminal justice purposes, youth are defined under Canadian law as persons age 12 to 17.

Rates are based on 100,000 youth population (12 to 17 years old).

Violent crimes include homicide, attempted murder, assault, sexual offences, abduction, extortion, robbery, firearms, and other violent offences such as uttering threats and criminal harassment.

The most common youth court case is theft

Figure A9

Detailed information can be found in the surrounding text.

Source: Table 35-10-0038-01, Integrated Criminal Court Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Note:

*"Administration of Justice" includes the offences failure to appear, failure to comply, and breach of recognizance.

**Youth Criminal Justice Act offences include failure to comply with a disposition or undertaking, contempt against youth court, assisting a youth to leave a place of custody and harbouring a youth unlawfully at large. Also included are similar offences under the Young Offenders Act, which preceded the Youth Criminal Justice Act.

***Drug Offences" includes possession and other drug offences.

The concept of a case has changed to more closely reflect court processing. Statistics from the Integrated Criminal Court Survey used in this report should not be compared to editions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview prior to 2007. A case is one or more charges against an accused person or corporation, processed by the courts at the same time, and where all of the charges in the case received a final disposition. Where a case has more than one charge, it is necessary to select a charge to represent the case. An offence is selected by applying two rules. First, the "most serious decision" rule is applied. In cases where two or more offences have the same decision, the "most serious offence" rule is applied. All charges are ranked according to an offence seriousness scale.

The Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics continues to make updates to the offence library used to classify offence data sent by the provinces and territories. These improvements have resulted in minor changes in the counts of charges and cases as well as the distributions by type of offence. Data presented have been revised to account for these updates.

The most common youth court case is theft

Table A9
Type of Case Number of Youth Court Cases
2012-2013 2013-2014 2014-2015 2015-2016 2016-2017
Crimes Against the Person 12,792 11,883 9,959 9,635 9,709
Homicide and Attempted Murder 52 53 49 55 54
Robbery 2,336 1,937 1,487 1,482 1,498
Sexual Assault/Other Sexual Offences 1,331 1,449 1,325 1,440 1,489
Major Assault 2,715 2,427 2,128 2,084 2,096
Common Assault 3,878 3,637 2,771 2,567 2,593
Other Crimes Against Person* 2,480 2,380 2,199 2,007 1,979
Crimes Against Property 15,723 13,526 11,014 10,654 9,482
Theft 5,476 4,692 3,660 3,658 3,234
Break and Enter 3,606 3,153 2,603 2,419 2,200
Fraud 474 470 377 380 418
Mischief 2,948 2,514 2,155 2,087 1,788
Possession of Stolen Property 2,779 2,322 1,913 1,832 1,600
Other Property Crimes 440 375 306 278 242
Administration of Justice 4,893 4,336 3,659 3,421 3,065
Failure to Comply With Order 3,230 2,902 2,414 2,229 2,039
Other Administration of Justice** 1,357 1,172 1,028 983 822
Other Criminal Code 2,424 2,193 2,078 1,933 1,834
Weapons/Firearms 1,555 1,463 1,421 1,401 1,368
Prostitution 6 11 17 8 19
Disturbing the Peace 132 86 64 65 49
Residual Criminal Code 731 633 576 459 398
Criminal Code Traffic 828 656 569 570 550
Other Federal Statutes 8,781 7,780 6,395 5,505 4,532
Drug Possession 1,840 1,571 1,784 1,551 1,122
Other Drug Offences 710 666 917 724 640
Youth Criminal Justice Act*** 4,542 3,870 3,524 3,096 2,648
Residual Federal Statutes 163 150 170 134 122
Total Offences 45,441 40,374 33,674 31,718 28,172

Source: Table 35-10-0038-01, Integrated Criminal Court Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Note:

*"Other Crimes Against the Person" includes the offences uttering threats and criminal harassment.

**"Other Administration of Justice" includes the offences failure to appear and breach of recognizance.

***Youth Criminal Justice Act offences include failure to comply with a disposition or undertaking, contempt against youth court, assisting a youth to leave a place of custody and harbouring a youth unlawfully at large. Also included are similar offences under the Young Offenders Act, which preceded the Youth Criminal Justice Act.

The concept of a case has changed to more closely reflect court processing. Statistics from the Integrated Criminal Court Survey used in this report should not be compared to editions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview prior to 2007. A case is one or more charges against an accused person or corporation, processed by the courts at the same time, and where all of the charges in the case received a final disposition. Where a case has more than one charge, it is necessary to select a charge to represent the case. An offence is selected by applying two rules.

First, the "most serious decision" rule is applied. In cases where two or more offences have the same decision, the "most serious offence" rule is applied. All charges are ranked according to an offence seriousness scale.

The Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics continues to make updates to the offence library used to classify offence data sent by the provinces and territories. These improvements have resulted in minor changes in the counts of charges and cases as well as the distributions by type of offence. Data presented have been revised to account for these updates.

The most common sentence for youth is probation

Figure A10

Detailed information can be found in the surrounding text.

Source: Table 35-10-0041-01, Integrated Criminal Court Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Note:

*"Other Sentence" includes absolute discharge, restitution, prohibition, seizure, forfeiture, compensation, pay purchaser, essays, apologies, counselling programs and conditional discharge, conditional sentence, intensive support and supervision, attendance at non-residential program(s) and reprimand. This category also includes deferred custody and supervision, intensive support and supervision, attendance at non-residential program(s) and reprimand where sentencing data under the Youth Criminal Justice Act (YCJA) are not available.

Unlike previous years, this data represents the most serious sentence and therefore, sanctions are mutually exclusive. However, each case may receive more than one sentence.

The concept of a case has changed to more closely reflect court processing. Statistics from the Integrated Criminal Court Survey used in this report should not be compared to editions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview prior to 2007.

The most common sentence for youth is probation

Table A10
Type of Sentence Gender Year
2012-2013 2013-2014 2014-2015 2015-2016 2016-2017
  % % % % %
Probation Female 41.9 41.4 41.1 41.2 42.6
Male 39.2 39.4 40.1 40.0 40.9
Total 40.4 40.6 41.2 40.7 41.7
Custody Female 8.4 8.0 9.0 9.0 5.8
Male 10.9 10.8 10.8 11.2 9.3
Total 10.5 10.5 10.8 11.2 9.4
Community Service Order Female 18.0 17.6 18.0 15.9 17.0
Male 17.4 17.9 18.3 16.6 17.0
Total 17.2 17.4 17.6 16.2 16.6
Fine Female 2.0 2.0 2.2 2.2 1.9
Male 2.7 2.2 1.9 2.0 1.8
Total 2.6 2.2 2.0 2.1 1.8
Deferred Custody and Supervision Female 3.0 3.3 2.5 3.0 2.6
Male 3.3 3.2 2.9 3.2 3.3
Total 3.3 3.3 3.0 3.2 3.3
Other Sentence* Female 26.7 27.6 27.2 28.7 30.1
Male 26.5 26.5 25.9 27.0 27.8
Total 26.0 25.9 25.4 26.6 27.2

Source: Table 35-10-0041-01, Integrated Criminal Court Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Note:

*"Other Sentence" includes absolute discharge, restitution, prohibition, seizure, forfeiture, compensation, pay purchaser, essays, apologies, counselling programs and conditional discharge, conditional sentence, intensive support and supervision, attendance at non-residential program(s) and reprimand. This category also includes deferred custody and supervision, intensive support and supervision, attendance at non-residential program(s) and reprimand where sentencing data under the Youth Criminal Justice Act (YCJA) are not available.

Unlike previous years, this data represents the most serious sentence and therefore, sanctions are mutually exclusive. However, each case may receive more than one sentence.

The concept of a case has changed to more closely reflect court processing. Statistics from the Integrated Criminal Court Survey used in this report should not be compared to editions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview prior to 2007.

Section B - Corrections Administration

Expenditures on Corrections

Figure B1

Detailed information can be found in the surrounding text.

Source: Correctional Service Canada; Parole Board of Canada; Office of the Correctional Investigator; Statistics Canada Consumer Price Index. Provincial figures derived from the Adult Correctional Services Survey, Canadian Center for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Note:

*Adjusted costs are reported in constant dollars. Constant dollars (2002) represent dollar amounts calculated on a one-year base that adjusts for inflation, allowing the yearly amounts to be directly comparable. Changes in the Consumer Price Index were used to calculate constant dollars.

Federal expenditures on corrections include spending by Correctional Service Canada (CSC), the Parole Board of Canada (PBC), and the Office of the Correctional Investigator (OCI). Total expenditures represent gross expenditures and exclude revenues. Operating costs include Employee benefit Plan expenditures. CSC expenditures exclude CORCAN (a Special Operating Agency that conducts industrial operations within penitentiaries). Provincial/Territorial expenditures do not include capital costs.

Expenditures on Corrections

Table B1
Year Current Dollars Constant 2002 Dollars
Operating
Capital Total Per capita
Operating
Capital Total Per capita
  $'000   $ $'000   $
2012-13
CSC 2,204,005 437,736 2,641,742 76.01 2,019,281 401,048 2,420,331 69.64
PBC 46,500 - - 46,500 1.34 42,603 - - 42,603 1.23
OCI 4,801 - - 4,801 0.14 4,399 - - 4,399 0.13
Total 2,255,306 437,736 2,693,043 77.49 2,066,283 401,048 2,467,332 70.99
2013-14
CSC 2,371,700 378,372 2,750,072 78.22 2,203,672 351,566 2,555,238 72.68
PBC 50,400 - - 50,400 1.43 46,829 - - 46,829 1.33
OCI 4,946 - - 4,946 0.14 4,596 - - 4,596 0.13
Total 2,427,046 378,372 2,805,418 79.79 2,255,097 351,566 2,606,663 74.14
2014-15
CSC 2,373,604 200,606 2,574,210 72.42 2,168,852 183,301 2,352,154 66.17
PBC 50,100 - - 50,100 1.41 45,778 - - 45,778 1.29
OCI 4,659 - - 4,659 0.13 4,257 - - 4,257 0.12
Total 2,428,363 200,606 2,628,969 73.96 2,218,888 183,301 2,402,189 67.58
2015-16
CSC 2,189,101 168,684 2,357,785 65.77 2,014,457 155,227 2,169,684 60.52
PBC 46,300 - - 46,300 1.29 42,606 - - 42,606 1.19
OCI 4,656 - - 4,656 0.13 4,285 - - 4,285 0.12
Total 2,240,057 168,684 2,408,741 67.19 2,061,348 155,227 2,216,574 61.83
2016-17
CSC 2,209,048 153,757 2,362,804 65.12 2,062,810 143,578 2,206,388 60.80
PBC 46,800 - - 46,800 1.29 43,702 - - 43,702 1.20
OCI 4,693 - - 4,693 0.13 4,382 - - 4,382 0.12
Total 2,260,541 153,757 2,414,297 66.53 2,110,895 143,578 2,254,472 62.13

Source: Correctional Service Canada; Parole Board of Canada; Office of the Correctional Investigator; Statistics Canada Consumer Price Index.

Note:

Due to rounding, constant dollar amounts may not add up to "Total".

Per capita cost is calculated by dividing the total expenditures by the total Canadian population and thus represents the cost per Canadian for federal correctional services.

Constant dollars represent dollar amounts calculated on a one-year base (2002) that adjusts for inflation allowing the yearly amounts to be directly comparable.

Changes in the Consumer Price Index were used to calculate constant dollars.

CSC employees are concentrated in custody centres

Figure B2

Detailed information can be found in the surrounding text.

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

Due to changes in policy, Correctional Officers no longer occupy positions in the community.

*These parole officers are situated within institutions, with the responsibility of preparing offenders for release.

**The "Other" category represents job classifications such as trades and food services.

***CSC has changed its definition of employee. Previously the total number of employees included casual employees, employees on leave without pay and suspended employees. These categories have been removed from the total as of 2005-06. These numbers represent Indeterminate and Term equal to, or more than 3 months substantive employment; and Employee Status of Active and Paid Leave current up to March 31, 2018.

Due to rounding, percentage may not add to 100.

CSC employees are concentrated in custody centres

Table B2
Service Area March 31, 2006 March 31, 2018
  # % # %
Headquarters and Central Services 2,087 14.5 2,427 14.4
Administration 1,699 11.8 2,065 12.2
Health Care 111 0.8 80 0.5
Program Staff 120 0.8 62 0.4
Correctional Officers 28 0.2 39 0.2
Instructors/Supervisors 10 0.1 10 0.1
Parole Officers/Parole Supervisors     1 <0.1
Other** 119 0.8 170 1.0
Custody Centres 11,229 77.8 13,039 77.2
Correctional Officers 5,965 41.3 7,285 43.1
Administration 1,914 13.3 1,771 10.5
Health Care 779 5.4 921 5.5
Program Staff 534 3.7 875 5.2
Parole Officers/Parole Supervisors* 648 4.5 619 3.7
Instructors/Supervisors 387 2.7 377 2.2
Other** 1,002 6.9 1,191 7.0
Community Supervision 1,125 7.8 1,432 8.5
Parole Officers/Parole Supervisors 581 4.0 715 4.2
Administration 315 2.2 354 2.1
Program Staff 172 1.2 273 1.6
Health Care 34 0.2 87 0.5
Correctional Officers 22 0.2 0 0.0
Other** 1 <0.1 3 <0.1
Total*** 14,441 100.0 16,898 100.0

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

Due to changes in policy, Correctional Officers no longer occupy positions in the community.

*These parole officers are situated within institutions, with the responsibility of preparing offenders for release.

**The "Other" category represents job classifications such as trades and food services.

***CSC has changed its definition of employee. Previously the total number of employees included casual employees, employees on leave without pay and suspended employees. These categories have been removed from the total as of 2005-06. These numbers represent Indeterminate and Term equal to, or more than 3 months substantive employment; and Employee Status of Active and Paid Leave current up to March 31, 2018.

Due to rounding, percentage may not add up to 100.

The cost of keeping an inmate incarcerated

Figure B3

Detailed information can be found in the surrounding text.

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

The average daily inmate cost includes those costs associated with the operation of the institutions such as salaries and employee benefit plan contributions, but excludes capital expenditures and expenditures related to CORCAN (a Special Operating Agency that conducts industrial operations within federal institutions). Total incarcerated and community includes additional NHQ & RHQ administrative costs which are not part of the Institutional and/or Community calculations. Offenders in the Community includes: Offenders on conditional release, statutory release or with Long-Term Supervision Order, under CSC supervision.

Figures may not add due to rounding.

The cost of keeping an inmate incarcerated

Table B3
Categories Annual Average Costs per Offender (current $)
2012-13 2013-14 2014-15 2015-16 2016-17
Incarcerated Offenders
Maximum Security (men only) 148,330 156,768 160,094 155,848 158,113
Medium Security (men only) 99,207 101,583 105,750 106,868 105,349
Minimum Security (men only) 83,910 83,182 86,613 81,528 83,450
Women's Facilities 210,695 219,884 213,800 192,742 191,843
*Exchange of Services Agreements (both) 104,828 108,388 111,839 114,974 122,998
Incarcerated Average 112,197 115,310 119,152 116,364 116,473
Offenders in the Community 33,799 34,432 33,067 31,052 30,639
Total Incarcerated and Community 95,504 99,923 99,982 94,545 95,654

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

*The intent of an Exchange of Service Agreement is to detail the roles and responsibilities of each jurisdiction and include specific protocols regarding per diem rates, offender information sharing, and invoicing pertaining to the reciprocal exchange of offenders between jurisdictions.

The average daily inmate cost includes those costs associated with the operation of the institutions such as salaries and employee benefit plan contributions, but excludes capital expenditures and expenditures related to CORCAN (a Special Operating Agency that conducts industrial operations within federal institutions). Total incarcerated and community includes additional NHQ & RHQ administrative costs which are not part of the Institutional and/or Community calculations. Offenders in the Community includes: Offenders on conditional release, statutory release or with Long-Term Supervision Order, under CSC supervision.

Figures may not add due to rounding.

The number of Parole Board of Canada employees

Figure B4

Detailed information can be found in the surrounding text.

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Note:

A full-time equivalent is a measure of the extent to which an employee represents a full person-year charge against a departmental budget.

Section 103 of the Corrections and Conditional Release Act limits the Parole Board of Canada to 60 full-time members.

The number of Parole Board of Canada employees

Table B4
  Full-Time Equivalents
2013-14 2014-15 2015-16 2016-17 2017-18
Program Activity
Conditional Release Decisions 325 325 322 321 317
Conditional Release Openness and Accountability 53 54 42 44 42
Record Suspension and Clemency Recommendations 79 69 52 59 48
Internal Services 48 47 59 56 64
Total 505 495 475 480 471
Types of Employees
Full-time Board Members 42 42 41 39 38
Part-time Board Members 20 18 18 17 20
Staff 443 435 416 424 413
Total 505 495 475 480 471

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Note:

A full-time equivalent is a measure of the extent to which an employee represents a full person-year charge against a departmental budget.

Section 103 of the Corrections and Conditional Release Act limits the Parole Board of Canada to 60 full-time members.

The number of employees in the Office of the Correctional Investigator

Figure B5

Detailed information can be found in the surrounding text.

Source: Office of the Correctional Investigator.

Note:

*The Office of the Correctional Investigator (OCI) may commence an investigation on receipt of a complaint by or on behalf of an offender or on its own initiative. Complaints are made by telephone, letter and during interviews with the OCI's investigative staff at federal correctional facilities. The dispositions in response to complaints involve a combination of internal responses (where the information or assistance sought by the offender can generally be provided by the OCI's investigative staff) and investigations (where, further to a review/analysis of law, policies and documentation, OCI investigative staff make an inquiry or several interventions with Correctional Service Canada and submit recommendations to address the complaint). Investigations vary considerably in terms of scope, complexity, duration and resources required.

