2015 Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview

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ISSN: 1713-1073

Table of Contents

Preface

This document provides a statistical overview of corrections and conditional release within a context of trends in crime and criminal justice. A primary consideration in producing this overview was to present general statistical information in a "user friendly" way that will facilitate understanding by a broad audience. Accordingly, there are a number of features of this document that make it different from typical statistical reports.

The Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview (CCRSO) has been published annually since 1998. Readers are advised that in some instances figures have been revised from earlier publications. Also, the total number of offenders will vary slightly depending on characteristics of the data set.

It is hoped that this document will serve as a useful source of statistical information on corrections and conditional release and assist the public in gaining a better understanding of these important components of the criminal justice system.

Regarding police crime data from Statistics Canada, until the late 1980s, the Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) survey provided aggregate counts of the number of incidents reported to police and the number of persons charged by type of offence. With the advent of microdata reporting, the UCR has become an "incident-based" survey (UCR2), collecting in-depth information about each criminal incident. The update to this new survey, as well as revisions to the definitions of Violent crime, Property crime, and Other Criminal Code offences has resulted in data only being available from 1998 to the present. It is worth noting that the Total Crime Rates presented in the CCRSO differ from those reported by Statistics Canada in their publications. The Total Crime Rate reported in the CCRSO includes offences (i.e., traffic offences in the Canadian Criminal Code and offences against federal statutes) that are excluded in rates published by Statistics Canada.

Contributing Partners

Public Safety Canada

Public Safety Canada is Canada's lead federal department for public safety, which includes emergency management, national security and community safety. Its many responsibilities include developing legislation and policies governing corrections, implementing innovative approaches to community justice, and providing research expertise and resources to the corrections community.

Correctional Service of Canada

The mandate of the Correctional Service of Canada, as set out in the Corrections and Conditional Release Act, is to contribute to the maintenance of a just, peaceful and safe society by carrying out sentences imposed by courts through the safe and humane custody and supervision of offenders with sentences of two years or more, and assisting in the rehabilitation of offenders and their reintegration into the community as law-abiding citizens through the provision of programs in penitentiaries and in the community.

Parole Board of Canada

The Parole Board of Canada is an independent administrative tribunal responsible for making decisions about the timing and conditions of release of offenders to the community on various forms of conditional release. The Board also makes pardon decisions and recommendations respecting clemency through the Royal Prerogative of Mercy.

Office of the Correctional Investigator

The Office of the Correctional Investigator is an ombudsman for federal offenders. It conducts investigations into the problems of offenders related to decisions, recommendations, acts or omissions of the Correctional Service of Canada that affect offenders individually or as a group.

Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics (Statistics Canada)

The Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics (CCJS) is a division of Statistics Canada. The CCJS is the focal point of a federal-provincial-territorial partnership, known as the National Justice Statistics Initiative, for the collection of information on the nature and extent of crime and the administration of civil and criminal justice in Canada.

Section A: Context – Crime and the Criminal Justice System

Police-reported crime rate has been decreasing since 1998

Figure A1

Police-reported crime rate has been decreasing since 1998 - Rate per 100,000 population

Source: Uniform Crime Reporting Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Note:

*Unlike Statistics Canada, the Total Crime Rate in the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview includes traffic offences and offences against federal statutes to provide a measure of all criminal offences. As a result, the Total Crime Rate reported here is higher than that reported by Statistics Canada.

**The definitions for Violent, Property and Other Criminal Code offences have been revised by Statistics Canada to better reflect definitions used by the policing community. As a result of these changes, comparable data are only available starting in 1998 and the data presented in this year's report are not comparable to the data reported in previous versions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview.

These crime statistics are based on crimes that are reported to the police. Since not all crimes are reported to the police, these figures underestimate actual crime. See Figure F1 for rates based on victimization surveys (drawn from the General Social Survey), an alternative method of measuring crime.