The number of employees in the Office of the Correctional Investigator

Table B5
  Full-Time Equivalents
2013-14 2014-15 2015-16 2016-17 2017-18
Types of Employees
Correctional Investigator 1 1 1 1 1
Senior Management and Legal Counsel/Advisor 5 5 5 5 5
Investigative Services 25 25 25 26 26
Administrative Services 5 5 5 4 4
Total 36 36 36 36 36

Source: Office of the Correctional Investigator.

Health care is the most common area of offender complaint received by the Office of the Correctional Investigator

Figure B6

Detailed information can be found in the surrounding text.

Source: Office of the Correctional Investigator.

Note:

*Excludes complaints received on issues outside the OCIs jurisdiction.

The Office of the Correctional Investigator (OCI) may commence an investigation on receipt of a complaint by or on behalf of an offender or on its own initiative. Complaints are made by telephone, letter and during interviews with the OCI's investigative staff at federal correctional facilities. The dispositions in response to complaints involve a combination of internal responses (where the information or assistance sought by the offender can generally be provided by the OCI's investigative staff) and investigations (where, further to a review/analysis of law, policies and documentation, OCI investigative staff make an inquiry or several interventions with Correctional Service Canada and submit recommendations to address the complaint). Investigations vary considerably in terms of scope, complexity, duration and resources required.

Health care is the most common area of offender complaint received by the Office of the Correctional Investigator

Table B6
Category of Complaint* Number of Complaints
2013-14 2014-15 2015-16 2016-17 2017-18
Health Care 649 816 911 903 838
Conditions of Confinement 699 616 808 761 770
Staff 427 422 429 408 530
Cell Property 335 360 426 497 412
Transfers 409 474 370 439 353
Administrative Segregation 369 383 272 269 223
Visits 236 244 290 285 214
Outside OCI Jurisdiction 270 238 245 259 193
Telephone 245 278 224 187 169
Grievance Procedures 163 195 188 173 177
Request for Information 147 181 152 213 126
Financial Matters 139 143 197 208 127
Safety/Security of Offender(s) 98 180 199 170 107
Correspondence 88 149 165 167 149
Security Classification 100 104 49 35 31
Programs/Services 93 145 143 135 129
Decisions (General) 95 101 117 170 128
Case Preparation 75 137 102 115 55
Temporary Absence 90 98 100 93 74
Mental Health 51 77 133 122 76
Total of all Categories** 5,557 6,382 6,651 6,844 5,846

Source: Office of the Correctional Investigator.

Note:

*These top categories of complaints are based on the sum totals for the five reported fiscal years between 2013-14 and 2017-18. The remaining categories, in order of total complaints received between 2013-14 and 2017-18, are as follows: Employment, Release Procedures, Food Services, Search and Seizure, Harassment, UNCATEGORIZED, Use of Force, Discipline, Legal Counsel, Claims, Cell Placement, Diets, Other, Religious/spiritual, Community Programs/Supervision, Inmate Requests, Programmes/Services, Operation/Decisions of the OCI, Sentence Administration, Death or Serious Injury, Discrimination, and Conditional Release.

**These totals represent all complaint categories.

The Office of the Correctional Investigator (OCI) may commence an investigation on receipt of a complaint by or on behalf of an offender or on its own initiative. Complaints are made by telephone, letter and during interviews with the OCI's investigative staff at federal correctional facilities. The dispositions in response to complaints involve a combination of internal responses (where the information or assistance sought by the offender can generally be provided by the OCI's investigative staff) and investigations (where, further to a review/analysis of law, policies and documentation, OCI investigative staff make an inquiry or several interventions with Correctional Service Canada and submit recommendations to address the complaint). Investigations vary considerably in terms of scope, complexity, duration and resources required.

Due to ongoing efforts at the OCI to streamline our administrative database and ensure accuracy in reporting, the numbers in this table will not always match those of past Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overviews, or OCI Annual Reports.

Section C - Offender Population

Offenders under the responsibility of Correctional Service Canada

Figure C1

Detailed information can be found in the surrounding text.

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Definitions:

CSC Facilities include all federal institutions, federally funded healing lodges, and healing lodges operated under Section 81 of the Corrections and Conditional Release Act.

Total Offender Population includes all active offenders, who are incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, offenders who are temporarily detained, offenders who are actively supervised and offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days.

In-Custody includes all active offenders incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, offenders who are temporarily detained in a CSC facility and offenders on remand in a CSC facility.

Temporarily Detained includes offenders who are physically held in a CSC facility or a non-CSC facility after being suspended for a breach of a parole condition or to prevent a breach of parole conditions.

Actively Supervised includes all active offenders on day parole, full parole or statutory release, as well as those who are in the community on long-term supervision orders.

In Community Under Supervision includes all active offenders on day parole, full parole, or statutory release, or in the community supervised on a long-term supervision order, offenders who are temporarily detained in a non-CSC facility, offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days, offenders on remand in a non-CSC facility, and offenders supervised and subject to an immigration hold by the Canada Border Services Agency.

In addition to Total Offender Population, there are excluded groups such as:

Federal jurisdiction offenders incarcerated in a Community Correctional Centre or in a non-CSC facility. Federal jurisdiction offenders deported/extradited including offenders for whom a deportation order has been enforced by the Canada Border Services Agency. Federal offenders on bail which includes offenders on judicial interim release; they have appealed their conviction or sentence and have been released to await results of a new trial. Escaped includes offenders who have absconded from either a correctional facility or while on a temporary absence and whose whereabouts are unknown. Unlawfully at Large for 90 days or more. This includes offenders who have been released to the community on day parole, full parole, statutory release, or a long-term supervision order for whom a warrant of suspension has been issued at least 90 days ago but has not yet been executed.

Note:

*In addition to this total offender population, 224 offenders were on bail, 126 offenders had escaped, 230 offenders serving a federal sentence were in custody in a non-CSC facility, 336 offenders were unlawfully at large for 90 days or more, and 422 offenders were deported. The definition of "Offender Population" changed from previous editions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview (CCRSO). As such, comparisons to editions of the CCRSO prior to 2016 should be done with caution.

Offenders under the responsibility of Correctional Service Canada

Table C1
Status Offenders under the responsibility of Correctional Service Canada
  # # # % % %
In-Custody Population (CSC Facility) 14,092         60.7
Incarcerated in CSC Facility   13,264     57.1  
Temporarily Detained in CSC Facility   828     3.6  
In Community under Supervision 9,131         39.3
Temporarily Detained in Non-CSC Facility   192     0.8  
Actively Supervised   8,939     38.5  
Day Parole     1,615 7.0    
Full Parole     4,209 18.1    
Statutory Release     2,672 11.5    
Long Term Supervision Order     443 1.9    
Total 23,223*         100.0

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

*In addition to this total offender population, 224 offenders were on bail, 126 offenders had escaped, 230 offenders serving a federal sentence were in custody in a non-CSC facility, 336 offenders were unlawfully at large for 90 days or more, and 422 offenders were deported.

The definition of "Offender Population" changed from previous editions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview (CCRSO). As such, comparisons to editions of the CCRSO prior to 2016 should be done with caution.

The number of offenders in custody in a CSC facility decreased in the last four years

Figure C2

Detailed information can be found in the surrounding text.

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

*The data reflect the number of offenders in custody at the end of each fiscal year. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

The term "In-Custody in a CSC Facility" includes all active offenders incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, offenders who are temporarily detained in a CSC facility and offenders on remand in a CSC facility.

**Source: Corrections Key Indicator Report for Adults and Youth, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.

The number of offenders in custody in a CSC facility decreased in the last four years

Table C2
Year In Custody Offenders
In-Custody in a CSC Facility*1 Provincial/Territorial2 Total
Sentenced Remand Other/Temporary Detention Total
2008-09 13,960 9,931 13,548 311 23,790 37,750
2009-10 14,197 10,045 13,739 308 24,092 38,289
2010-11 14,840 10,922 13,086 427 24,435 39,275
2011-12 15,131 11,138 13,369 308 24,814 39,945
2012-13 15,318 11,138 13,739 308 25,185 40,503
2013-14 15,342 9,888 11,494 322 21,704 37,046
2014-15 14,886 10,364 13,650 441 24,455 39,341
2015-16 14,712 10,091 14,899 415 25,405 40,117
2016-17 14,159 9,710 15,417 321 25,448 39,607
2017-18 14,092 -- -- -- -- --

Source: 1Correctional Service Canada.; 2Table 35-10-0154-01, Corrections Key Indicator Report for Adults and Youth, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Note:

*The data reflect the number of offenders in custody at the end of each fiscal year. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

The term "In Custody in a CSC Facility" includes all active offenders incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, offend-ers who are temporarily detained in a CSC facility, and offenders on remand in a CSC facility.

The figures for provincial and territorial offenders reflect annual average counts.

--

Data not available.

The number of admissions to federal jurisdiction has decreased

Figure C3

Detailed information can be found in the surrounding text.

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

*"Other" includes transfers from other jurisdictions (exchange of services), terminations, transfers from foreign countries, and admissions where a release is interrupted as a consequence of a new conviction.

These numbers refer to the total number of admissions to a federal institution or Healing Lodge during each fiscal year and may be greater than the actual number of offenders admitted, since an individual offender may be admitted more than once in a given year. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

**Revocation is when an offender is admitted to federal custody after conditional release and before reaching warrant expiry. ***Warrant of Committal is a new admission to federal jurisdiction from the courts.

The number of admissions to federal jurisdiction has decreased

Table C3
  2013-14 2014-15 2015-16 2016-17 2017-18
Women Men Women Men Women Men Women Men Women Men
Warrant of Committal
1stFederal Sentence 273 3,467 302 3,309 348 3,321 378 3,357 315 3,186
2ndor Subsequent Federal Sentence 38 1,269 41 1,153 39 1,176 36 1,130 41 1,172
Provincial Sentence 1 23 0 13 1 6 0 7 0 4
Subtotal 312 4,759 343 4,475 388 4,503 414 4,494 356 4,362
Total 5,071 4,818 4,891 4,908 4,718
Revocations 111 2,604 124 2,379 149 2,327 132 2,015 148 1,976
Total 2,715 2,503 2,476 2,147 2,124
Other* 6 108 5 71 4 78 3 96 7 54
Total 114 76 82 99 61
  429 7,471 472 6,925 541 6,908 549 6,605 511 6,392
Total Admissions 7,900 7,397 7,449 7,154 6,903

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

*"Other" includes transfers from other jurisdictions (exchange of services), terminations, transfers from foreign countries, and admissions where a release is interrupted as a consequence of a new conviction.

These numbers refer to the total number of admissions to a federal institution or Healing Lodge during each fiscal year and may be greater than the actual number of offenders admitted, since an individual offender may be admitted more than once in a given year. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

The number of women admitted from the courts to federal jurisdiction decreased

Figure C4

Detailed information can be found in the surrounding text.

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

A warrant of committal is a new admission to federal jurisdiction from the courts.

The number of women admitted from the courts to federal jurisdiction decreased

Table C4
Year Warrant of Committal Admissions Total
Women Men
  # % # %  
2008-09 306 6.4 4,459 93.6 4,765
2009-10 307 6.0 4,833 94.0 5,140
2010-11 328 6.2 5,005 93.8 5,333
2011-12 337 6.7 4,694 93.3 5,031
2012-13 265 5.3 4,778 94.7 5,043
2013-14 312 6.2 4,759 93.8 5,071
2014-15 343 7.1 4,475 92.9 4,818
2015-16 388 7.9 4,503 92.1 4,891
2016-17 414 8.4 4,494 91.6 4,908
2017-18 356 7.5 4,362 92.5 4,718

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

A warrant of committal is a new admission to federal jurisdiction from the courts.

About half of the total offender population in CSC facilities is serving a sentence of less than five years

Figure C5

Detailed information can be found in the surrounding text.

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

*Total Offender Population includes all active offenders who are incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, offenders who are temporarily detained, offenders who are actively supervised, and offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days.

Offenders serving a sentence less than two years includes offenders transferred from foreign countries or offenders under a long-term supervision order who received a new sentence of less than two years.

**Indeterminate means that the offender's term of imprisonment does not have an end date. The Parole Board of Canada reviews the case after seven years and every two years after that.

About half of the total offender population in CSC facilities is serving a sentence of less than five years

Table C5
Sentence Length 2013-14 2014-15 2015-16 2016-17 2017-18
  # % # % # % # % # %
< than 2 years 291 1.3 287 1.2 306 1.3 307 1.3 348 1.5
2 years to < 3 years 5,296 22.9 5,241 22.8 5,367 23.3 5,391 23.4 5,412 23.3
3 years to < 4 years 3,771 16.3 3,631 15.8 3,503 15.2 3,377 14.7 3,378 14.5
4 years to < 5 years 2,447 10.6 2,422 10.5 2,393 10.4 2,382 10.3 2,342 10.1
5 years to < 6 years 1,638 7.1 1,672 7.3 1,692 7.3 1,691 7.3 1,674 7.2
6 years to < 7 years 1,100 4.8 1,104 4.8 1,136 4.9 1,143 5.0 1,186 5.1
7 years to < 10 years 1,793 7.7 1,788 7.8 1,805 7.8 1,810 7.9 1,811 7.8
10 years to < 15 years 954 4.1 936 4.1 940 4.1 951 4.1 979 4.2
15 years or more 612 2.6 564 2.5 522 2.3 501 2.2 474 2.0
Indeterminate 5,253 22.7 5,316 23.2 5,393 23.4 5,492 23.8 5,619 24.2
Total 23,155 100 22,961 100 23,057 100 23,045 100 23,223 100

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

Total Offender Population includes all active offenders, who are incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, offenders who are temporarily detained, offenders who are actively supervised, and offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days.

The group of offenders serving a sentence less than two years includes offenders transferred from foreign countries or offenders under a long-term supervision order who received a new sentence of less than two years.

Admission of older offenders to federal jurisdiction is increasing

Figure C6

Detailed information can be found in the surrounding text.

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

*This offender was admitted to federal jurisdiction by the courts.

A warrant of committal is a new admission to federal jurisdiction from the courts.

Due to rounding, percentages may not add up to 100 percent.

Admission of older offenders to federal jurisdiction is increasing

Table C6
Age at Admission 2008-2009 2017-18
Women Men Total Women Men Total
  # % # % # % # % # % # %
Under 18 0 0.0 1* 0.0 1* 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0
18 and 19 10 3.3 139 3.1 149 3.1 4 1.1 74 1.7 78 1.7
20 to 24 39 12.7 804 18.0 843 17.7 49 13.8 628 14.4 677 14.3
25 to 29 47 15.4 834 18.7 881 18.5 76 21.3 795 18.2 871 18.5
30 to 34 60 19.6 602 13.5 662 13.9 68 19.1 750 17.2 818 17.3
35 to 39 42 13.7 598 13.4 640 13.4 50 14.0 576 13.2 626 13.3
40 to 44 51 16.7 551 12.4 602 12.6 38 10.7 413 9.5 451 9.6
45 to 49 27 8.8 426 9.6 453 9.5 26 7.3 373 8.6 399 8.5
50 to 59 26 8.5 356 8.0 382 8.0 35 9.8 513 11.8 548 11.6
60 to 69 4 1.3 115 2.6 119 2.5 9 2.5 163 3.7 172 3.6
70 and over 0 0.0 33 0.7 33 0.7 1 0.3 77 1.8 78 1.7
Total 306 4,459 4,765 365 4,362 4,718

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

*This offender was admitted to a youth correctional centre.

A warrant of committal is a new admission to federal jurisdiction from the courts.

Due to rounding, percentages may not add up to 100 percent.

The average age at admission is lower for Indigenous offenders than for non-Indigenous offenders

Figure C7

Detailed information can be found in the surrounding text.

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

A warrant of committal is a new admission to federal jurisdiction from the courts.

Due to rounding, percentages may not add up to 100 percent.

The average age at admission is lower for Indigenous offenders than for non-Indigenous offenders

Table C7
Age at Admission 2008-2009 2017-18
Indigenous Non-Indigenous Total Indigenous Non-Indigenous Total
  # % # % # % # % # % # %
Under 18 1* 0.1 0 0.0 1* 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0
18 and 19 43 4.5 106 2.8 149 3.1 35 2.8 43 1.2 78 1.7
20 to 24 199 20.7 644 16.9 843 17.7 223 18.0 454 13.1 677 14.3
25 to 29 187 19.4 694 18.3 881 18.5 271 21.8 600 17.3 871 18.5
30 to 34 164 17.0 498 13.1 662 13.9 254 20.5 564 16.2 818 17.3
35 to 39 124 12.9 516 13.6 640 13.4 155 12.5 471 13.6 626 13.3
40 to 44 113 11.7 489 12.9 602 12.6 100 8.1 351 10.1 451 9.6
45 to 49 78 8.1 375 9.9 453 9.5 83 6.7 316 9.1 399 8.5
50 to 59 47 4.9 335 8.8 382 8.0 95 7.6 453 13.0 548 11.6
60 to 69 6 0.6 113 3.0 119 2.5 22 1.8 150 4.3 172 3.6
70 and over 1 0.1 32 0.8 33 0.7 4 0.3 74 2.1 78 1.7
Total 963 3,802 4,765 1,242 3,476 4,718

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

*This offender was admitted to a youth correctional centre.

A warrant of committal is a new admission to federal jurisdiction from the courts.

Due to rounding, percentages may not add up to 100 percent.

25% of the in-custody offender population is age 50 or over

Figure C8

Detailed information can be found in the surrounding text.

Source: Correctional Service Canada; Statistics Canada.

Note:

*In-custody population includes all active offenders incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, offenders who are temporarily detained in a CSC facility, and offenders on remand in a CSC facility.