Table A1
Year Type of offence
Violent** Property** Traffic Other CCC** Drugs Other Fed. Statutes Total*
1998 1,345 5,696 469 1,051 235 119 8,915
1999 1,440 5,345 388 910 264 128 8,474
2000 1,494 5,189 370 924 287 113 8,376
2001 1,473 5,124 393 989 288 123 8,390
2002 1,441 5,080 379 991 296 128 8,315
2003 1,435 5,299 373 1,037 274 115 8,532
2004 1,404 5,123 379 1,072 306 107 8,391
2005 1,389 4,884 378 1,052 290 97 8,090
2006 1,387 4,809 376 1,050 295 87 8,004
2007 1,354 4,525 402 1,029 308 90 7,707
2008 1,334 4,258 437 1,039 308 100 7,475
2009 1,322 4,122 435 1,017 291 94 7,281
2010 1,292 3,838 420 1,029 321 96 6,996
2011 1,236 3,536 424 1,008 330 94 6,627
2012 1,197 3,435 406 1,000 317 103 6,458
2013 1,093 3,148 386 954 310 79 5,970
2014 1,039 3,096 364 911 292 71 5,774

Source: Uniform Crime Reporting Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Note:

*Unlike Statistics Canada, the Total Crime Rate in the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview includes traffic offences and offences against federal statutes to provide a measure of all criminal offences. As a result, the Total Crime Rate reported here is higher than that reported by Statistics Canada.

**The definitions for Violent, Property and Other Criminal Code offences have been revised by Statistics Canada to better reflect definitions used by the policing community. As a result of these changes, comparable data are only available starting in 1998 and the data presented in this year’s report are not comparable to the data reported in previous versions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview.

Rates are based on incidents reported per 100,000 population.

Due to rounding, rates may not add to Totals.

Crime rates are higher in the west and highest in the north

Figure A2

Crime rates are higher in the west and highest in the north

Source: Uniform Crime Reporting Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Note:

*Rates are based on 100,000 population.

Unlike Statistics Canada, the Crime Rate in the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview includes traffic offences and offences against federal statutes to provide a measure of all criminal offences. As a result, the Crime Rate reported here is higher than that reported by Statistics Canada. In addition, the definitions for Violent, Property and Other Criminal Code offences have been revised by Statistics Canada to better reflect definitions used by the policing community. As a result of these changes, comparable data are only available starting in 1998 and the data presented in this year’s report are not comparable to the data reported in previous versions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview.

Table A2
Province/Territory Crime Rate*
2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
Newfoundland & Labrador 7,535 7,136 6,837 6,667 6,221
Prince Edward Island 7,141 7,290 7,351 6,528 5,255
Nova Scotia 7,837 7,343 7,143 6,415 6,195
New Brunswick 6,339 6,063 6,276 5,477 5,070
Quebec 5,553 5,295 5,199 4,700 4,318
Ontario 5,073 4,796 4,612 4,184 4,025
Manitoba 10,650 9,866 9,741 8,721 8,353
Saskatchewan 14,309 14,121 13,539 12,529 12,084
Alberta 9,073 8,372 8,187 7,943 7,888
British Columbia 9,814 9,308 9,069 8,549 8,632
Yukon Territory 23,069 22,544 22,648 26,103 26,623
Northwest Territories 51,585 52,300 51,255 48,475 46,785
Nunavut 41,025 39,443 40,540 34,631 32,016
Canada 6,996 6,627 6,458 5,970 5,774

Source: Uniform Crime Reporting Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Note:

*Rates are based on 100,000 population.

Unlike Statistics Canada, the Crime Rate in the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview includes traffic offences and offences against federal statutes to provide a measure of all criminal offences. As a result, the Crime Rate reported here is higher than that reported by Statistics Canada. In addition, the definitions for Violent, Property and Other Criminal Code offences have been revised by Statistics Canada to better reflect definitions used by the policing community. As a result of these changes, comparable data are only available starting in 1998 and the data presented in this year’s report are not comparable to the data reported in previous versions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview.

Canada’s incarceration rate is high relative to most western European countries

Figure A3

Canada’s incarceration rate is high relative to most western European countries - Number of inmates per 100,000 population

Source: World Prison Population List (retrieved November 20, 2015 at www.prisonstudies.org/highest-to-lowest/prison-population-total).

Note:

The incarceration rate, in this figure, is a measure of the number of people (i.e., adults and youth) in custody per 100,000 people in the general population. Incarceration rates from the World Prison Population List are based on the most recently available data at the time the list was compiled. Due to variations in the availability of information, the 2006 and 2008 dates reported in Table A3 refer to when the World Prison Population Lists (Seventh and Eighth Editions respectively) were published, but may not necessarily correspond to the date the data were obtained. For 2015, the data was retrieved online on November 20, 2015 from http://www.prisonstudies.org which contains the most up-to-date information available. These data reflect incarceration rates based on the country’s population. Additionally, different practices and variations in measurement in different countries limit the comparability of these figures.

Table A3
  2002 2003 2004 20061* 20082* 20113* 20124* 20135* 20146* 20157*
United States 701 714 723 738 756 743 730 716 707 698
New Zealand 155 168 168 186 185 199 194 192 190 190
England & Wales 141 142 141 148 153 155 154 148 149 148
Scotland 129 132 136 139 152 155 151 147 144 144
Australia 115 117 120 126 129 133 129 130 143 151
Canada 116 108 107 107 116 117 114 118 118 106
Italy 100 98 96 104 92 110 109 106 88 86
Austria 100 106 110 105 95 104 104 98 99 95
France 93 91 91 85 96 102 102 101 102 100
Germany 98 96 98 95 89 87 83 79 81 78
Switzerland 68 81 81 83 76 79 76 82 87 84
Sweden 73 75 81 82 74 78 70 67 57 60
Denmark 64 70 70 77 63 74 74 73 67 61
Norway 59 65 65 66 69 73 73 72 75 71
Finland 70 71 66 75 64 59 59 58 55 57

Source: International Centre for Prison Studies: 1World Prison Population List (Seventh Edition); 2World Prison Population List (Eighth Edition); 3World Prison Population List (retrieved October 7, 2011 at www.prisonstudies.org/info/worldbrief/index.php), 4World Prison Population List (retrieved October 15, 2012 at www.prisonstudies.org/info/worldbrief/index.php). 5World Prison Population List (retrieved November 20, 2013 at www.prisonstudies.org/info/worldbrief/index.php). 6World Prison Population List (retrieved December 8, 2014 at http://www.prisonstudies.org/world-prison-brief). 7World Prison Population List (retrieved November 20, 2015 at www.prisonstudies.org/highest-to-lowest/prison-population-total).

Note:

*Incarceration rates from the World Prison Population List are based on the most recently available data at the time the list was compiled. Due to variations in the availability of information, the 2006 and 2008 dates reported in Table A3 refer to when the World Prison Population Lists (Seventh and Eighth Editions respectively) were published, but may not necessarily correspond to the date the data were obtained. For 2015, the data was retrieved online on November 20, 2015 at http://www.prisonstudies.org which contains the most up to date information available. Additionally, different practices and variations in measurement in different countries limit the comparability of these figures. Rates are based on 100,000 population.

The rate of adults charged has declined

Figure A4

The rate of adults charged has declined - Rate per 100,000 adult population

Source: Uniform Crime Reporting Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Note:

*Unlike Statistics Canada, the Total Crime Rate in the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview includes traffic offences and offences against federal statutes to provide a measure of all criminal offences. As a result, the Total Crime Rate reported here is higher than that reported by Statistics Canada.

**The definitions for Violent, Property and Other Criminal Code offences have been revised by Statistics Canada to better reflect definitions used by the policing community. As a result of these changes, comparable data are only available starting in 1998 and the data presented in this year’s report are not comparable to the data reported in previous versions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview.

Violent crimes include homicide, attempted murder, assault, sexual offences, abduction, extortion, robbery, firearms, and other violent offences such as uttering threats and criminal harassment.

Property crimes include break and enter, motor vehicle thefts, other thefts, possession of stolen property, fraud, mischief and arson.

Table A4
Year Type of offence
Violent** Property** Traffic Other CCC** Drugs Other Fed. Statutes Total Charged*
1998 563 677 374 430 168 24 2,236
1999 590 632 371 396 185 30 2,203
2000 615 591 349 411 198 26 2,190
2001 641 584 349 451 202 28 2,256
2002 617 569 336 460 199 29 2,211
2003 598 573 326 476 172 23 2,168
2004 584 573 314 490 187 30 2,180
2005 589 550 299 479 185 29 2,131
2006 594 533 300 498 198 27 2,150
2007 577 499 298 521 208 28 2,132
2008 576 487 307 540 207 31 2,149
2009 585 490 311 532 201 34 2,152
2010 576 473 295 545 211 32 2,132
2011 548 441 271 527 213 34 2,034
2012 541 434 268 535 202 37 2,016
2013 499 415 242 514 200 26 1,904
2014 483 405 231 506 188 18 1,831

Source: Uniform Crime Reporting Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Note:

*Unlike Statistics Canada, the Total Crime Rate in the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview includes traffic offences and offences against federal statutes to provide a measure of all criminal offences. As a result, the Total Crime Rate reported here is higher than that reported by Statistics Canada.