**2014 Postcensal Estimates, Demography Division, and Statistics Canada and include only those age 18 and older.

***In community under supervision includes all active offenders on day parole, full parole, statutory release, or in the community supervised on a long-term supervision order, offenders who are temporarily detained in a non-CSC facility, offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days, offenders on remand in a non-CSC facility, and offenders supervised and subject to an immigration hold by the Canada Border Services Agency.

Due to rounding, percentage may not add up to 100 percent.

25% of the in-custody offender population is age 50 or over

Table C8
Age In-Custody* In Community Under Supervision** Total % of Canadian Adult Population***
  # % # % # % %
Under 18 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0.0
18 and 19 55 0.4 5 0.1 60 0.3 3.0
20 to 24 1,282 9.1 462 5.1 1,744 7.5 8.1
25 to 29 2,179 15.5 1,030 11.3 3,209 13.8 8.6
30 to 34 2,211 15.7 1,156 12.7 3,367 14.5 8.5
35 to 39 1,900 13.5 1,145 12.5 3,045 13.1 8.4
40 to 44 1,560 11.1 930 10.2 2,490 10.7 8.0
45 to 49 1,357 9.6 935 10.2 2,292 9.9 8.1
50 to 54 1,275 9.0 900 9.9 2,175 9.4 8.6
55 to 59 961 6.8 810 8.9 1,771 7.6 9.1
60 to 64 615 4.4 646 7.1 1,261 5.4 8.2
65 to 69 349 2.5 472 5.2 821 3.5 6.8
70 and over 348 2.5 640 7.0 988 4.3 14.5
Total 14,092 100.0 9,131 100.0 23,223 100.0 100.0

Source: Correctional Service Canada; Statistics Canada.

Note:

*In-custody population includes all active offenders incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, offenders who are tem-porarily detained in a CSC facility, and offenders on remand in a CSC facility.

**In community under supervision includes all active offenders on day parole, full parole, statutory release, or in the community supervised on a long-term super-vision order, offenders who are temporarily detained in a non-CSC facility, offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days, offenders on remand in a non-CSC facility, and offenders supervised and subject to an immigration hold by the Canada Border Services Agency.

Due to rounding, percentage may not add up to 100 percent.

***2014 Postcensal Estimates, Demography Division, and Statistics Canada and include only those age 18 and older.

56% of offenders are Caucasian

Figure C9

Detailed information can be found in the surrounding text.

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

The offenders themselves identify to which race they belong. The list of categories may not fully account for all races and the race groupings information has changed starting in 2012-13; therefore, the comparisons before and after 2012-13 should be done with caution.

According to Correctional Service of Canada, "Indigenous" includes offenders who are Inuit, Innu, Métis and North American Indian. "Asian" includes offenders who are Arab, Arab/West Asian, Asian-East and Southeast, Asian-South, Asian West, Asiatic, Chinese, East Indian, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, South Asian, South East Asian. "Asiatic" includes offenders who are Asian-East and Southeast, Asian-South, Asian West, and Asiatic. "Hispanic" includes offenders who are Hispanic and Latin American. "Black" includes offenders who are Black. "Other/Unknown" includes offenders who are European French, European-Eastern, European-Northern, European-Southern, European-Western, Multiracial/Ethnic, Oceania, British Isles, Caribbean, Sub-Sahara African, offenders unable to identify to one race, other and unknown.

The data reflect all active offenders, who are incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, offenders who are temporarily detained, offenders who are actively supervised, and offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days.

The data reflect the number of offenders active at the end of each fiscal year. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

Due to rounding, percentages may not add up to 100 percent.

56% of offenders are Caucasian

Table C9
  Total Offender Population
2013-14 2017-18
  # % # %
Indigenous 4,856 21.0 5,572 24.0
Inuit 218 0.9 203 0.9
Métis 1,317 5.7 1,619 7.0
North American Indian 3,321 14.3 3,750 16.1
Asian 1,349 5.8 1,268 5.5
Arab/West Asian 352 1.5 360 1.6
Asiatic* 197 0.9 377 1.6
Chinese 143 0.6 97 0.4
East Indian 15 0.1 13 0.1
Filipino 66 0.3 75 0.3
Japanese 6 0.0 8 0.0
Korean 19 0.1 16 0.1
South East Asian 326 1.4 196 0.8
South Asian 225 1.0 126 0.5
Black 1,904 8.2 1,700 7.3
Caucasian 14,084 60.8 13,072 56.3
Hispanic 249 1.1 245 1.1
Hispanic 7 0.0 7 0.0
Latin American 242 1.0 238 1.0
Other/Unknown 713 3.1 1,366 5.9
Total 23,155 100.0 23,223 100.0

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

*Total for Asiatic includes Asian-East and Southeast, Asian South, Asian West, and Asiatic.

The offenders themselves identify to which race they belong. The list of categories may not fully account for all races and the race groupings information has changed starting in 2012-13; therefore, the comparisons before and after  2012-13 should be done with caution.

According to Correctional Service of Canada, "Indigenous" includes offenders who are Inuit, Innu, Métis and North American Indian. "Asian" includes offenders who are Arab, Arab/West Asian, Asian-East and Southeast, Asian-South, Asian West, Asiatic, Chinese, East Indian, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, South Asian, South East Asian. “Asiatic” includes offenders who are Asian-East and Southeast, Asian-South, Asian West, and Asiatic. "Hispanic" includes offenders who are Hispanic and Latin American. "Black" includes offenders who are Black. "Other/Unknown" includes offenders who are European French, European-Eastern, European-Northern, European-Southern, European-Western, Multiracial/Ethnic, Oceania, British Isles, Caribbean, Sub-Sahara African, offenders unable to identify to one race, other and unknown.

The data reflect all active offenders, who are incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, offenders who are temporarily detained, offenders who are actively supervised, and offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days.

The data reflect the number of offenders active at the end of each fiscal year. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

Due to rounding, percentages may not add up to 100 percent.

The religious identification of the offender population is diverse

Figure C10

Detailed information can be found in the surrounding text.

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

Religious identification is self-declared by offenders while they are incarcerated, and the categories are not comprehensive; therefore, the reader should interpret these data with caution. Buddhist includes offenders who are Buddhist, Mahayana Buddhist, Theravadan Buddhist and Vajrayana Buddhist. Christian includes offenders who are Amish, Anglican (Episcopal Church of England), Antiochian Orthodox, Apostolic Christian Church, Armenian Orthodox/Apostolic, Associated Gospel, Assyrian Chaldean Catholic, Baptist, Brethren In Christ, Bulgarian Orthodox, Canadian Reformed Church, Catholic- Greek, Catholic-Roman, Catholic-Ukranian, Catholic Non-Specific, Churches of Christ/Christian Churches, Charismatic, Christadelphian, Christian & Missionary Alliance, Christian Congregational, Christian Non Specific, Christian Or Plymouth Brethren, Christian Orthodox, Christian Reformed, Christian Reformed Church, Christian Science, Church of Christ Scientist, Church of God, Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saint, Community of Christ, Coptic Orthodox, Doukhobor, Dutch Reformed Church, Ethiopian Orthodox, Evangelical, Evangelical Free Church , Evangelical Missionary Church, Free Methodist, Free Reformed Church, Grace Communion International, Greek Orthodox, Hutterite, Iglesia Ni Cristo, Jehovah's Witnesses, Lutheran, Macedonian Orthodox, Maronite, Melkite, Mennonite, Methodist Christian, Metropolitan Community Church, Mission de l'Esprit Saint, Moravian, Mormon (Latter Day Saints), Nazarene Christian, Netherlands Reformed, New Apostolic, Pentecostal (4-Square), Pentecostal Assembly of God, Pentecôtiste, Philadelphia Church of God, Presbyterian, Protestant Non-Specific, Quaker (Society of Friends), Reformed Christian, Romanian Orthodox, Russian Orthodox, Salvation Army, Serbian Orthodox, Seventh Day Adventist, Shaker, Swedenborgian (New Church), Syrian/Syriac Orthodox, Ukrainian Catholic, Ukrainian Orthodox, United Church, United Reformed Church, Vineyard Christian Fellowship, Wesleyan Christian and Worldwide Church of God. Hindu includes offenders who are Hindu and Siddha Yoga. Jewish includes offenders who are Jewish Orthodox, Jewish Reformed and Judaism. Muslim includes offenders who are Muslim and Sufism. Rastafarian includes offenders who are Rastafarian. Sikh includes offenders who are Sikh. Traditional Aboriginal Spirituality includes offenders who are Aboriginal Spirituality Catholic, Aboriginal Spirituality Protestant, Native Spirituality, Catholic - Native Spirituality, Native Spirituality Protestant and Aboriginal Spirituality. Wiccan/Pagan includes offenders who are Asatru Paganism, Druidry Paganism, Pagan and Wicca. Other Religion includes offenders who are Baha'i, Eckankar, Gnostic, Independent Spirituality, Jain, Krishna, New Age, New Thought-Unity-Religious Science, Other, Pantheist, Rosicrucian, Satanist, Scientology, Shintoïste, Spiritualist, Taoism, Transcendental Meditation, Unification Church, Unitarian, Visnabha and Zoroastrian. No religion Affiliation includes offenders who are Agnostic, Atheist, Humanist and offenders who have no religion affiliation. The data reflect all active offenders, who are incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, offenders who are temporarily detained, offenders who are actively supervised, and offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days. The data reflect the number of offenders active at the end of each fiscal year. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

Due to rounding, percentages may not add to 100 percent.

The religious identification of the offender population is diverse

Table C10
  Total Offender Population
2013-14 2017-18
  # % # %
Buddhist 477 2.1 508 2.2
Christian 12,986 56.1 11,503 49.5
Hindu 47 0.2 63 0.3
Jewish 177 0.8 220 0.9
Muslim 1,264 5.5 1,539 6.6
Rastafarian 171 0.7 178 0.8
Sikh 180 0.8 188 0.8
Traditional Aboriginal Spirituality 1,305 5.6 1,338 5.8
Wicca/Pagan 138 0.6 318 1.4
Other Religions 521 2.3 442 1.9
No Religion Affiliation 3,816 16.5 3,480 15.0
Unknown 2,073 9.0 3,446 14.8
Total 23,155 100.0 23,223 100.0

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

Religious identification is self-declared by offenders while they are incarcerated, and the categories are not comprehensive; therefore, the reader should interpret these data with caution. Buddhist includes offenders who are Buddhist, Mahayana Buddhist, Theravadan Buddhist and Vajrayana Buddhist. Christian includes offenders who are Amish, Anglican (Episcopal Church of England), Antiochian Orthodox, Apostolic Christian Church, Armenian Orthodox/Apostolic, Associated Gospel, Assyrian Chaldean Catholic, Baptist, Brethren In Christ, Bulgarian Orthodox, Canadian Reformed Church, Catholic- Greek, Catholic-Roman, Catholic-Ukranian, Catholic Non-Specific, Churches of Christ/Christian Churches, Charismatic, Christadelphian, Christian & Missionary Alliance, Christian Congregational, Christian Non Specific, Christian Or Plymouth Brethren, Christian Orthodox, Christian Reformed, Christian Reformed Church, Christian Science, Church of Christ Scientist, Church of God, Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saint, Community of Christ, Coptic Orthodox, Doukhobor, Dutch Reformed Church, Ethiopian Orthodox, Evangelical, Evangelical Free Church , Evangelical Missionary Church, Free Methodist, Free Reformed Church, Grace Communion International, Greek Orthodox, Hutterite, Iglesia Ni Cristo, Jehovah's Witnesses, Lutheran, Macedonian Orthodox, Maronite, Melkite, Mennonite, Methodist Christian, Metropolitan Community Church, Mission de l'Esprit Saint, Moravian, Mormon (Latter Day Saints), Nazarene Christian, Netherlands Reformed, New Apostolic, Pentecostal (4-Square), Pentecostal Assembly of God, Pentecôtiste, Philadelphia Church of God, Presbyterian, Protestant Non-Specific, Quaker (Society of Friends), Reformed Christian, Romanian Orthodox, Russian Orthodox, Salvation Army, Serbian Orthodox, Seventh Day Adventist, Shaker, Swedenborgian (New Church), Syrian/Syriac Orthodox, Ukrainian Catholic, Ukrainian Orthodox, United Church, United Reformed Church, Vineyard Christian Fellowship, Wesleyan Christian and Worldwide Church of God. Hindu includes offenders who are Hindu and Siddha Yoga. Jewish includes offenders who are Jewish Orthodox, Jewish Reformed and Judaism. Muslim includes offenders who are Muslim and Sufism. Rastafarian includes offenders who are Rastafarian. Sikh includes offenders who are Sikh. Traditional Aboriginal Spirituality includes offenders who are Aboriginal Spirituality Catholic, Aboriginal Spirituality Protestant, Native Spirituality, Catholic - Native Spirituality, Native Spirituality Protestant and Aboriginal Spirituality. Wiccan/Pagan includes offenders who are Asatru Paganism, Druidry Paganism, Pagan and Wicca. Other Religion includes offenders who are Baha'i, Eckankar, Gnostic, Independent Spirituality, Jain, Krishna, New Age, New Thought-Unity-Religious Science, Other, Pantheist, Rosicrucian, Satanist, Scientology, Shintoïste, Spiritualist, Taoism, Transcendental Meditation, Unification Church, Unitarian, Visnabha and Zoroastrian. No religion Affiliation includes offenders who are Agnostic, Atheist, Humanist and offenders who have no religion affiliation. The data reflect all active offenders, who are incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, offenders who are temporarily detained, offenders who are actively supervised, and offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days. The data reflect the number of offenders active at the end of each fiscal year. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

Due to rounding, percentages may not add to 100 percent.

The proportion of Indigenous offenders in custody is higher than for non-Indigenous offenders

Figure C11

Detailed information can be found in the surrounding text.

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

Total Offender Population includes all active offenders, who are incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, offenders who are temporarily detained, offenders who are actively supervised, and offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days.

In Custody includes all active offenders incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, offenders who are temporarily detained in a CSC facility and offenders on remand in a CSC facility.

In Community Under Supervision includes all active offenders on day parole, full parole, statutory release, or in the community supervised on a long-term supervision order, offenders who are temporarily detained in a non-CSC facility, offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days, offenders on remand in a non-CSC facility, and offenders supervised and subject to an immigration hold by the Canada Border Services Agency.

The data reflect the number of offenders active at the end of each fiscal year. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

The proportion of Indigenous offenders in custody is higher than for non-Indigenous offenders

Table C11
  In-Custody Population In Community Under Supervision Total
  # % # %  
Men
2014-15 Indigenous 3,417 73.4 1,238 26.6 4,655
  Non-Indigenous 10,788 63.0 6,327 37.0 17,115
  Total 14,205 65.3 7,565 34.7 21,770
2015-16 Indigenous 3,532 73.2 1,293 26.8 4,825
  Non-Indigenous 10,485 61.8 6,468 38.2 16,953
  Total 14,017 64.4 7,761 35.6 21,778
2016-17 Indigenous 3,545 72.2 1,362 27.8 4,907
  Non-Indigenous 9,922 59.0 6,885 41.0 16,807
  Total 13,467 62.0 8,247 38.0 21,714
2017-18 Indigenous 3,647 71.4 1,464 28.6 5,111
  Non-Indigenous 9,769 58.4 6,946 41.6 16,715
  Total 13,416 61.5 8,410 38.5 21,826
Women
2014-15 Indigenous 240 67.8 114 32.2 354
  Non-Indigenous 441 52.7 396 47.3 837
  Total 681 57.2 510 42.8 1,191
2015-16 Indigenous 251 62.4 151 37.6 402
  Non-Indigenous 444 50.6 433 49.4 877
  Total 695 54.3 584 45.7 1,279
2016-17 Indigenous 253 61.0 162 39.0 415
  Non-Indigenous 439 47.9 477 52.1 916
  Total 692 52.0 639 48.0 1,331
2017-18 Indigenous 270 58.6 191 41.4 461
  Non-Indigenous 406 43.4 530 56.6 936
  Total 676 48.4 721 51.6 1,397

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

Total Offender Population includes all active offenders, who are incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, offenders who are temporarily detained, offenders who are actively supervised, and offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days.

In Custody includes all active offenders incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, offenders who are temporarily detained in a CSC facility and offenders on remand in a CSC facility.

In Community Under Supervision includes all active offenders on day parole, full parole, statutory release, or in the community supervised on a long-term supervision order, offenders who are temporarily detained in a non-CSC facility, offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days, offenders on remand in a non-CSC facility, and offenders supervised and subject to an immigration hold by the Canada Border Services Agency.

The data reflect the number of offenders active at the end of each fiscal year. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

The majority of in-custody offenders are classified as medium security risk

Figure C12

Detailed information can be found in the surrounding text.

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

The data represent the offender security level decision as ofend of fiscal year 2017-18.

In Custody includes all active offenders incarcerated in a CSC facility offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, offenders who are temporarily detained in a CSC facility, and offenders on remand in a CSC facility.

The majority of in-custody offenders are classified as medium security risk

Table C12
Security Risk Level Indigenous Non-Indigenous Total
  # % # % # %
Minimum 742 20.7 2,328 25.5 3,070 24.2
Medium 2,224 61.9 5,546 60.8 7,770 61.1
Maximum 625 17.4 1,245 13.7 1,870 14.7
Total 3,591 100.0 9,119 100.0 12,710 100.0
Not Yet Determined* 326 1,056 1,382
Total 3,917 10,175 14,092

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

The data represent the offender security level decision as of end of fiscal year 2017-2018.

The "Not yet determined" category includes offenders who have not yet been classified.

Admissions with a life or indeterminate sentence are increasing

Figure C13

Detailed information can be found in the surrounding text.