**The definitions for Violent, Property and Other Criminal Code offences have been revised by Statistics Canada to better reflect definitions used by the policing community. As a result of these changes, comparable data are only available starting in 1998 and the data presented in this year's report are not comparable to the data reported in previous versions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview.

Rates are based on 100,000 population, 18 years of age and older.

Due to rounding, rates may not add to Totals.

Violent crimes include homicide, attempted murder, assault, sexual offences, abduction, extortion, robbery, firearms, and other violent offences such as uttering threats and criminal harassment.

Property crimes include break and enter, motor vehicle thefts, other thefts, possession of stolen property, fraud, mischief and arson.

Administration of justice cases account for 23% of cases* in adult courts

Figure A5

Administration of justice cases account for 23% of cases* in adult courts

Source: Adult Criminal Court Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Note:

*Cases completed in adult criminal courts.

The concept of a case has changed to more closely reflect court processing. Statistics from the Adult Criminal Court Survey used in this report should not be compared to editions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview prior to 2007. A case is one or more charges against an accused person or corporation, processed by the courts at the same time, and where all of the charges in the case received a final disposition. Where a case has more than one charge, it is necessary to select a charge to represent the case. An offence is selected by applying two rules. First, the "most serious decision" rule is applied. In cases where two or more offences have the same decision, the "most serious offence" rule is applied. All charges are ranked according to an offence seriousness scale.

Superior Court data are not reported to the Adult Criminal Court Survey for Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba and Saskatchewan. In addition, information from Quebec’s municipal courts is not collected.

The Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics continues to make updates to the offence library used to classify offence data sent by the provinces and territories. These improvements have resulted in minor changes in the counts of charges and cases as well as the distributions by type of offence. Data presented have been revised to account for these updates.

Due to rounding, percentages may not add to 100 percent.

Table A5
Type of Charge Criminal Code and Other Federal Statute Charges
  2011-12   2012-13   2013-14
  # % # % # %
Crimes Against the Person 93,225 23.65 91,033 23.49 84,862 23.53
Homicide and Related 272 0.07 243 0.06 258 0.07
Attempted Murder 158 0.04 145 0.04 186 0.05
Robbery 3,929 1.00 3,985 1.03 3,388 0.94
Sexual Assault 4,058 1.03 3,204 0.83 3,002 0.83
Other Sexual Offences 2,321 0.59 3,307 0.85 3,462 0.96
Major Assault (Levels 2 & 3) 21,998 5.33 20,547 5.30 19,232 5.33
Common Assault (Level 1) 37,443 9.50 35,853 9.25 33,630 9.33
Uttering Threats 17,701 4.49 17,559 4.53 15,810 4.38
Criminal Harassment 3,300 0.84 3,158 0.81 3,175 0.88
Other Crimes Against Persons 3,045 0.77 3,022 0.78 2,719 0.75
Crimes Against Property 91,380 23.19 88,664 22.87 82,187 22.79
Theft 40,328 10.23 39,318 10.14 36,364 10.08
Break and Enter 10,959 2.78 10,864 2.80 9,609 2.66
Fraud 12,850 3.26 12,130 3.13 11,381 3.16
Mischief 14,348 3.64 13,771 3.55 13,041 3.62
Possession of Stolen Property 11,244 2.85 10,987 2.83 10,371 2.88
Other Property Crimes 1,651 0.42 1,594 0.41 1,421 0.39
Administration of Justice 85,607 21.72 85,554 22.07 82,116 22.77
Fail to Appear 4,689 1.19 4,565 1.18 4,389 1.22
Breach of probation 32,029 8.13 32,742 8.45 31,334 8.69
Unlawfully at large 2,653 0.67 2,512 0.65 2,595 0.72
Fail to Comply with Order 37,445 9.50 37,232 9.61 35,516 9.85
Other Admin. Justice 8,791 2.23 8,503 2.19 8,282 2.30
Other Criminal Code 16,970 4.31 16,791 4.33 15,272 4.23
Weapons 9,727 2.47 9,682 2.50 9,020 2.50
Prostitution 1,040 0.26 896 0.23 903 0.25
Disturbing the Peace 1,423 0.36 1,452 0.37 1,316 0.36
Residual Criminal Code 4,780 1.21 4,761 1.23 4,033 1.12
Criminal Code Traffic 54,608 13.86 52,413 13.52 48,334 13.40
Impaired Driving 43,383 11.01 42,048 10.85 38,635 10.71
Other CC Traffic 11,225 2.85 10,365 2.67 9,699 2.69
Other Federal Statutes 52,326 13.28 53,159 13.71 47,869 13.27
Drug Possession 16,947 4.30 16,303 4.21 14,925 4.14
Other Drug Offences 12,728 3.23 11,577 2.99 10,100 2.80
Residual Federal Statutes 22,651 5.75 25,279 6.52 22,844 6.33
Total Offences 394,116 100.0 387,614 100.00 360,640 100.00