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

*Although life sentences and indeterminate sentences both may result in imprisonment for life, they are different. A life sentence is a sentence of life imprisonment, imposed by a judge at the time of sentence, for example for murder. An indeterminate sentence is a result of a designation, where an application is made to the court to declare an offender a Dangerous Offender, and the consequence of this designation is imprisonment for an indeterminate period.

A warrant of committal is a new admission to federal jurisdiction from the courts.

This table combines offenders serving life sentences and offenders serving indeterminate sentences.

Total Offender Population includes all active offenders, who are incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, offenders who are temporarily detained, offenders who are actively supervised, and offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days.

Admissions with a life or indeterminate sentence are increasing

Table C13
Year Indigenous Offenders Non-Indigenous Offenders Total
Women Men Total Women Men Total Women Men Total
2008-09 3 36 39 2 129 131 5 165 170
2009-10 5 48 53 8 133 141 13 181 194
2010-11 3 35 38 6 129 135 9 164 173
2011-12 6 46 52 11 110 121 17 156 173
2012-13 6 46 52 2 117 119 8 163 171
2013-14 7 40 47 7 119 126 14 159 173
2014-15 1 37 38 8 120 128 9 157 166
2015-16 5 50 55 6 123 129 11 173 184
2016-17 1 40 41 11 134 145 12 174 186
2017-18 5 66 71 10 132 142 15 198 213

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

This table combines offenders serving life sentences and offenders serving indeterminate sentences.

*Although life sentences and indeterminate sentences both may result in imprisonment for life, they are different. A life sentence is a sentence of life imprison-ment, imposed by a judge at the time of sentence, for example for murder. An indeterminate sentence is a result of a designation, where an application is made to the court to declare an offender a Dangerous Offender, and the consequence of this designation is imprisonment for an indeterminate period.

A warrant of committal is a new admission to federal jurisdiction from the courts.

Total Offender Population includes all active offenders, who are incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, offenders who are temporarily detained, offenders who are actively supervised, and offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days.

Offenders with life or indeterminate sentences represent 24% of the total offender population

Figure C14

Detailed information can be found in the surrounding text.

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

*Although life sentences and indeterminate sentences may both result in imprisonment for life, they are different. A life sentence is a sentence of life imprisonment, imposed by a judge at the time of sentence, for example, for murder. An indeterminate sentence is a result of a designation, where an application is made to the court to declare an offender a Dangerous Offender, and the consequence of this designation is imprisonment for an indeterminate period. The Dangerous Sexual Offender and Habitual Offender designations were replaced with Dangerous Offender Legislation in 1977.

Total Offender Population includes all active offenders, who are incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, offenders who are temporarily detained, offenders who are actively supervised, and offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days. In Custody includes all active offenders incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, offenders who are temporarily detained in a CSC facility and offenders on remand in a CSC facility. In Community Under Supervision includes all active offenders on day parole, full parole, statutory release, in the community supervised on a long-term supervision order, offenders who are temporarily detained in a non-CSC facility, offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days, offenders on remand in a non-CSC facility, and offenders supervised and subject to an immigration hold by the Canada Border Services Agency.

Offenders with life or indeterminate sentences represent 24% of the total offender population

Table C14
  Total Offender Population Current Status
In Custody in a CSC Facility In Community Under Supervision
Incarcerated Day Parole Full Parole Other***
  # %        
Offenders with a life sentence for:

1stDegree Murder

1,234 5.3 989 52 193 0
2ndDegree Murder 3,525 15.2 1,950 222 1,353 0
Other Offences* 198 0.9 111 12 75 0
Total 4,957 21.3 3,050 286 1,621 0
Offenders with indeterminate sentences resulting from the special designation of:
Dangerous Offender 623 2.7 595 14 14 0
Dangerous Sexual Offender 16 0.1 8 2 6 0
Habitual Offender 2 0.0 0 0 2 0
Total 641 2.8 603 16 22 0
Offenders serving an indeterminate sentence
(due to a special designation) and a life sentence (due to an offence)
21 0.1 19 0 2 0
Total offenders with Life and/or Indeterminate sentence 5,619 24.2 3,672 302 1,645 0
Offenders Serving Determinate sentences** 17,604 75.8 10,420 1,357 2,588 3,239
Total 23,223 100.0 14,092 1,659 4,233 3,239

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

*"Other offences" include Schedule I Schedule II and Non-Schedule types of offences.

**This includes 148 offenders designated as Dangerous Offenders who were serving determinate sentences.

***"Other" in the Community Under Supervision includes offenders on statutory release or on a long-term supervision order.

Among the 21 offenders serving an indeterminate sentence (due to a special designation) and a life sentence (due to an offence), there was one offender with an Habitual Offender designation.

Although life sentences and indeterminate sentences both may result in imprisonment for life, they are different. A life sentence is a sentence of life imprisonment, imposed by a judge at the time of sentence, for example for murder. An indeterminate sentence is a result of a designation, where an application is made to the court to declare an offender a Dangerous Offender, and the consequence of this designation is imprisonment for an indeterminate period. The Dangerous Sexual Offender and Habitual Offender designations were replaced with Dangerous Offender legislation in 1977.

Total Offender Population includes all active offenders, who are incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, offenders who are temporarily detained, offenders who are actively supervised, and offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days. In Custody includes all active offenders incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, offenders who are temporarily detained in a CSC facility and offenders on remand in a CSC facility. In Community Under Supervision includes all active offenders on day parole, full parole, statutory release, in the community supervised on a long-term supervision order, offenders who are temporarily detained in a non-CSC facility, offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days, offenders on remand in a non-CSC facility, and offenders supervised and subject to an immigration hold by the Canada Border Services Agency.

69.7% of offenders are serving a sentence for a violent offence*

Figure C15

Detailed information can be found in the surrounding text.

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

*Violent offences include Murder I, Murder II and Schedule I offences.

Schedule I is comprised of sexual offences and other violent crimes excluding first and second degree murder (see the Corrections and Conditional Release Act).

Schedule II is comprised of serious drug offences or conspiracy to commit serious drug offences (see the Corrections and Conditional Release Act).

In cases where the offender is serving a sentence for more than one offence, the data reflect the most serious offence.

The data reflect all active offenders, who are incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, offenders who are temporarily detained, offenders who are actively supervised, and offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days.

69.7% of offenders are serving a sentence for a violent offence*

Table C15
Offence Category Indigenous Non-Indigenous Total
Women Men Total Women Men Total Women Men Total
Murder I 8 237 245 47 959 1,006 55 1,196 1,251
% 1.7 4.6 4.4 5.0 5.7 5.7 3.9 5.5 5.4
Murder II 60 734 794 119 2,635 2,754 179 3,369 3,548
% 13.0 14.4 14.2 12.7 15.8 15.6 12.8 15.4 15.3
Schedule I 248 3,105 3,353 249 7,792 8,041 497 10,897 11,394
% 53.8 60.8 60.2 26.6 46.6 45.6 35.6 49.9 49.1
Schedule II 82 449 531 333 3,233 3,566 415 3,682 4,097
% 17.8 8.8 9.5 35.6 19.3 20.2 29.7 16.9 17.6
Non-Schedule 63 586 649 188 2,096 2,284 251 2,682 2,933
% 13.7 11.5 11.6 20.1 12.5 12.9 18.0 12.3 12.6
Total 461 5,111   936 16,715   1,397 21,826  
5,572 17,651 23,223

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

*Violent offences include Murder I, Murder II and Schedule I offences.

Schedule I is comprised of sexual offences and other violent crimes excluding first and second degree murder (see the Corrections and Conditional Release Act).

Schedule II is comprised of serious drug offences or conspiracy to commit serious drug offences (see the Corrections and Conditional Release Act).

In cases where the offender is serving a sentence for more than one offence, the data reflect the most serious offence.

The data reflect all active offenders, who are incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, offenders who are temporarily detained, offenders who are actively supervised, and offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days.

The number of Indigenous offenders has increased

Figure C16

Detailed information can be found in the surrounding text.

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

*In-Custody Population includes all active offenders incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, offenders who are temporarily detained in a CSC facility, and offenders on remand in a CSC facility.

**In Community Under Supervision Population includes all active offenders on day parole, full parole, statutory release, or in the community supervised on a long-term supervision order, offenders who are temporarily detained in a non-CSC facility, offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days, offenders on remand in a non-CSC facility, and offenders supervised and subject to an immigration hold by the Canada Border Services Agency.

Regional statistics for Correctional Service Canada account for data relating to the northern territories in the following manner: data for Nunavut are reported in the Ontario Region, data for the Northwest Territories are reported in the Prairies Region, and data for Yukon are reported in the Pacific Region.

The number of Indigenous offenders has increased

Table C16
Indigenous Offenders  Gender Fiscal Year
2013-14 2014-15 2015-16 2016-17 2017-18
In-Custody
Atlantic Region Men 181 174 157 175 184
  Women 14 11 12 8 14
Quebec Region Men 422 443 425 384 392
  Women 15 19 24 14 11
Ontario Region Men 440 441 453 487 534
  Women 36 34 39 37 43
Prairie Region Men 1,686 1,757 1,868 1,861 1,879
  Women 110 139 133 155 163
Pacific Region Men 600 602 629 638 658
  Women 38 37 43 39 39
National Total Men 3,329 3,417 3,532 3,545 3,647
  Women 213 240 251 253 270
  Total 3,542 3,657 3,783 3,798 3,917
In Community Under Supervision
Atlantic Region Men 50 60 68 71 88
  Women 11 12 10 11 9
Quebec Region Men 134 158 185 185 181
  Women 7 12 18 10 6
Ontario Region Men 180 178 204 201 231
  Women 20 21 24 31 29
Prairie Region Men 582 574 560 604 645
  Women 63 52 77 78 111
Pacific Region Men 250 268 276 301 319
  Women 17 17 22 32 36
National Total Men 1,196 1,238 1,293 1,362 1,464
  Women 118 114 151 162 191
  Total 1,314 1,352 1,444 1,524 1,655
Total In-Custody & In Community Under Supervision 4,856 5,009 5,227 5,322 5,572

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

In-Custody Population includes all active offenders incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, offenders who are temporarily detained in a CSC facility, and offenders on remand in a CSC facility.

In Community Under Supervision Population includes all active offenders on day parole, full parole, statutory release, or in the community supervised on a long-term supervision order, offenders who are temporarily detained in a non-CSC facility, offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days, offenders on remand in a non-CSC facility, and offenders supervised and subject to an immigration hold by the Canada Border Services Agency.

Regional statistics for Correctional Service Canada account for data relating to the northern territories in the following manner: data for Nunavut are reported in the Ontario Region, data for the Northwest Territories are reported in the Prairies Region, and data for Yukon are reported in the Pacific Region.

The total number of admissions to administrative segregation has decreased

Figure C17

Detailed information can be found in the surrounding text.

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

These reports count admissions, not offenders. Offenders admitted multiple times to segregation are counted once for each admission. Offenders segregated under paragraph (f), subsection 44(1) of the Corrections and Conditional Release Act (Disciplinary Segregation) are not included.

Administrative segregation is the separation, when specific legal requirements are met, of an inmate from the general population, other than pursuant to a disciplinary decision. As per subsection 31(3) of the Corrections and Conditional Release Act: The institutional head may order that an inmate be confined in administrative segregation if the institutional head is satisfied that there is no reasonable alternative to administrative segregation and he or she believes on reasonable grounds that (a) the inmate has acted, has attempted to act or intends to act in a manner that jeopardizes the security of the penitentiary or the safety of any person and allowing the inmate to associate with other inmates would jeopardize the security of the penitentiary or the safety of any person; (b) allowing the inmate to associate with other inmates would interfere with an investigation that could lead to a criminal charge or a charge under subsection 41(2) of a serious disciplinary offence; or (c) allowing the inmate to associate with other inmates would jeopardize the inmate's safety.

The total number of admissions to administrative segregation has decreased

Table C17
Year and Type of
Administrative Segregation
By Gender By Race
Women Men Total Indigenous Non-Indigenous Total
2013-14
CCRA 31(3-A)* 315 5,196 5,511 1,602 3,909 5,511
CCRA 31(3-B)* 5 320 325 95 230 325
CCRA 31(3-C)* 28 2,272 2,300 806 1,494 2,300
Total 348 7,788 8,136 2,482 5,654 8,136
2014-15
CCRA 31(3-A) 426 5,289 5,715 1,723 3,992 5,715
CCRA 31(3-B) 7 329 336 109 227 335
CCRA 31(3-C) 27 2,242 2,269 793 1,476 2,269
Total 460 7,860 8,320 2,595 5,724 8,320
2015-16
CCRA 31(3-A) 342 4,200 4,542 1,345 3,197 4,542
CCRA 31(3-B) 2 235 237 91 146 237
CCRA 31(3-C) 33 1,976 2,009 645 1,364 2,009
Total 377 6,411 6,788 2,056 4,732 6,788
2016-17
CCRA 31(3-A) 270 3,826 4,096 1,370 2,726 4,096
CCRA 31(3-B) 3 273 276 74 202 276
CCRA 31(3-C) 16 1,649 1,665 635 1,030 1,665
Total 289 5,748 6,037 2,058 3,979 6,037
2017-18
CCRA 31(3-A) 180 3,167 3,347 1,171 2,176 3,347
CCRA 31(3-B) 9 229 238 75 163 238
CCRA 31(3-C) 13 1,697 1,710 687 1,023 1,710
Total 202 5,093 5,295 1,933 3,362 5,295

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

These reports count admissions, not offenders. Offenders admitted multiple times to segregation are counted once for each admission. Offenders segregated under paragraph (f), subsection 44(1) of the Corrections and Conditional Release Act (Disciplinary Segregation) are not included.

*Administrative segregation is the separation, when specific legal requirements are met, of an inmate from the general population, other than pursuant to a disciplinary decision. As per subsection 31(3) of the Corrections and Conditional Release Act: The institutional head may order that an inmate be confined in administrative segregation if the institutional head is satisfied that there is no reasonable alternative to administrative segregation and he or she believes on reasonable grounds that (a) the inmate has acted, has attempted to act or intends to act in a manner that jeopardizes the security of the penitentiary or the safety of any person and allowing the inmate to associate with other inmates would jeopardize the security of the penitentiary or the safety of any person; (b) allowing the inmate to associate with other inmates would interfere with an investigation that could lead to a criminal charge or a charge under subsection 41(2) of a serious disciplinary offence; or (c) allowing the inmate to associate with other inmates would jeopardize the inmate's safety.

76% of admissions to administrative segregation stay for less than 30 days

Figure C18

Detailed information can be found in the surrounding text.

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

These reports count admissions, not offenders. Offenders admitted multiple times to segregation are counted once for each admission. Offenders segregated under paragraph (f), subsection 44(1) of the Corrections and Conditional Release Act (Disciplinary Segregation) are not included.

Administrative segregation is the involuntary or voluntary separation, when specific legal requirements are met, of an inmate from the general population, other than pursuant to a disciplinary decision. As per subsection 31(3) of the Corrections and Conditional Release Act: The institutional head may order that an inmate be confined in administrative segregation if the institutional head is satisfied that there is no reasonable alternative to administrative segregation and he or she believes on reasonable grounds that (a) the inmate has acted, has attempted to act or intends to act in a manner that jeopardizes the security of the penitentiary or the safety of any person and allowing the inmate to associate with other inmates would jeopardize the security of the penitentiary or the safety of any person; (b) allowing the inmate to associate with other inmates would interfere with an investigation that could lead to a criminal charge or a charge under subsection 41(2) of a serious disciplinary offence; or (c) allowing the inmate to associate with other inmates would jeopardize the inmate's safety.

76% of admissions to administrative segregation stay for less than 30 days

Table C18
Length of Stay in Administrative Segregation By Gender By Race    
Women Men Indigenous Non-Indigenous Total
# % # % # % # % # %
2017-18
< 30 days 193 96.5 3,910 75.3 1,432 73.5 2,671 76.1 4,103 76.1
30-60 days 6 3.0 812 15.6 336 17.2 482 15.2 818 15.2
61-90 days 1 0.5 246 4.7 96 4.9 151 4.6 247 4.6
91-120 days 0 0.0 130 2.5 51 2.6 79 2.4 130 2.4
> 120 days 0 0.0 92 1.8 34 1.7 58 1.7 92 1.7
Total 200 100.0 5,190 100.0 1,949 100.0 3,441 100.0 5,390 100.0

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

These reports count admissions, not offenders. Offenders admitted multiple times to segregation are counted once for each admission. Offenders segregated under paragraph (f), subsection 44(1) of the Corrections and Conditional Release Act (Disciplinary Segregation) are not included.

Administrative segregation is the involuntary or voluntary separation, when specific legal requirements are met, of an inmate from the general population, other than pursuant to a disciplinary decision. As per subsection 31(3) of the Corrections and Conditional Release Act:

The institutional head may order that an inmate be confined in administrative segregation if the institutional head is satisfied that there is no reasonable alterna-tive to administrative segregation and he or she believes on reasonable grounds that (a) the inmate has acted, has attempted to act or intends to act in a manner that jeopardizes the security of the penitentiary or the safety of any person and allowing the inmate to associate with other inmates would jeopardize the security of the penitentiary or the safety of any person; (b) allowing the inmate to associate with other inmates would interfere with an investigation that could lead to a criminal charge or a charge under subsection 41(2) of a serious disciplinary offence; or (c) allowing the inmate to associate with other inmates would jeopardize the inmate's safety.

The number of offender deaths while in custody

Figure C19

Detailed information can be found in the surrounding text.

Source: Adult Correctional Services Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada

Note:

*Other causes of death include: natural causes, accidental deaths, death as a result of a legal intervention, other causes of death and where cause of death was unknown. Data for Alberta for 2013-14 and onward are now available.

**For the calculation of rates, the total actual in-count numbers between 2006-07 and 2016-17 was used as the denominator.

The data on cause of death are subject to change following an official review or investigation, and should be used/interpreted with caution. The data presented were provided by the Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics at Statistics Canada, and may not reflect the outcome of recent reviews or investigations on cause of death.

The number of offender deaths while in custody

Table C19
Year Type of Death
Homicide Suicide Other* Total
# % # % # % #
Federal
2007-08 1 2.5 5 12.5 34 85.0 40
2008-09 2 3.1 9 13.8 54 83.1 65
2009-10 1 2.0 9 18.4 39 79.6 49
2010-11 5 10.0 4 8.0 41 82.0 50
2011-12 3 5.7 8 15.1 42 79.2 53
2012-13 1 1.8 11 20.0 43 78.2 55
2013-14 1 2.1 9 18.8 38 79.2 48
2014-15 1 1.5 13 19.4 53 79.1 67
2015-16 3 4.6 9 13.8 53 81.5 65
2016-17 0 0.0 3 6.4 44 9.4 47
Total 18 3.3 80 14.8 441 81.8 539
Provincial
2007-08 0 0.0 6 20.7 23 79.3 29
2008-09 1 3.0 7 21.2 25 75.8 33
2009-10 1 2.6 5 12.8 33 84.6 39
2010-11 0 0.0 5 14.3 30 85.7 35
2011-12 0 0.0 16 42.1 22 57.9 38
2012-13 1 2.3 8 18.2 35 79.5 44
2013-14 1 2.4 10 24.4 30 73.2 41
2014-15 0 0.0 9 24.3 28 73.2 37
2015-16 0 0.0 6 14.3 36 85.7 42
2016-17 0 0.0 7 17.1 34 83.0 41
Total 4 1.1 79 20.8 296 78.1 379
Total Federal and Provincial Offender Deaths 22 2.4 159 17.3 737 80.3 918

Source: Adult Correctional Services Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada

Note:

*Other causes of death include: natural causes, accidental deaths, death as a result of a legal intervention, other causes of death and where cause of death was unknown.

Data for Alberta for 2013-14 and onward are now available.

The data on cause of death are subject to change following an official review or investigation, and should be used/interpreted with caution. The data presented were provided by the Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics at Statistics Canada, and may not reflect the outcome of recent reviews or investigations on cause of death.

The number of escapees has remained stable since 2013-2014

Figure C20

Detailed information can be found in the surrounding text.

Source: Security, Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

The data represents the number of escape incidents from federal facilities during each fiscal year. An escape can involve more than one offender. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

The number of escapees has remained stable since 2013-2014

Table C20
Escapes 2013-14 2014-15 2015-16 2016-17 2017-18
Total Number of Escape Incidents 11 14 15 8 11
Total Number of Escapees 13 15 18 8 15

Source: Security, Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

The data represents the number of escape incidents from federal facilities during each fiscal year. An escape can involve more than one offender. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

The population of offenders in the community under supervision has increased in the past five years

Figure C21

Detailed information can be found in the surrounding text.

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

*These cases reflect the number of offenders on active supervision at fiscal year end. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

The data reflect the offender population in the community under supervision which includes all active offenders on day parole, full parole, statutory release, offenders who are temporarily detained in a non-CSC facility, offenders on remand in a non-CSC facility, offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days, and offenders supervised and subject to an immigration hold by the Canada Border Services Agency.

The data presented above do not include offenders who were on long-term supervision orders (see Figure/Table E4).

Day parole is a type of conditional release granted by the Parole Board of Canada whereby offenders are permitted to participate in community-based activities in preparation for full parole or statutory release. The conditions require offenders to return nightly to an institution or half-way house unless otherwise authorized by the Parole Board of Canada. Full parole is a type of conditional release granted by the Parole Board of Canada whereby the remainder of the sentence is served under supervision in the community. Statutory release refers to a conditional release that is subject to supervision after the offender has served two-thirds of the sentence.

The population of offenders in the community under supervision has increased in the past five years

Table C21
Year Supervision Type of Offenders
Day Parole Full Parole Statutory Release Totals % change*
Women Men Women Men Women Men Women Men Both Both
2008-09 106 1,017 344 3,419 113 2,675 563 7,111 7,674  
2009-10 108 1,083 328 3,418 93 2,602 529 7,103 7,632 -0.5
2010-11 79 1,017 314 3,441 109 2,598 502 7,056 7,558 -1.0
2011-12 123 1,123 257 3,154 127 2,661 507 6,938 7,445 -1.5
2012-13 116 1,106 225 2,932 136 2,801 477 6,839 7,316 -1.7
2013-14 106 1,104 225 3,017 153 2,858 484 6,979 7,463 2.0
2014-15 115 1,236 239 3,065 150 2,909 504 7,210 7,714 3.4
2015-16 124 1,248 273 3,276 177 2,849 574 7,373 7,947 3.0
2016-17 158 1,392 316 3,587 154 2,856 628 7,835 8,463 6.5
2017-18 197 1,462 369 3,864 145 2,644 711 7,970 8,681 2.6

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

These cases reflect the number of offenders on active supervision at fiscal year end. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

The data reflect the offender population in the community under supervision which includes all active offenders on day parole, full parole, statutory release, offenders who are temporarily detained in a non-CSC facility, offenders on remand in a non-CSC facility, offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days, and offenders supervised and subject to an immigration hold by the Canada Border Services Agency.

The data presented above do not include offenders who were on long-term supervision orders (see Figure/Table E4).

Day parole is a type of conditional release granted by the Parole Board of Canada whereby offenders are permitted to participate in community-based activities in preparation for full parole or statutory release. The conditions require offenders to return nightly to an institution or half-way house unless otherwise authorized by the Parole Board of Canada. Full parole is a type of conditional release granted by the Parole Board of Canada whereby the remainder of the sentence is served under supervision in the community. Statutory release refers to a conditional release that is subject to supervision after the offender has served two-thirds of the sentence.

*Percent change is measured from the previous year.

Provincial/territorial community corrections population decreased

Figure C22

Detailed information can be found in the surrounding text.

Source: Table 35-10-0154-01, Corrections Key Indicator Report for Adults and Youth, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Note:

A conditional sentence is a disposition of the court where the offender serves a term of imprisonment in the community under specified conditions. This type of sentence can only be imposed in cases where the term of imprisonment would be less than two years. Conditional sentences have been a provincial and territorial sentencing option since September 1996.

Provincial/territorial community corrections population decreased

Table C22
Year Average Monthly Offender Counts on Probation Average Monthly Offender Counts on Conditional Sentence Total
2007-08 96,795 12,535 108,330
2008-09 97,529 13,124 110,653
2009-10 99,498 13,105 112,603
2010-11 101,825 12,969 114,794
2011-12 98,843 12,616 111,459
2012-13 96,116 12,202 108,944
2013-14 84,905 10,077 95,680
2014-15 80,705 8,746 90,272
2015-16 85,845 8,259 94,949
2016-17 84,978 7,249 93,135

Source: Table 35-10-0154-01, Corrections Key Indicator Report for Adults and Youth, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Note:

A conditional sentence is a disposition of the court where the offender serves a term of imprisonment in the community under specified conditions. This type of sentence can only be imposed in cases where the term of imprisonment would be less than two years. Conditional sentences have been a provincial and territorial sentencing option since September 1996.

The number of offenders on provincial parole increased

Figure C23

Detailed information can be found in the surrounding text.

Source: Table 35-10-0154-01, Corrections Key Indicator Report for Adults and Youth, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Note:

Provincial parole boards operate in Quebec and Ontario. On April 1, 2007, the Parole Board of Canada assumed responsibility for parole decisions relating to offenders serving sentences in British Columbia's provincial correctional facilities. The Parole Board of Canada has jurisdiction over granting parole to provincial offenders in the Atlantic and Prairie provinces, British Columbia, and to territorial offenders in Yukon, Nunavut and the Northwest Territories.

The number of offenders on provincial parole increased

Table C23
Year Average Monthly Counts on Provincial Parole
Provincial Boards Parole Board of Canada** Total Percent Change
Quebec Ontario British Columbia* Total
2007-08 581 205 n/a 785 237 1,022  
2008-09 533 217 n/a 750 190 940 -8.0
2009-10 506 194 n/a 700 168 868 -7.7
2010-11 482 171 n/a 653 167 820 -5.6
2011-12 481 179 n/a 660 144 804 -2.0
2012-13 462 164 n/a 626 143 769 -4.4
2013-14 527 172 n/a 699 154 853 11.0
2014-15 612 207 n/a 821 151 970 13.7
2015-16 639 207 n/a 846 139 985 1.5
2016-17 701 205 n/a 907 151 1,058 7.4

Source: Table 35-10-0154-01, Corrections Key Indicator Report for Adults and Youth, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Note:

*On April 1, 2007, the Parole Board of Canada assumed responsibility for parole decisions relating to offenders serving sentences in British Columbia's provincial correctional facilities.

**The data represent the number of provincial offenders who are released from custody on the authority of the Parole Board of Canada and supervised by the Correctional Service of Canada.

Provincial parole boards operate in Quebec and Ontario. The Parole Board of Canada has jurisdiction over granting parole to provincial offenders in the Atlantic and Prairie provinces, British Columbia, and to territorial offenders in Yukon, Nunavut and the Northwest Territories.

Section D - Conditional Release

The percentage of offenders released from federal penitentiaries at statutory release decreased in the past five years

Figure D1

Detailed information can be found in the surrounding text.

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

*Percentage is calculated based on the number of statutory releases compared to the total releases for each offender group.

The data includes all releases from a federal institution or Healing Lodge in a given fiscal year excluding offenders with quashed sentences, offenders who died in custody, LTSO releases, offenders released at warrant expiry and offenders transferred to foreign countries. An offender may be released more than once a year in cases where a previous release was subject to revocation, suspension, temporary detention, or interruption.

Statutory release refers to a conditional release that is subject to supervision after the offender has served two-thirds of the sentence.

A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

The percentage of offenders released from federal penitentiaries at statutory release decreased in the past five years

Table D1
  Indigenous Non-Indigenous Total Offender Population
Year Statutory Release Total Releases %* Statutory Release Total Releases %* Statutory Release Total Releases %*
2008-09 1,437 1,719 83.6 4,278 6,331 67.6 5,715 8,050 71.0%
2009-10 1,417 1,725 82.1 4,121 6,081 67.8 5,538 7,806 70.9%
2010-11 1,327 1,589 83.5 3,753 5,657 66.3 5,080 7,246 70.1%
2011-12 1,457 1,754 83.1 3,844 5,486 70.1 5,301 7,240 73.2%
2012-13 1,603 1,923 83.4 3,985 5,610 71.0 5,588 7,533 74.2%
2013-14 1,698 1,996 85.1 3,938 5,685 69.3 5,636 7,681 73.4%
2014-15 1,712 2,029 84.4 3,661 5,504 66.5 5,373 7,533 71.3%
2015-16 1,659 2,010 82.5 3,650 5,607 65.1 5,309 7,617 69.7%
2016-17 1,569 2,017 77.8 3,315 5,560 59.6 4,844 7,577 64.5%
2017-18 1,518 2,040 74.4 2,909 5,216 55.8 4,427 7,256 61.0

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

*Percentage is calculated based on the number of statutory releases compared to the total releases for each offender group.

The data includes all releases from a federal institution or Healing Lodge in a given fiscal year excluding offenders with quashed sentences, offenders who died in custody, LTSO releases, offenders released at warrant expiry and offenders transferred to foreign countries. An offender may be released more than once a year in cases where a previous release was subject to revocation, suspension, temporary detention, or interruption.

Statutory release refers to a conditional release that is subject to supervision after the offender has served two-thirds of the sentence.

A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

The percentage of offenders released from federal penitentiaries on day and full parole increased in the past six years

Figure D2

Detailed information can be found in the surrounding text.

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

*Percentage is calculated based on the number of day and full paroles compared to the total releases for each offender group.

The data includes all releases from federal penitentiaries in a given fiscal year excluding offenders with quashed sentences, offenders who died in custody, LTSO releases, offenders released at warrant expiry and offenders transferred to foreign countries. An offender may be released more than once a year in cases where a previous release was subject to revocation, suspension, temporary detention, or interruption.

Day parole is a type of conditional release granted by the Parole Board of Canada whereby offenders are permitted to participate in community-based activities in preparation for full parole or statutory release. The conditions require offenders to return nightly to an institution or half-way house unless otherwise authorized by the Parole Board of Canada.

Full parole is a type of conditional release granted by the Parole Board of Canada whereby the remainder of the sentence is served under supervision in the community.

A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

The percentage of offenders released from federal penitentiaries on day and full parole increased in the past six years

Table D2
  Indigenous Non-Indigenous Total Offender Population
Year   Day Parole Full Parole Total Releases Day Parole Full Parole Total Releases Day Parole Full Parole Total Releases
2008-09 # 266 16 1,719 1,839 214 6,331 2,105 230 8,050
  % 15.5 0.9   29.0 3.4   26.1 2.9  
2009-10 # 296 12 1,725 1,800 160 6,081 2,096 172 7,806
  % 17.2 0.7   29.6 2.6   26.9 2.2  
2010-11 # 251 11 1,589 1,767 137 5,657 2,018 148 7,246
  % 15.8 0.7   31.2 2.4   27.8 2.0  
2011-12 # 285 12 1,754 1,526 116 5,486 1,811 128 7,240
  % 16.2 0.7   27.8 2.1   25.0 1.8  
2012-13 # 313 7 1,923 1,515 110 5,610 1,828 117 7,533
  % 16.3 0.4   27.0 2.0   24.3 1.6  
2013-14 # 280 18 1,996 1,602 145 5,685 1,882 163 7,681
  % 14.0 0.9   28.2 2.6   24.5 2.1  
2014-15 # 307 10 2,029 1,668 175 5,504 1,975 185 7,533
  % 15.1 0.5   30.3 3.2   26.2 2.5  
2015-16 # 337 14 2,010 1,793 164 5,607 2,130 178 7,617
  % 16.8 0.7   32.0 2.9   28.0 2.3  
2016-17 # 435 13 2,017 2,092 153 5,560 2,527 166 7,577
  % 21.6 0.6   37.6 2.8   33.4 2.2  
2017-18 # 497 25 2,040 2,124 183 5,216 2,621 208 7,256
  % 24.4 12   40.7 3.5   36.1 2.9  

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

The data includes all releases from a federal institution or Healing Lodge in a given fiscal year excluding offenders with quashed sentences, offenders who died in custody, LTSO releases, offenders released at warrant expiry and offenders transferred to foreign countries. An offender may be released more than once a year in cases where a previous release was subject to revocation, suspension, temporary detention, or interruption.

Day parole is a type of conditional release granted by the Parole Board of Canada whereby offenders are permitted to participate in community-based activities in preparation for full parole or statutory release.  The conditions require offenders to return nightly to an institution or half-way house unless otherwise authorized by the Parole Board of Canada.

Full parole is a type of conditional release granted by the Parole Board of Canada whereby the remainder of the sentence is served under supervision in the community.

A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

Percentage is calculated based on the number of day and full paroles compared to the total releases for each offender group. Due to rounding, percentages may not add up to 100 percent.

Federal day and full parole grant rates increased

Figure D3

Detailed information can be found in the surrounding text.

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Note:

The grant rate represents the percentage of pre-release reviews resulting in a grant by the Parole Board of Canada.

Day parole is a type of conditional release granted by the Parole Board of Canada in which offenders are permitted to participate in community-based activities in preparation for full parole or statutory release. The conditions require offenders to return nightly to an institution or half-way house unless otherwise authorized by the Parole Board of Canada. Not all offenders apply for day parole, and some apply more than once before being granted day parole.

Full parole is a type of conditional release granted by the Parole Board of Canada in which the remainder of the sentence is served under supervision in the community. The Parole Board of Canada must review the cases of all offenders for full parole at the time prescribed by legislation, unless the offender advises the Parole Board of Canada in writing that he/she does not wish to be considered for full parole.

On March 28, 2011, Bill C-59 (Abolition of Early Parole Act) eliminated the accelerated parole review (APR) process, affecting first-time non-violent offenders serving sentences for Schedule II and non-Schedule offences, who in 2011-12 were no longer eligible for an APR review. These offenders are now assessed on general reoffending as compared to the APR risk assessment, which considered the risk of committing a violent offence only. To better illustrate historical trends, APR decisions were excluded.

Even though comparisons were made between federal regular day parole and full parole grant rates only, they nevertheless contain an APR residual effect between 2011-12 and 2015-16 as a sufficiently large proportion of the APR-affected population was granted regular federal day parole and full parole, perhaps inflating the grant rates.

Federal day and full parole grant rates increased

Table D3
Type of Release Year Granted Denied Grant Rate (%) APR*
Women Men Women Men Women Men Total Directed Total
Day Parole 2008-09 136 1,907 25 824 84.5 69.8 70.6 1,000 1,525
  2009-10 153 1,957 40 967 79.3 66.9 67.7 947 1,491
  2010-11 136 1,854 42 1,149 76.4 61.7 62.6 970 1,591
  2011-12 249 2,491 65 1,442 79.3 63.3 64.5 0 0
  2012-13 289 2,821 72 1,416 80.1 66.6 67.6 14 21
  2013-14 248 2,824 52 1,273 82.7 68.9 69.9 39 47
  2014-15 298 3,023 51 1,282 85.4 70.2 71.4 38 45
  2015-16 291 3,093 52 1,077 84.8 74.2 75.0 86 90
  2016-17 399 3,445 47 1,042 89.5 76.8 77.9 80 83
  2017-18 436 3,612 30 1,039 93.6 77.7 79.1 100 106
Full Parole 2008-09 44 495 62 2,016 41.5 19.7 20.6 1,097 1,100
  2009-10 32 461 89 2,080 26.4 18.1 18.5 1,004 1,010
  2010-11 20 436 87 2,205 18.7 16.5 16.6 1,046 1,059
  2011-12 77 644 126 2,317 37.9 21.7 22.8 0 0
  2012-13 90 914 142 2,328 38.8 28.2 28.9 26 26
  2013-14 84 904 103 2,201 44.9 29.1 30.0 126 142
  2014-15 87 969 106 2,307 45.1 29.6 30.4 119 137
  2015-16 96 1,063 127 2,153 43.0 33.1 33.7 166 185
  2016-17 138 1,237 157 2,384 46.8 34.2 35.1 122 126
  2017-18 153 1,363 175 2,357 46.6 36.6 37.5 161 165

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Note:

The grant rate represents the percentage of pre-release reviews resulting in a grant by the Parole Board of Canada.