Source: Adult Criminal Court Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Note:

*Cases completed in adult criminal courts.

The concept of a case has changed to more closely reflect court processing. Statistics from the Adult Criminal Court Survey used in this report should not be compared to editions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview prior to 2007. Superior Court data are not reported to the Adult Criminal Court Survey for Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba and Saskatchewan. In addition, information from Quebec's municipal courts is not collected. The Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics continues to make updates to the offence library used to classify offence data sent by the provinces and territories. These improvements have resulted in minor changes in the counts of charges and cases as well as the distributions by type of offence. Data presented have been revised to account for these updates.

Due to rounding, percentages may not add to 100 percent.

Most adult custodial sentences ordered by the court are short

Figure A6

Most adult custodial sentences ordered by the court are short

Source: Adult Criminal Court Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Note:

*The type of decision group “guilty” includes guilty of the offence, of an included offence, of an attempt of the offence, or of an attempt of an included offence. This category also includes cases where an absolute or conditional discharge has been imposed.

The concept of a case has changed to more closely reflect court processing. Statistics from the Adult Criminal Court Survey used in this report should not be compared to editions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview prior to 2007.

Excludes cases where length of prison sentence and/or sex was not known, data for Manitoba as information on sentence length was not available.

Superior Court data are not reported to the Adult Criminal Court Survey for Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba and Saskatchewan. In addition, information from Quebec’s municipal courts is not collected.

The Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics continues to make updates to the offence library used to classify offence data sent by the provinces and territories. These improvements have resulted in minor changes in the counts of charges and cases as well as the distributions by type of offence. Data presented have been revised to account for these updates.

Due to rounding, totals may not add to 100 percent.

Table A6
Length of Prison Sentence 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 2013-14
  % % % % %
1 Month or Less          
Women 67.7 66.7 67.5 67.8 67.5
Men 53.6 51.4 52.6 53.2 54.4
Total 55.2 53.0 54.3 54.9 56.0
           
More Than 1 Month to 6 Months          
Women 23.3 24.7 23.9 24.1 24.7
Men 31.6 33.9 33.2 32.6 32.6
Total 30.7 32.9 32.2 31.6 31.7
           
More Than 6 Months to 12 Months          
Women 4.4 3.8 4.4 4.2 3.8
Men 6.7 6.8 6.6 6.4 5.8
Total 6.4 6.5 6.4 6.1 5.5
           
More Than 1 Year to Less Than 2 Years          
Women 2.2 2.4 2.2 2.1 2.0
Men 3.7 3.6 3.7 3.9 3.6
Total 3.6 3.5 3.5 3.7 3.4
           
2 Years or More          
Women 2.3 2.4 2.1 1.8 2.1
Men 4.4 4.4 3.9 3.8 3.6
Total 4.2 4.1 3.7 3.6 3.4

Source: Adult Criminal Court Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Note:

The concept of a case has changed to more closely reflect court processing. Statistics from the Adult Criminal Court Survey used in this report should not be compared to editions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview prior to 2007.