Day parole is a type of conditional release granted by the Parole Board of Canada in which offenders are permitted to partici pate in community-based activities in preparation for full parole or statutory release. The conditions require offenders to return nightly to an institution or half-way house unless otherwise authorized by the Parole Board of Canada. Not all offenders apply for day parole, and some apply more than once before being granted day parole.

Full parole is a type of conditional release granted by the Parole Board of Canada in which the remainder of the sentence is served under supervision in the community. The Parole Board of Canada must review the cases of all offenders for full parole at the time prescribed by legislation, unless the offender advi ses the Parole Board of Canada in writing that he/she does not wish to be considered for full parole. Grant rates should be read with caution.

*On March 28, 2011, Bill C-59 (Abolition of Early Parole Act) eliminated the accelerated parole review (APR) process, affecting first-time non-violent offenders serving sentences for Schedule II and non-Schedule offences, who in 2011-12 were no longer eligible for an APR review. These offenders are now assessed on general reoffending as compared to the APR risk assessment, which considered the risk of committing a violent offence only. To better illustrate historical trends, APR decisions were excluded. However, the information on APR (the number of paroles directed and the total number of APR decisions) is presented in a separate section of the table. Grant rates should be read with caution. Even though comparisons were made between federal regular day parole and full parole grant rates only, they nevertheless contain an APR residual effect between 2011-12 and 2015-16 as a sufficiently large proportion of the APR-affected population were granted regular federal day parole and full parole, perhaps inflating the grant rates.

*As a result of court challenges, the Pacific Region (in 2012) and the Quebec Region (in 2013) have been processing active APR cases for offenders sentenced or convicted prior to the abolition of APR. Following the Canada (Attorney General) v. Whaling decision on March 20, 2014, the accelerated parole review process was reinstated across all regions for offenders sentenced p rior to the abolition of APR.

Federal day and full parole grant rates for Indigenous offenders increased

Figure D4

Detailed information can be found in the surrounding text.

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Note:

The grant rate represents the percentage of pre-release reviews resulting in a grant by the Parole Board of Canada.

Day parole is a type of conditional release granted by the Parole Board of Canada in which offenders are permitted to participate in community-based activities in preparation for full parole or statutory release. The conditions require offenders to return nightly to an institution or half-way house unless otherwise authorized by the Parole Board of Canada. Not all offenders apply for day parole, and some apply more than once before being granted day parole.

Full parole is a type of conditional release granted by the Parole Board of Canada in which the remainder of the sentence is served under supervision in the community. The Parole Board of Canada must review the cases of all offenders for full parole at the time prescribed by legislation, unless the offender advises the Parole Board of Canada in writing that he/she does not wish to be considered for full parole.

On March 28, 2011, Bill C-59 (Abolition of Early Parole Act) eliminated the accelerated parole review (APR) process, affecting first-time non-violent offenders serving sentences for Schedule II and non-Schedule offences, who in 2011-12 were no longer eligible for an APR review. These offenders are now assessed on general reoffending as compared to the APR risk assessment, which considered the risk of committing a violent offence only. To better illustrate historical trends, APR were excluded. Grant rates should be read with caution. Even though comparisons were made between federal regular day parole and full parole grant rates only, they nevertheless contain an APR residual effect between 2011-12 and 2015-16 as a sufficiently large proportion of the APR-affected population were granted regular federal day parole and full parole, perhaps inflating the grant rates.

Federal day and full parole grant rates for Indigenous offenders increased

Table D4
Type of Release Year Granted Denied Grant Rate (%)
Indigenous Non-Indigenous Indigenous Non-Indigenous Indigenous Non-Indigenous Total
Day Parole 2008-09 390 1,653 159 690 71.0 70.6 2,892
  2009-10 407 1,703 211 796 65.9 68.1 3,117
2010-11 373 1,617 289 902 56.3 64.2 3,181
2011-12 466 2,274 347 1,160 57.3 66.2 4,247
2012-13 556 2,554 318 1,170 63.6 68.6 4,598
2013-14 520 2,552 303 1,022 63.2 71.4 4,397
2014-15 563 2,758 266 1,067 67.9 72.1 4,654
2015-16 605 2,779 264 865 69.6 76.3 4,513
2016-17 714 3,130 253 836 73.8 78.9 4,933
2017-18 819 3,229 288 781 74.0 80.5 5,117
Full Parole 2008-09 73 466 395 1,683 15.6 21.7 2,617
  2009-10 50 443 413 1,756 10.8 20.1 2,662
2010-11 71 385 480 1,812 12.9 17.5 2,748
2011-12 75 646 467 1,976 13.8 24.6 3,164
2012-13 102 904 472 1,998 17.8 31.1 3,474
2013-14 124 864 421 1,883 22.8 31.5 3,292
2014-15 106 950 450 1,963 19.1 32.6 3,469
2015-16 136 1,023 436 1,844 23.8 35.7 3,439
2016-17 156 1,219 463 2,078 25.2 37.0 3,916
2017-18 173 1,343 573 1,959 23.2 40.7 4,048

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Note:

The grant rate represents the percentage of pre-release reviews resulting in a grant by the Parole Board of Canada.

Day parole is a type of conditional release granted by the Parole Board of Canada in which offenders are permitted to participate in community-based activities in preparation for full parole or statutory release. The conditions require offenders to return nightly to an institution or half-way house unless otherwise authorized by the Parole Board of Canada. Not all offenders apply for day parole, and some apply more than once before being granted day parole.

Full parole is a type of conditional release granted by the Parole Board of Canada in which the remainder of the sentence is served under supervision in the community. The Parole Board of Canada must review the cases of all offenders for full parole at the time prescribed by legislation, unless the offender advises the Parole Board of Canada in writing that he/she does not wish to be considered for full parole.

On March 28, 2011, Bill C-59 (Abolition of Early Parole Act) eliminated the accelerated parole review (APR) process, affecting first-time non-violent offenders serving sentences for Schedule II and non-Schedule offences, who in 2011-12 were no longer eligible for an APR review. These offenders are now assessed on general reoffending as compared to the APR risk assessment, which considered the risk of committing a violent offence only. To better illustrate historical trends, APR were excluded. Grant rates should be read with caution. Even though comparisons were made between federal regular day parole and full parole grant rates only, they nevertheless contain an APR residual effect between 2011-12 and 2015-16 as a sufficiently large proportion of the APR-affected population were granted regular federal day parole and full parole, perhaps inflating the grant rates.

The number of federal parole hearings involving an Indigenous Cultural Advisor increased

Figure D5

Detailed information can be found in the surrounding text.

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Note:

The presence of an Indigenous Cultural Advisor is an alternative approach to the traditional parole hearing, and was introduced by the Parole Board of Canada to ensure that conditional release hearings are sensitive to Indigenous cultural values and traditions. This type of hearing is available to both Indigenous and non-Indigenous offenders.

The number of federal parole hearings involving an Indigenous Cultural Advisor increased

Table D5
  Elder Assisted Hearings
Year Indigenous Offenders Non-Indigenous Offenders All Offenders
Total Hearings With Cultural Advisor Total Hearings With Cultural Advisor Total Hearings With Cultural Advisor
  # # % # # % # # %
2008-09 1,250 425 34.0 4,370 53 1.2 5,620 478 8.5
2009-10 1,209 362 29.9 4,471 58 1.3 5,680 420 7.4
2010-11 1,237 439 35.5 4,343 52 1.2 5,580 491 8.8
2011-12 1,266 438 34.6 4,645 41 0.9 5,911 479 8.1
2012-13 1,305 435 33.3 4,660 46 1.0 5,965 481 8.1
2013-14 922 362 39.3 3,678 30 0.8 4,600 392 8.5
2014-15 881 364 41.3 3,835 44 1.1 4,716 408 8.7
2015-16 957 375 39.2 3,972 29 0.7 4,929 404 8.2
2016-17 1,295 556 42.9 4,498 47 1.0 5,793 603 10.4
2017-18 1,534 630 41.1 4,855 43 0.9 6,389 673 10.5

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Note:

The presence of an Indigenous Cultural Advisor is an alternative approach to the traditional parole hearing, and was introduced by the Parole Board of Canada to ensure that conditional release hearings are sensitive to Indigenous cultural values and traditions. This type of hearing is available to both Indigenous and non-Indigenous offenders.

Proportion of sentence served prior to being released on parole decreased

Figure D6

Detailed information can be found in the surrounding text.

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Note:

Timing of parole in the sentence refers to the percentage of the sentence served at the time the first day parole or full parole starts during the sentence. In most cases a full parole is preceded by a day parole. These calculations are based on sentences under federal jurisdiction, excluding life sentences and indeterminate sentences. Offenders (other than those serving life or indeterminate sentences or subject to judicial determination) normally become eligible for full parole after serving 1/3 of their sentence or seven years, whichever is less. Eligibility for day parole is normally at six months before full parole eligibility.

The increases in the average proportion of time served after 2010-11 are in part due to the effect of Bill C-59 and were driven primarily by offenders serving sentences for Schedule II and non-Schedule offences (some of whom were former APR-eligible offenders).

Proportion of sentence served prior to being released on parole decreased

Table D6
Year Type of Supervision
First Federal Day Parole First Federal Full Parole
Women Men Total Women Men Total
  Percentage of Sentence Incarcerated
2008-09 28.2 32.4 31.9 36.6 38.7 38.5
2009-10 29.5 33.2 32.8 36.1 38.5 38.2
2010-11 29.2 31.8 31.6 36.6 38.1 37.9
2011-12 35.0 38.1 37.8 40.3 41.7 41.6
2012-13 38.9 38.3 38.4 45.6 46.9 46.7
2013-14 34.9 38.3 38.0 44.2 46.8 46.6
2014-15 35.3 37.9 37.7 44.9 45.8 45.7
2015-16 36.9 38.7 38.5 45.2 46.6 46.5
2016-17 33.6 37.5 37.0 43.5 46.0 45.7
2017-18 33.4 37.2 36.7 42.4 44.9 44.6

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Note:

Timing of parole in the sentence refers to the percentage of the sentence served at the time the first day parole or full parole starts during the sentence. In most cases a full parole is preceded by a day parole.

These calculations are based on sentences under federal jurisdiction, excluding life sentences and indeterminate sentences. Offenders (other than those serving life or indeterminate sentences or subject to judicial determination) normally become eligible for full parole after serving 1/3 of their sentence or seven years, whichever is less. Eligibility for day parole is normally at six months before full parole eligibility.

The increases in the average proportion of time served after 2010-11 are in part due to the effect of Bill C-59 and were driven primarily by offenders serving sentences for Schedule II and non-Schedule offences (some of whom were former APR-eligible offenders).

Indigenous offenders serve a higher proportion of their sentences before being released on parole

Figure D7

Detailed information can be found in the surrounding text.

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Note:

Timing of parole in the sentence refers to the percentage of the sentence served at the time the first day parole or full parole starts during the sentence. In most cases a full parole is preceded by a day parole.

These calculations are based on sentences under federal jurisdiction, excluding life sentences and indeterminate sentences.

Offenders (other than those serving life or indeterminate sentences or subject to judicial determination) normally become eligible for full parole after serving 1/3 of their sentence or seven years, whichever is less. Eligibility for day parole is normally at six months before full parole eligibility.

The increases in the average proportion of time served after 2010-11 are in part due to the effect of Bill C-59 and were driven primarily by offenders serving sentences for Schedule II and non-Schedule offences (some of whom were former APR-eligible offenders).

Indigenous offenders serve a higher proportion of their sentences before being released on parole

Table D7
Year Type of Supervision
First Federal Day Parole First Federal Full Parole
Indigenous Non-Indigenous Total Indigenous Non-Indigenous Total
  Percentage of Sentence Incarcerated
2008-09 38.5 30.9 31.9 41.0 38.2 38.5
2009-10 38.7 31.8 32.8 41.0 37.9 38.2
2010-11 37.2 30.8 31.6 41.6 37.5 37.9
2011-12 41.7 37.1 37.8 43.7 41.4 41.6
2012-13 42.2 37.6 38.4 49.2 46.5 46.7
2013-14 42.9 37.1 38.0 49.3 46.2 46.6
2014-15 40.9 37.1 37.7 46.9 45.6 45.7
2015-16 44.0 37.5 38.5 50.8 46.0 46.5
2016-17 40.8 36.3 37.0 48.9 45.3 45.7
2017-18 41.3 35.7 36.7 47.8 44.2 44.6

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Note:

Timing of parole in the sentence refers to the percentage of the sentence served at the time the first day parole or full parole starts during the sentence. In most cases a full parole is preceded by a day parole.

These calculations are based on sentences under federal jurisdiction, excluding life sentences and indeterminate sentences.

Offenders (other than those serving life or indeterminate sentences or subject to judicial determination) normally become eligible for full parole after serving 1/3 of their sentence or seven years, whichever is less. Eligibility for day parole is normally at six months before full parole eligibility.

The increases in the average proportion of time served after 2010-11 are in part due to the effect of Bill C-59 and were driven primarily by offenders serving sentences for Schedule II and non-Schedule offences (some of whom were former APR-eligible offenders).

The Successful completion of federal day parole increased

Figure D8

Detailed information can be found in the surrounding text.

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Note:

*Revocation for Breach of Conditions includes revocation with outstanding charges.

A day parole is considered successful if it was completed without a return to prison for a breach of conditions or for a new offence.

The Successful completion of federal day parole increased

Table D8
Federal Day Parole Outcomes 2013-14 2014-15 2015-16 2016-17 2017-18
  # % # % # % # % # %
Successful Completion
Regular 2,766 89.2 2,784 90.4 2,981 90.5 3,171 91.6 3,452 92.2
Accelerated 27 100.0 36 100.0 38 100.0 86 97.7 84 93.3
Total 2,793 89.3 2,820 90.5 3,019 90.6 3,257 91.8 3,536 92.2
Revocation for Breach of Conditions*
Regular 293 9.4 260 8.4 273 8.3 248 7.2 261 7.0
Accelerated 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 2 2.3 6 6.7
Total 293 9.4 260 8.3 273 8.2 250 7.0 267 7.0
Revocation with Non-Violent Offence
Regular 36 1.2 35 1.1 32 1.0 35 1.0 31 0.8
Accelerated 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0
Total 36 1.2 35 1.1 32 1.0 35 1.0 31 0.8
Revocation with Violent Offence**
Regular 6 0.2 1 <0.01 8 0.2 7 0.2 2 0.1
Accelerated 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0
Total 6 0.2 1 <0.01 8 0.2 7 0.2 2 0.1
Total
Regular 3,102 99.1 3,080 98.8 3,294 98.9 3,461 97.5 3,746 97.7
Accelerated 27 0.9 36 1.2 38 1.1 88 2.5 90 2.3
Total 3,129 100.0 3,116 100.0 3,332 100.0 3,549 100.0 3,836 100.0

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Note:

A day parole is considered successful if it was completed without a return to prison for a breach of conditions or for a new offence.

*Revocation for Breach of Conditions includes revocation with outstanding charges.

**Violent offences include murder and Schedule I offences (listed in the Corrections and Conditional Release Act) such as assaults, sexual offences, arson, abduction, robbery and some weapon offences.

The Successful completion of federal full parole increased

Figure D9

Detailed information can be found in the surrounding text.

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Note:

*Excludes offenders serving indeterminate sentences because they do not have a warrant expiry date and can only successfully complete full parole upon [their] death.

**Revocation for Breach of Conditions includes revocation with outstanding charges.

A full parole is considered successful if it was completed without a return to prison for a breach of conditions or for a new offence.

The Successful completion of federal full parole increased

Table D9
Federal Day Parole Outcomes* 2013-14 2014-15 2015-16 2016-17 2017-18
  # % # % # % # % # %
Successful Completion
Regular 579 81.9 734 86.9 757 87.5 847 89.8 961 90.7
Accelerated 246 93.2 97 87.4 95 86.4 89 88.1 101 88.6
Total 825 85.0 831 86.9 852 87.4 936 89.7 1,062 90.5
Revocation for Breach of Conditions**
Regular 90 12.7 78 9.2 76 8.8 67 7.1 81 7.6
Accelerated 12 4.5 12 9.9 12 10.9 10 9.9 10 8.8
Total 102 10.5 89 9.3 88 9.0 77 7.4 91 7.8
Revocation with Non-Violent Offence
Regular 30 4.2 32 3.8 25 2.9 25 2.7 14 1.3
Accelerated 5 1.9 3 2.7 3 2.7 1 1.0 3 2.6
Total 35 3.6 35 3.7 28 2.9 26 2.5 17 1.4
Revocation with Violent Offence***
Regular 8 1.1 1 0.1 7 0.8 4 0.4 3 0.3
Accelerated 1 0.4 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 1.0 0 0.0
Total 9 0.9 1 0.1 7 0.7 5 0.5 3 0.3
Total
Regular 707 72.8 845 88.4 865 88.7 943 90.3 1,059 90.3
Accelerated 264 27.2 111 11.5 110 11.3 101 9.7 114 9.7
Total 971 100.0 956 100.0 975 100.0 1,044 100.0 1,173 100.0

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Note:

*Excludes offenders serving indeterminate sentences because they do not have a warrant expiry date and can only successfully complete full parole upon [their] death.

**Revocation for Breach of Conditions includes revocation with outstanding charges.

***Violent offences include murder and Schedule I offences (listed in the Corrections and Conditional Release Act) such as assaults, sexual offences, arson, abduction, robbery and some weapon offences.

A full parole is considered successful if it was completed without a return to prison for a breach of conditions or for a new offence.

The Successful completion of statutory release increased

Figure D10

Detailed information can be found in the surrounding text.

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Note:

*Revocation for Breach of Conditions includes revocation with outstanding charges.

A statutory release is considered successful if it was completed without a return to prison for a breach of conditions or for a new offence.

An offender serving a determinate sentence, if he/she is not detained, will be subject to statutory release after serving 2/3 of his/her sentence if he/she is not on full parole at that time. On statutory release, an offender is subject to supervision until the end of his/her sentence.

The Successful completion of statutory release increased

Table D10
Statutory Release Outcomes 2013-14 2014-15 2015-16 2016-17 2017-18
  # % # % # % # % # %
Successful Completion 3,805 61.4 3,759 62.8 3,780 62.8 3,789 67.0 3,545 67.1
Revocation for Breach of Conditions* 1,740 28.1 1,648 27.5 1,668 27.7 1,417 25.1 1,307 24.7
Revocation with Non-Violent Offence 536 8.6 489 8.2 481 8.0 374 6.6 384 7.3
Revocation with Violent Offence** 118 1.9 89 1.5 91 1.5 75 1.3 50 0.9
Total 6,199 100.0 5,985 100.0 6,020 100.0 5,655 100.0 5,286 100.0

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Note:

*Revocation for Breach of Conditions includes revocation with outstanding charges.

**Violent offences include murder and Schedule I offences (listed in the Corrections and Conditional Release Act) such as assaults, sexual offences, arson, abduction, robbery and some weapon offences.

A statutory release is considered successful if it was completed without a return to prison for a breach of conditions or for a new offence.

An offender serving a determinate sentence, if he/she is not detained, will be subject to statutory release after serving 2/3 of his/her sentence if he/she is not on full parole at that time. On statutory release, an offender is subject to supervision until the end of his/her sentence.

Over the past decade, the rate of violent convictions for offenders while under supervision has declined

Figure D11

Detailed information can be found in the surrounding text.

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Note:

*Supervised offenders include offenders who are on parole, statutory release, those temporarily detained in federal institutions, and those who are unlawfully at large.

**Violent offences include murder and Schedule I offences (listed in the Corrections and Conditional Release Act) such as assaults, sexual offences, arson, abduction, robbery and some weapon offences.

Day and full parole include those offenders serving determinate and indeterminate sentences.

The dotted line between 2016-17 and 2017-18 is intended to signify that due to delays in the court process, these numbers under-represent the actual number of convictions, as verdicts may have not been reached by year-end.

Over the past decade, the rate of violent convictions for offenders while under supervision has declined

Table D11
Year # of Offenders Convicted for Violent Offences*** Rate per 1,000 Supervised Offenders*
Day Parole Full Parole Statutory Release Total Day Parole Full Parole Statutory Release
2007-08 18 23 214 255 14 6 68
2008-09 22 17 153 192 18 4 46
2009-10 17 16 149 182 13 4 46
2010-11 10 19 128 157 8 5 39
2011-12 8 10 135 153 6 3 38
2012-13 9 11 136 156 7 3 39
2013-14 7 10 118 135 6 3 33
2014-15 1 4 89 94 1 1 25
2015-16 8 9 91 108 6 2 25
2016-17 7 8 75 90 4 2 20
2017-18** 2 3 50 55 1 1 14

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Note:

*Supervised offenders include offenders who are on parole, statutory release, those temporarily detained in federal institutions, and those who are unlawfully at large.

**Due to delays in the court processes, the numbers under-represent the actual number of convictions, as verdicts may not have been reached by year-end. Day and full parole include those offenders serving determinate and indeterminate sentences.

***Violent offences include murder and Schedule I offences (listed in the Corrections and Conditional Release Act) such as assaults, sexual offences, arson, abduction, robbery and some weapon offences.

The number of offenders granted temporary absences

Figure D12

Detailed information can be found in the surrounding text.

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

A temporary absence is permission given to an eligible offender to be away from the normal place of confinement for medical, administrative, community service, family contact, personal development for rehabilitative purposes, or compassionate reasons, including parental responsibilities.

A work release is a structured program of release of specified duration for work or community service outside the penitentiary, under the supervision of a staff member or other authorized person or organization.

These numbers depict the number of offenders who received at least one temporary absence permit (excluding those for medical purposes) or at least one work release. An offender may be granted more than one temporary absence permit or work release over a period of time.

The number of offenders granted temporary absences

Table D12
Year Temporary Absences Work Releases
Escorted Unescorted
  # of Offenders # of Permits # of Offenders # of Permits # of Offenders # of Permits
2008-09 2,336 36,137 432 3,659 243 663
2009-10 2,222 35,816 388 3,295 254 1,063
2010-11 2,301 40,074 353 3,117 339 1,343
2011-12 2,685 44,399 418 3,891 435 875
2012-13 2,753 47,815 448 3,709 455 815
2013-14 2,740 49,502 447 4,004 400 643
2014-15 2,574 49,633 411 3,563 346 490
2015-16 2,428 47,084 445 4,078 304 418
2016-17 2,546 48,590 443 3,798 324 482
2017-18 2,567 50,711 428 3,190 312 445

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

A temporary absence is permission given to an eligible offender to be away from the normal place of confinement for medical, administrative, community service, family contact, personal development for rehabilitative purposes, or compassionate reasons, including parental responsibilities.

A work release is a structured program of release of specified duration for work or community service outside the penitentiary, under the supervision of a staff member or other authorized person or organization.

These numbers depict the number of offenders who received at least one temporary absence permit (excluding those for medical purposes) or at least one work release. An offender may be granted more than one temporary absence permit or work release over a period of time.

Section E: Statistics on Special Applications of Criminal Justice

The number of initial detention reviews decreased

Figure E1

Detailed information can be found in the surrounding text.

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Note:

According to the Corrections and Conditional Release Act, an offender entitled to statutory release after serving two-thirds of the sentence may be held in custody until warrant expiry if it is established that the offender is likely to commit, before the expiry of his/her sentence, an offence causing death or serious harm, a serious drug offence or a sex offence involving a child.

The number of initial detention reviews decreased

Table E1
  Outcome of Initial Detention Reviews  
Year Detained Statutory Release Total Total
Ind. Non-Ind. Total % Ind. Non-Ind. Total % Ind. Non-Ind.
2003-04 76 203 279 92.1 8 16 24 7.9 84 219 303
2004-05 71 154 225 91.1 6 16 22 8.9 77 170 247
2005-06 75 158 233 89.3 11 17 28 10.7 86 175 261
2006-07 65 157 222 88.8 4 24 28 11.2 69 181 250
2007-08 91 156 247 93.2 7 11 18 6.8 98 167 265
2008-09 107 149 256 95.9 5 6 11 4.1 112 156 267
2009-10 99 162 261 93.9 2 15 17 6.1 101 177 278
2010-11 113 126 239 94.5 5 9 14 5.5 118 135 253
2011-12 88 119 207 96.7 3 4 7 3.3 91 123 214
2012-13 92 140 232 98.3 4 0 4 1.7 96 140 236
2013-14 85 115 200 96.2 4 4 8 3.8 89 119 208
2014-15 67 97 164 94.3 5 5 10 5.7 72 102 174
2015-16 73 94 167 96.5 2 4 6 3.5 75 98 173
2016-17 56 75 131 97.0 2 2 4 3.0 58 77 135
2017-18 51 59 110 92.4 6 3 9 7.6 57 61 119
Total 1,209 1,964 3,173 93.8 74 136 210 6.2 1,283 2,100 3,383

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Note:

According to the Corrections and Conditional Release Act, an offender entitled to statutory release after serving two-thirds of the sentence may be held in custody until warrant expiry if it is established that the offender is likely to commit, before the expiry of his/her sentence, an offence causing death or serious harm, a serious drug offence or a sex offence involving a child.

76% of Judicial Review Hearings Result in Earlier Parole Eligibility

Figure E2

Detailed information can be found in the surrounding text.

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

*Of the 49 offenders no longer under active supervision, 7 were in custody, 34 were deceased, 6 were deported, and 2 were temporarily detained. Judicial review is an application to the court for a reduction in the time required to be served before being eligible for parole. Judicial review procedures apply to offenders who committed the offences prior to December 2, 2011 and have been sentenced to imprisonment for life without eligibility for parole for 15 years or more. Judicial reviews exclude offenders convicted of more than one murder. Eligible offenders can apply for a reduction in parole ineligibility when they have served at least 15 years of their sentence.

Judicial reviews are conducted in the province where the conviction took place.

76% of Judicial Review Hearings Result in Earlier Parole Eligibility

Table E2
Province/Territory of Judicial Review Parole Ineligibility Reduced by Court Reduction Denied by Court Total
1stDegree Murder 2ndDegree Murder 1stDegree Murder 2ndDegree Murder 1stDegree Murder 2ndDegree murder
Northwest Territories 0 0 0 0 0 0
Nunavut 0 0 0 0 0 0
Yukon Territories 0 0 0 0 0 0
Newfoundland & Labrador 0 0 0 0 0 0
Prince Edward Island 0 0 0 0 0 0
Nova Scotia 1 1 1 0 2 1
New Brunswick 1 0 0 0 1 0
Quebec 73 15 6 2 79 17
Ontario 23 0 28 1 51 1
Manitoba 8 3 1 0 9 3
Saskatchewan 7 0 3 0 10 0
Alberta 19 0 7 1 26 1
British Columbia 22 1 6 0 28 1
Sub-total 154 20 52 4 206 24
Total 174 56 230

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

These numbers represent total decisions at the end of fiscal year 2017-18.

Judicial reviews are conducted in the province where the conviction took place.

The Number of Dangerous Offender Designations

Figure E3

Detailed information can be found in the surrounding text.

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

The number of Dangerous Offenders designated per year does not include overturned decisions.

Offenders who have died since receiving designations are no longer classified as "active"; however, they are still represented in the above graph, which depicts the total number of offenders ‘"designated". Dangerous Offender legislation came into effect in Canada on October 15, 1977, replacing the Habitual Offender and Dangerous Sexual Offender provisions that were abolished. A Dangerous Offender (DO) is an individual given an indeterminate or *determinate sentence on the basis of a particularly violent crime or pattern of serious violent offences where it is judged that the offender's behaviour is unlikely to be inhibited by normal standards of behavioural restraint (see section 753 of the Criminal Code of Canada).

In addition to the DOs, there were 15 Dangerous Sexual Offenders and 3 Habitual Offenders under the responsibility of CSC at the end of fiscal year 2017-18.

*Determinate sentences for Dangerous Offenders must be a minimum punishment of imprisonment for a term of two years and have an order that the offender be subject to a long-term supervision period that does not exceed 10 years.

The Number of Dangerous Offender Designations

Table E3
Province/Territory of Designation All Designations
(# Designated Since 1978)
Active Dangerous Offenders
# of Indeterminate Offenders # of Determinate Offenders Total
Newfoundland & Labrador 13 8 1 9
Nova Scotia 25 19 2 21
Prince Edward Island 0 0 0 0
New Brunswick 8 4 0 4
Quebec 116 91 16 107
Ontario 391 263 72 335
Manitoba 29 26 2 28
Saskatchewan 98 56 33 89
Alberta 65 52 3 55
British Columbia 156 111 13 124
Yukon Territories 7 2 5 7
Northwest Territories 11 11 0 11
Nunavut 2 1 1 2
Total 921 644 148 792

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

Numbers presented are as of end of fiscal year 2017-18.

The number of Dangerous Offenders declared per year does not include overturned decisions.

Offenders who have died since receiving designations are no longer classified as "active"; however, they are still represented in the total number of offenders "designated".

Most Long-term Supervision Orders are for a 10-year period

Figure E4

Detailed information can be found in the surrounding text.

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

Long-term Supervision Order (LTSO) legislation, which came into effect in Canada on August 1, 1997, allows the court to impose a sentence of two years or more for the predicate offence and order that the offender be supervised in the community for a further period not exceeding 10 years.

Seventy five offenders under these provisions have died, and 210 offenders have completed their long-term supervision period.

Remand is the temporary detention of a person while awaiting trial, sentencing or the commencement of a custodial disposition.

Most Long-term Supervision Orders are for a 10-year period

Table E4
Province or Territory of Order Length of Supervision Order (Years) Current Status 2017-2018
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Total Incarcerated DP, FP or SR* LTSO period LTSO**interrupted Total
Newfoundland & Labrador 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 10 11 3 0 6 0 9
Nova Scotia 0 0 0 0 5 0 1 2 0 13 21 3 1 10 0 14
Prince Edward Island 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 2 0 0 0 0 0
New Brunswick 0 0 1 0 2 0 0 1 0 8 12 2 1 2 2 7
Quebec 1 1 7 2 63 18 40 12 2 258 404 108 19 143 22 292
Ontario 0 0 0 6 20 15 21 23 0 275 360 73 14 152 27 266
Manitoba 0 0 0 0 1 2 3 1 0 37 44 6 0 12 7 25
Saskatchewan 0 1 0 1 11 9 13 11 2 70 118 48 3 30 14 95
Alberta 0 0 0 0 8 1 0 1 0 67 77 13 3 27 6 49
British Columbia 0 0 0 2 14 5 5 6 0 116 148 35 4 56 6 101
Yukon Territories 0 0 0 0 1 0 3 0 0 15 19 8 0 7 0 15
Northwest Territories 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 2 4 1 0 1 0 2
Nunavut 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 1 0 3 7 0 0 4 1 5
Total 1 2 8 11 129 52 86 59 4 875 1,277 300 45 450 85 880

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

*This category includes offenders whose current status is either supervised on day parole (DP), full parole (FP) or statutory release (SR).

**This category includes offenders convicted of a new offence while on the supervision portion of an LTSO. When this occurs, the LTSO supervision period is interrupted until the offender has served the new sentence to its warrant expiry date. At that time, the LTSO supervision period resumes where it left off. From the 85, 69 offenders were in custody, 15 were supervised in the community on statutory release and 1 offender was on remand.

Long-term Supervision Order (LTSO) legislation, which came into effect in Canada on August 1, 1997, allows the court to impose a sentence of two years or more for the predicate offence and order that the offender be supervised in the community for a further period not exceeding 10 years.

75 offenders under these provisions have died, and 210 offenders have completed their long-term supervision period.

Remand is the temporary detention of a person while awaiting trial, sentencing or the commencement of a custodial disposition.

The Number of Record Suspension Applications Received has Decreased

Figure E5

Detailed information can be found in the surrounding text.

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Note:

*Refers to pardon applications processed for residents of Ontario and British Columbia following the reversal of the amendments to the CRA (Canada Revenue Agency) by Supreme Court decisions in those provinces.

On March 13, 2012, Bill C-10 amended the CRA by replacing the term "pardon" with the term "record suspension". The Record Suspension and Clemency program involves the review of record suspension applications, the ordering of record suspensions and the making of clemency recommendations. The amendments to the CRA increased the waiting periods for a record suspension to five years for all summary convictions and to ten years for all indictable offences. Individuals convicted of sexual offences against minors (with certain exceptions) and those who have been convicted of more than three indictable offences, each with a sentence of two or more years, became ineligible for a record suspension

The Number of Record Suspension Applications Received has Decreased

Table E5
  2013-14 2014-15 2015-16 2016-17 2017-18
Record Suspension Applications Processed
Applications Received 14,253 12,415 12,384 11,563 9,461
Applications Accepted 9,624 9,071 8,917 8,191 7,1671
% Accepted 67.5 73.1 72.0 70.8 75.8
Record Suspensions
Ordered 8,511 8,422 8,428 8,340 7,038
Refused 772 726 525 439 142
Total Ordered/Refused 9,283 9,148 8,953 8,779 7,180
% Ordered 91.7 92.1 94.1 95.0 98.0
Pardon Applications Processed
Applications Received - - - - - - - - 5,2002
Applications Accepted - - - - - - - - 4,4292
% Accepted - - - - - - - - 85.2
Pardons
Granted 8,265 5,625 1,628 3,740 222
Issued - - - - - - - - 1,734
Denied 581 681 349 125 133
Total Granted/Denied 8,8463 6,3063 1,9773 3,8653 2,0892
% Granted 93.4 89.2 82.3 96.8 93.6
Pardon/Record Suspension Revocations/Cessations
Revocations4 669 438 670 501 85
Cessations 589 578 636 776 692
Total Revocations/Cessations 1,258 1,016 1,306 1,277 777
Cumulative Granted/Issued and Ordered5 480,010 494,057 504,113 516,193 525,187
Cumulative Revocations/Cessations5 22,321 23,337 24,643 25,920 26,697

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Note:

1Includes 638 record suspension applications that were discontinued and reclassified as pardon applications for residents of Ontario and British Columbia following the reversal of amendments to the CRA by Supreme Court decisions in those provinces.

2Refers to pardon applications processed for residents of Ontario and British Columbia following the reversal of the amendments to the CRA by Supreme Court decisions in those provinces.

3Refers to pardon applications received on or before March 12, 2012 (C-10).

4Revocations fluctuate due to resource re-allocation to deal with backlogs.

5Cumulative data reflects activity since 1970, when the pardon process was established under the Criminal Records Act.