Excludes cases where length of prison sentence and/or sex was not known, data for Manitoba as information on both sentence length was not available.

Superior Court data are not reported to the Adult Criminal Court Survey for Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba and Saskatchewan. In addition, information from Quebec’s municipal courts is not collected.

The Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics continues to make updates to the offence library used to classify offence data sent by the provinces and territories. These improvements have resulted in minor changes in the counts of charges and cases as well as the distributions by type of offence. Data presented have been revised to account for these updates.

Due to rounding, totals may not add to 100 percent.

Relatively few crimes result in sentences to federal penitentiaries

Figure A7

Relatively few crimes result in sentences to federal penitentiaries

Source: 1Uniform Crime Reporting Survey-2, Adult Criminal Court Survey, and Adult Correctional Services Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada; 2 Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

*The type of decision group “guilty” includes guilty of the offence, of an included offence, of an attempt of the offence, or of an attempt of an included offence. This category also includes cases where an absolute or conditional discharge has been imposed.

**This figure only includes cases in provincial court and partial data from Superior Court. Superior Court data are not reported to the Adult Criminal Court Survey for Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba and Saskatchewan. Information from Quebec’s municipal courts is not collected.

The concept of a case has changed to more closely reflect court processing. Statistics from the Adult Criminal Court Survey used in this report should not be compared to editions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview prior to 2007. A case is one or more charges against an accused person or corporation, processed by the courts at the same time, and where all of the charges in the case received a final disposition.

Police data are reported on a calendar year basis whereas court and prison data are reported on a fiscal year basis (April 1 through March 31).

Table A7
  2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 2013-14 2014-15
Total Number of Incidents Reported to Police1 2,379,130 2,275,917 2,244,458 2,098,776 2,098,302
Cases with guilty* findings in Adult Criminal Court1** 261,325 256,603 249,152 228,328 Not available
Sentenced Admissions to Provincial/Territorial Custody1 83,976 85,013 65,922 64,604 Not available
Warrant of Committal Admissions to Federal Facilities2 5,423 5,103 5,094 5,139 4,781

Source: 1 Uniform Crime Reporting Survey-2, Adult Criminal Court Survey, and Adult Correctional Services Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada; 2 Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

*The type of decision group “guilty” includes guilty of the offence, of an included offence, of an attempt of the offence, or of an attempt of an included offence. This category also includes cases where an absolute or conditional discharge has been imposed.

**This figure only includes cases convicted in provincial court and partial data from Superior Court. Superior Court data are not reported to the Adult Criminal Court Survey for Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba and Saskatchewan. Information from Quebec’s municipal courts is not collected.

The concept of a case has changed to more closely reflect court processing. Statistics from the Adult Criminal Court Survey used in this report should not be compared to editions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview prior to 2007. A case is one or more charges against an accused person or corporation, processed by the courts at the same time, and where all of the charges in the case received a final disposition.

Police data are reported on a calendar year basis whereas court and prison data are reported on a fiscal year basis (April 1 through March 31).

The rate of youth charged has declined over the past eight years

Figure A8

The rate of youth charged has declined over the past eight years - rate of youth charged per 100,000 youth population

Source: Uniform Crime Reporting Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Note:

*Unlike Statistics Canada, the Total Crime Rate in the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview includes traffic offences and offences against federal statutes to provide a measure of all criminal offences. As a result, the Total Crime Rate reported here is higher than that reported by Statistics Canada. In addition, the definitions for Violent, Property and Other Criminal Code offences have been revised by Statistics Canada to better reflect definitions used by the policing community. As a result of these changes, comparable data are only available starting in 1998 and the data presented in this year’s report are not comparable to the data reported in previous versions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview.

**For criminal justice purposes, youth are defined under Canadian law as persons aged 12 to 17 years.

Rates are based on 100,000 youth population (12 to 17 years).

Violent crimes include homicide, attempted murder, assault, sexual offences, abduction, extortion, robbery, firearms, and other violent offences such as uttering threats and criminal harassment.

Property crimes include break and enter, motor vehicle thefts, other thefts, possession of stolen property, fraud, mischief and arson.

Table A8
Year Type of Offence
Violent* Property* Traffic Other CCC* Drugs Other Fed. Statutes Total Charged*
1998 994 2,500 -- 870 226 184 4,775
1999 1,060 2,237 -- 728 266 209 4,500
2000 1,136 2,177 -- 760 317 198 4,589
2001 1,157 2,119 -- 840 343 195 4,656
2002 1,102 2,009 -- 793 337 235 4,476
2003 953 1,570 -- 726 208 204 3,662
2004 918 1,395 -- 691 230 222 3,457
2005 924 1,276 -- 660 214 212 3,287
2006 917 1,216 -- 680 240 216 3,269
2007 943 1,211 75 732 260 239 3,461
2008 909 1,130 74 730 267 259 3,369
2009 888 1,143 68 698 238 260 3,294
2010 860 1,035 62 669 255 266 3,147
2011 805 903 58 635 263 251 2,915
2012 764 840 58 628 240 235 2,765
2013 692 723 42 555 229 193 2,436
2014 636 641 42 522 203 168 2,214

Source: Uniform Crime Reporting Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Note:

*Unlike Statistics Canada, the Total Crime Rate in the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview includes traffic offences and offences against federal statutes to provide a measure of all criminal offences. As a result, the Total Crime Rate reported here is higher than that reported by Statistics Canada. In addition, the definitions for Violent, Property and Other Criminal Code offences have been revised by Statistics Canada to better reflect definitions used by the policing community. As a result of these changes, comparable data are only available starting in 1998 and the data presented in this year’s report are not comparable to the data reported in previous versions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview.

**Data for Youth Charged and Youth Not Charged for Impaired Driving are not available prior to 2007. As a result, comparisons to Total Charged and Other CCC (including traffic) over time should be made with caution.

For criminal justice purposes, youth are defined under Canadian law as persons aged 12 to 17 years.

Rates are based on 100,000 youth population (12 to 17 years).

Violent crimes include homicide, attempted murder, assault, sexual offences, abduction, extortion, robbery, firearms, and other violent offences such as uttering threats and criminal harassment.

Property crimes include break and enter, motor vehicle thefts, other thefts, possession of stolen property, fraud, mischief and arson.

The most common youth court case is theft

Figure A9

The most common youth court case is theft

Source: Integrated Criminal Court Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Note:

*“Administration of Justice” includes the offences failure to appear, failure to comply, and breach of recognizance.

**Youth Criminal Justice Act offences include failure to comply with a disposition or undertaking, contempt against youth court, assisting a youth to leave a place of custody and harbouring a youth unlawfully at large. Also included are similar offences under the Young Offenders Act, which preceded the Youth Criminal Justice Act.

***“Drug Offences” includes possession and trafficking.

The concept of a case has changed to more closely reflect court processing. Statistics from the Youth Court Survey used in this report should not be compared to editions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview prior to 2007. A case is one or more charges against an accused person or corporation, processed by the courts at the same time, and where all of the charges in the case received a final disposition. Where a case has more than one charge, it is necessary to select a charge to represent the case. An offence is selected by applying two rules. First, the “most serious decision” rule is applied. In cases where two or more offences have the same decision, the “most serious offence” rule is applied. All charges are ranked according to an offence seriousness scale.

The Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics continues to make updates to the offence library used to classify offence data sent by the provinces and territories. These improvements have resulted in minor changes in the counts of charges and cases as well as the distributions by type of offence. Data presented have been revised to account for these updates.