On June 29, 2010, Bill C-23A amended the CRA by extending the ineligibility periods for certain applications for pardon. Additionally, the bill resulted in significant changes to program operations.

The process was modified to include additional inquiries and new, more exhaustive investigations by staff for some applications and required additional review time by Board members. New concepts of merit and disrepute to the administration of justice form part of the statute. As a result of these new changes, application processing time increased. On March 13, 2012, Bill C-10 amended the CRA by replacing the term "pardon" with the term "record suspension"”. The Record Suspension and Clemency program involves the review of record suspension applications, the ordering of record suspensions and the making of clemency recommendations. The amendments to the CRA increased the waiting periods for a record suspension to five years for all summary convictions and to ten years for all indictable offences. Individuals convicted of sexual offences against minors (with certain exceptions) and those who have been convicted of more than three indictable offences, each with a sentence of two or more years, became ineligible for a record suspension.

Section F: Victims of Crime

Victimization rates for theft of personal property and assault decreased in 2014

Figure F1

Detailed information can be found in the surrounding text.

Source: General Social Survey, Statistics Canada, 1999, 2004, 2009 and 2014.

Note:

The General Social Survey is administered every five years by Statistics Canada. Updated data were not available during the preparation of this report. It is anticipated that updated data will be available in 2020.

*Assault data includes incidents of spousal violence. In previous editions of this document, the victimization data excluded incidents of spousal violence.

Rates are based on 1,000 population, 15 years of age and older, across the 10 provinces.

Victimization rates for theft of personal property and assault decreased in 2014

Table F1
Type of Incident Year
1999 2004 2009 2014
Theft of Personal Property 75 93 108 73
Sexual Assault 21 21 24 22
Robbery 9 11 13 6
Assault* 80 75 80 48

Source: General Social Survey, Statistics Canada, 1999, 2004, 2009 and 2014.

Note:

The General Social Survey is administered every five years by Statistics Canada. Updated data were not available during the preparation of this report. It is anticipated that updated data will be available in 2020.

*Assault data includes incidents of spousal violence. In previous editions of this document, the victimization data excluded incidents of spousal violence.

Rates are based on 1,000 population, 15 years of age and older, across the 10 provinces.

The majority of victims of violent crime are under age 30

Figure F2

Detailed information can be found in the surrounding text.

Source: Incident-based Uniform Crime Reporting Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Note:

Updated data were not available during the preparation of this report.

*Population estimates are as of July 1, 2010.

The data excludes traffic violations, victims whose age is above 89, victims whose age is unknown and victims whose gender is unknown.

Due to rounding, totals may not add up to 100 percent.

The majority of victims of violent crime are under age 30

Table F2 (2012)
Age of Victim  Men Women Total
  # % # % # %
0 to 4 years 1,761 1.0 2,053 1.1 3,814 1.1
5 to 9 years 3,803 2.2 3,724 2.0 7,527 2.1
10 to 14 years 11,716 6.7 12,109 6.5 23,825 6.6
15 to 19 years 25,294 14.4 27,674 14.9 52,968 14.6
20 to 24 years 24,712 14.1 29,380 15.8 54,092 15.0
25 to 29 years 21,477 12.2 23,897 12.9 45,374 12.5
30 to 34 years 17,282 9.8 20,001 10.8 37,283 10.3
35 to 39 years 14,829 8.4 17,403 9.4 32,232 8.9
40 to 44 years 14,607 8.3 15,456 8.3 30,063 8.3
45 to 49 years 13,568 7.7 13,038 7.0 26,606 7.4
50 to 54 years 10,965 6.2 9,051 4.9 20,016 5.5
55 to 59 years 6,983 4.0 5,149 2.8 12,132 3.4
60 to 64 years 4,081 2.3 2,792 1.5 6,873 1.9
65 to 69 years 2,321 1.3 1,605 0.9 3,926 1.1
70 to 74 years 1,128 0.6 977 0.5 2,105 0.6
75 and over 1,228 0.7 1,507 0.8 2,735 0.8
Total 175,755 100.0 185,816 100.0 361,571 100.0

Source: Incident-based Uniform Crime Reporting Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Note:

Updated data were not available during the preparation of this report.

The data excludes traffic violations, victims whose age is above 89, victims whose age is unknown and victims whose gender is unknown.

Due to rounding, totals may not add up to 100 percent.

The majority of victims receiving services are victims of violent crime

Figure F3

Detailed information can be found in the surrounding text.

Source: Victim Services in Canada, 2009/2010; Victim Services in Canada 2011/2012; Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Note:

Updated data were not available during the preparation of this report.

Victim services are defined as agencies that provide direct services to primary or secondary victims of crime, and that are funded in whole or in part by a ministry responsible for justice matters. Survey respondents included 684 victim service providers.

The majority of victims receiving services are victims of violent crime

Table F3
Type of Crime Gender of Victim
Women Men Not Reported Total
Snapshot on May 27, 2010 # % # % # % # %
Homicide 154 2.4 70 3.3 3 0.5 227 2.5
Other offences causing death 95 1.5 77 3.7 8 1.4 180 2.0
Sexual assault 1,922 30.0 379 18.1 160 28.3 2,461 27.1
Other violent offences 3,323 51.8 917 43.8 262 46.4 4,502 49.6
Other criminal offences* 496 7.7 357 17.0 73 12.9 926 10.2
Other incidents** 421 6.6 295 14.1 59 10.4 775 8.5
Total without unknown 6,411 100.0 2,095 100.0 565 100.0 9,071 100.0
Unknown type of crime 197 81 113 391
Total 6,608 2,176 678 9,462
Snapshot on May 24, 2012 # % # % # % # %
Homicide 179 2.6 126 5.3 3 0.9 308 3.2
Other offences causing death 90 1.3 47 2.0 0 0.0 137 1.4
Sexual assault 2,105 30.2 356 15.1 37 11.6 2,498 25.9
Other violent offences 3,461 49.7 1,103 46.8 179 56.1 4,743 49.2
Other criminal offences* 676 9.7 507 21.5 66 20.7 1,249 13.0
Other incidents** 448 6.4 220 9.3 34 10.7 702 7.3
Total without unknown 6,959 100.0 2,359 100.0 319 100.0 9,637 100.0
Unknown type of crime 310 81 636 1,027
Total 7,269 2,440 955 10,664

Source: Victim Services in Canada, 2009/2010; Victim Services in Canada 2011/2012; Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Note:

Updated data were not available during the preparation of this report.

*Other criminal offences include arson, property crimes, traffic offences, and other Criminal Code offences.

**Other incidents include those of a non-criminal nature as well as those that are still under investigation to determine if they are criminal offences.

Victim services are defined as agencies that provide direct services to primary or secondary victims of crime, and that are funded in whole or in part by a ministry responsible for justice matters. Survey respondents included 684 victim service providers.

The number of victims registered with the federal correctional system has increased

Figure F4

Detailed information can be found in the surrounding text.

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

*Indicator new as of the 2016-17 reporting cycle; therefore, data not available from 2013-14 to 2015-16.

**A ‘marker' was set for the new 2016-17 indicator, estimating the number of registered victims. This was done because CSC was changing from management of victim files within OMS, offender file based, to the newly built Victims Application Module (VAM), victim file based and no data was available until year end due to data migration.

***When Victim Services used OMS as their database, the prior indicator counted the number of offenders with registered victims. Over the last three years, CSC has used a new indicator reflective of the VAM; counting number of registered victims. This provides the true number of registered victims.

For example, in the old system (OMS) = one offender could have six victims, but only one offender with registered victims was counted. In the new system (VAM) = six registered victims as each victim has their own electronic file and is counted separately.

The number of victims registered with the federal correctional system has increased

Table F4
Year Target Number of Registered Victims Marker
2015-16 N/A N/A 7,500
2016-17* 7,500 Marker** 7,806*** - -
2017-18 7,800 8,053 - -
2018-19 8,500 8,480 - -

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

*Indicator new as of the 2016-17 reporting cycle; therefore, data not available from 2013-14 to 2015-16.

**A ‘marker' was set for the new 2016-17 indicator, estimating the number of registered victims. This was done because CSC was changing from management of victim files within OMS, offender file based, to the newly built Victims Application Module (VAM), victim file based and no data was available until year end due to data migration.

***When Victim Services used OMS as their database, the prior indicator counted the number of offenders with registered victims. Over the last three years, CSC has used a new indicator reflective of the VAM; counting number of registered victims. This provides the true number of registered victims.

For example, in the old system (OMS) = one offender could have six victims, but only one offender with registered victims was counted. In the new system (VAM) = six registered victims as each victim has their own electronic file and is counted separately.

Offences causing death are the most common type of offence** that harmed the victims registered* with Correctional Service Canada

Figure F5

Detailed information can be found in the surrounding text.

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

In 2016, CSC implemented the new Victims Application Module (VAM). Following some implementation and development challenges, CSC has worked towards greater stabilization of the VAM system. This caused a delay in the creation of a new reporting mechanism. For this reason, CSC is unable to report beyond the number of registered victims and is working to develop a new reporting mechanism for VAM.

*In order to register to receive information under sections 26 and 142 of the Corrections and Conditional Release Act, a person must meet the definition of a victim that appears in section 2, or subsections 26(3) or 142(3) of the Act. Victims can register with the Correctional Service of Canada or the Parole Board of Canada by completing a Victims Request for Information form, though a signed letter of request can be considered as meeting this requirement.

**Some victims were harmed by more than one offence, therefore the number of Offences of Victimization are higher than the number of Registered Victims. The percentages in the table represent the number of registered victims who were harmed by that offence and do not add up to 100%.

Offences causing death are the most common type of offence** that harmed the victims registered* with Correctional Service Canada

Table F5
Type of Offence**
That Harmed Victim*
2011-12 2012-13 2013-14 2014-15 2015-16
# % # % # % # % # %
Offences Causing Death 4,056 55.4 4,292 56.6 4,533 57.8 5,432 68.5 6,151 74.1
Sexual Offences 2,114 28.9 2,169 28.6 2,237 28.5 2,493 31.4 2,817 33.9
Assaults 998 13.6 965 12.7 941 12.0 1,178 14.9 1,401 16.9
Involving Violence or Threats 707 9.7 710 9.4 720 9.2 849 10.7 706 8.5
Property Crimes 534 7.3 551 7.3 541 6.9 617 7.8 558 6.7
Other Offences 452 6.2 441 5.8 475 6.1 583 7.4 377 4.5
Deprivation of Freedom 272 3.7 281 3.7 249 3.2 330 4.2 157 1.9
Attempts to Cause Death 241 3.3 246 3.2 283 3.6 299 3.8 318 3.8
Driving Offences 125 1.7 152 2.0 153 2.0 163 2.1 157 1.9
Offence Not Recorded 6 0.1 4 0.1 9 0.1 85 1.1 0 0
Total Number of Victims** 7,322 7,585 7,838 7,929 8,303

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

In 2016, CSC implemented the new Victims Application Module (VAM). Following some implementation and development challenges, CSC has worked towards greater stabilization of the VAM system. This caused a delay in the creation of a new reporting mechanism. For this reason, CSC is unable to report beyond the number of registered victims and is working to develop a new reporting mechanism for VAM.

*In order to register to receive information under sections 26 and 142 of the Corrections and Conditional Release Act, a person must meet the definition of a victim that appears in section 2, or subsections 26(3) or 142(3) of the Act. Victims can register with the Correctional Service of Canada or the Parole Board of Canada by completing a Victims Request for Information form, though a signed letter of request can be considered as meeting this requirement.

**Some victims were harmed by more than one offence, therefore the number of Offences of Victimization are higher than the number of Registered Victims. The percentages in the table represent the number of registered victims who were harmed by that offence and do not add up to 100%.

Temporary absence information is the most common type of information provided during a notification to registered victims* with Correctional Service Canada

Figure F6

Detailed information can be found in the surrounding text.

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

In 2016, CSC implemented the new Victims Application Module (VAM). Following some implementation and development challenges, CSC has worked towards greater stabilization of the VAM system. This caused a delay in the creation of a new reporting mechanism. For this reason, CSC is unable to report beyond the number of registered victims and is working to develop a new reporting mechanism for VAM.

Temporary Absence information includes information on unescorted and escorted temporary absences and work release. Conditional Release information includes information regarding day and full parole, statutory release, suspensions, detention, and long-term supervision orders. Sentencing information includes information on the offender's sentence, offender information, warrant expiry date, judicial review, and public domain.

Disclosure means a type of information identified in section 26 of the CCRA that has been disclosed to a registered victim during a notification.

As of December 2, 2011 as per Bill S6, Correctional Services Canada now provides information to some victims who are not registered which requires providing information to family members of murdered victims where the offender is still eligible to apply for Judicial Review including when the offender does not apply for a Judicial Review within the allotted time period, as well as the next date the offender can apply. Notification to unregistered victims are excluded for the data.

*In order to register to receive information under section 26 and 142 of the Corrections and Conditional Release Act, a person must meet the definition of a victim that appears in section 2 or subsection 26(3) or 142(3) of the Act. Victims can register with the Correctional Service of Canada or the Parole Board of Canada by completing a Victims Request for Information form, though a signed letter of request can be considered as meeting this requirement.

Temporary absence information is the most common type of information provided during a notification to registered victims* with Correctional Service Canada

Table F6
Information 2011-12 2012-13 2013-14 2014-15 2015-16
Temporary Absences 75,848 93,609 100,934 96,131 89,866
Travel Permits 10,877 28,763 34,294 34,501 31,176
Institutional Location 6,859 14,434 17,495 16,242 13,127
Program & Disciplinary Offence Information**   11,208 14,826 16,790 13,092
Conditional Release 10,870 11,803 12,318 13,253 15,055
Sentencing Information 16,268 12,813 10,333 10,792 12,246
Custody 2,414 2,569 2,476 2,423 3,536
TOTAL 123,136 175,199 192,676 190,132 178,098

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

In 2016, CSC implemented the new Victims Application Module (VAM). Following some implementation and development challenges, CSC has worked towards greater stabilization of the VAM system. This caused a delay in the creation of a new reporting mechanism. For this reason, CSC is unable to report beyond the number of registered victims and is working to develop a new reporting mechanism for VAM.

Temporary Absence information includes information on unescorted and escorted temporary absences and work release. Conditional Release information includes information regarding day and full parole, statutory release, suspensions, detention, and long-term supervision orders. Sentencing information includes information on the offender's sentence, offender information, warrant expiry date, judicial review, and public domain.

Disclosure means a type of information identified in section 26 of the CCRA that has been disclosed to a registered victim during a notification.

As of December 2, 2011 as per Bill S6, Correctional Services Canada now provides information to some victims who are not registered which requires providing information to family members of murdered victims where the offender is still eligible to apply for Judicial Review including when the offender does not apply for a Judicial Review within the allotted time period, as well as the next date the offender can apply. Notification to unregistered victims are excluded for the data.

*In order to register to receive information under section 26 and 142 of the Corrections and Conditional Release Act, a person must meet the definition of a victim that appears in section 2 or subsection 26(3) or 142(3) of the Act. Victims can register with the Correctional Service of Canada or the Parole Board of Canada by completing a Victims Request for Information form, though a signed letter of request can be considered as meeting this requirement.

Parole Board of Canada contact with victims has increased

Figure F7

Detailed information can be found in the surrounding text.

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Note:

*A victim contact refers to each time the Parole Board of Canada has contact with a victim by mail, fax, or by telephone.

Parole Board of Canada contact with victims has increased

Table F7
Year Total Number of Contacts*
2003-04 15,263
2004-05 15,479
2005-06 16,711
2006-07 21,434
2007-08 20,457
2008-09 20,039
2009-10 22,181
2010-11 22,483
2011-12 21,449
2012-13 22,475
2013-14 22,323
2014-15 27,191
2015-16 29,771
2016-17 32,786
2017-18 33,370

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Note:

*A victim contact refers to each time the Parole Board of Canada has contact with a victim by mail, fax, or by telephone.

Victims presenting a statement at Parole Board of Canada hearings

Figure F8

Detailed information can be found in the surrounding text.

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Victims presenting a statement at Parole Board of Canada hearings

Table F8
Year Number of Hearings with Presentations Number of Presentations
2008-09 112 192
2009-10 127 231
2010-11 137 237
2011-12 140 223
2012-13 140 254
2013-14 142 264
2014-15 128 231
2015-16 171 244
2016-17 149 244
2017-18 181 328

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Victims requesting access to the decision registry

Figure F9

Detailed information can be found in the surrounding text.

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Note:

Victims also include victims' agents and victims' organizations.

*Since November 1, 1992, the Corrections and Conditional Release Act (CCRA) requires the Parole Board of Canada (PBC) to maintain a registry of its decisions along with the reasons for those decisions. Anyone may request, in writing, a copy of these decisions.

Victims requesting access to the decision registry

Table F9
Year Request made by victims* Total number of requests
# %
2008-09 2,691 52.0 5,175
2009-10 2,803 50.1 5,591
2010-11 2,914 52.5 5,550
2011-12 2,970 56.5 5,252
2012-13 3,214 55.0 5,848
2013-14 3,474 55.1 6,309
2014-15 3,608 54.3 6,640
2015-16 4,436 61.0 7,276
2016-17 2,169 48.2 4,502
2017-18 2,227 49.9 4,467

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Note:

*Also include victims' agents and victims' organizations.

Questionnaire

In order to improve the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview, we are asking our readers to complete the following voluntary questionnaire.

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Please return completed questionnaires to:

Portfolio Corrections Statistics Committee
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K1A 0P8

Telephone: 613-946-9994
Fax: 613-990-8295
E-mail: ps.csccbresearch-recherchsscrc.sp@canada.ca


For further information, please visit:

Correctional Service Canada

Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada

Parole Board of Canada

Office of the Correctional Investigator

Public Safety Canada

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