Table A9
Type of Case Number of Youth Court Cases
2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 2013-14
Crimes Against the Person 14,823 14,275 13,216 12,792 11,720
Homicide and Attempted Murder 70 69 55 52 53
Robbery 2,539 2,605 2,464 2,336 1,904
Sexual Assault / Other Sexual Offences 1,255 1,306 1,277 1,331 1,417
Major Assault 3,561 3,361 2,900 2,715 2,396
Common Assault 4,477 4,208 4,029 3,878 3,613
Other Crimes Against the Person* 2,921 2,726 2,491 2,480 2,337
Crimes Against Property 22,242 20,408 17,389 15,723 13,370
Theft 8,454 7,879 6,591 5,476 4,658
Break and Enter 4,835 4,410 3,824 3,606 3,100
Fraud 837 641 525 474 465
Mischief 4,253 3,752 3,330 2,948 2,489
Possession of Stolen Property 3,249 3,147 2,689 2,779 2,294
Other Crimes Against Property 614 579 430 440 364
Administration of Justice 6,104 5,702 5,259 4,893 4,290
Failure to comply with order 4,045 3,738 3,529 3,230 2,875
Other Administration of Justice** 2,059 1,964 1,730 1,663 1,415
Other Criminal Code 2,967 2,709 2,476 2,424 2,160
Weapons / Firearms 2,016 1,834 1,686 1,555 1,451
Prostitution 10 14 5 6 11
Disturbing the Peace 187 165 121 132 86
Residual Criminal Code 754 696 664 731 612
Criminal Code Traffic 1,118 963 855 828 646
Other Federal Statutes 9,605 9,437 9,757 8,781 7,715
Drug Possession 2,556 2,560 2,018 1,844 1,568
Drug Trafficking 1,279 1,220 857 718 662
Youth Criminal Justice Act*** 5,685 5,603 5,272 4,542 3,841
Residual Federal Statutes 85 54 1,610 1,677 1,644
Total 56,859 53,494 48,952 45,441 39,901

Source: Integrated Criminal Court Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Note:

*“Other Crimes Against the Person” includes the offences uttering threats and criminal harassment.

**“Other Administration of Justice” includes the offences failure to appear, failure to comply, and breach of recognizance.

***Youth Criminal Justice Act offences include failure to comply with a disposition or undertaking, contempt against youth court, assisting a youth to leave a place of custody and harbouring a youth unlawfully at large. Also included are similar offences under the Young Offenders Act, which preceded the Youth Criminal Justice Act.

The concept of a case has changed to more closely reflect court processing. Statistics from the Youth Court Survey used in this report should not be compared to editions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview prior to 2007. A case is one or more charges against an accused person or corporation, processed by the courts at the same time, and where all of the charges in the case received a final disposition. Where a case has more than one charge, it is necessary to select a charge to represent the case. An offence is selected by applying two rules. First, the “most serious decision” rule is applied. In cases where two or more offences have the same decision, the “most serious offence” rule is applied. All charges are ranked according to an offence seriousness scale.

The Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics continues to make updates to the offence library used to classify offence data sent by the provinces and territories. These improvements have resulted in minor changes in the counts of charges and cases as well as the distributions by type of offence. Data presented have been revised to account for these updates.

The most common sentence for youth is probation

Figure A10

The most common sentence for youth is probation - percentage of youth court sentences

Source: Integrated Criminal Court Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Note:

*“Other Sentence” includes absolute discharge, restitution, prohibition, seizure, forfeiture, compensation, pay purchaser, essays, apologies, counselling programs and conditional discharge, conditional sentence, intensive support and supervision, attendance at non-residential program(s) and reprimand. This category also includes deferred custody and supervision, intensive support and supervision, attendance at non-residential program(s) and reprimand where sentencing data under the Youth Criminal Justice Act (YCJA) are not available.

Unlike previous years, this data represents the most serious sentence and therefore, sanctions are mutually exclusive. However, each case may receive more than one sentence.

The concept of a case has changed to more closely reflect court processing. Statistics from the Youth Court Survey used in this report should not be compared to editions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview prior to 2007.

Table A10
Type of Sentence Gender Year
2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 2013-14
    % % % % %
Probation Female 50.0 47.5 47.4 48.7 49.2
  Male 50.0 47.5 48.4 47.6 48.4
  Total 50.3 48.2 48.7 47.7 48.5
             
Custody Female 12.5 12.6 11.5 11.1 10.8
  Male 16.2 17.2 17.0 16.4 16.2
  Total 14.8 15.5 15.2 14.9 14.9
             
Community Service Order Female 9.3 9.4 9.7 9.7 9.0
  Male 8.0 8.5 8.6 8.1 7.9
  Total 8.9 9.1 9.5 8.7 8.5
             
Fine Female 2.8 3.2 2.5 2.4 2.3
  Male 4.1 3.7 3.3 3.5 2.8
  Total 3.7 3.6 3.0 3.2 2.8
             
Deferred Custody and Supervision Female 4.0 4.3 5.1 3.9 4.1
  Male 4.6 4.7 4.5 4.7 4.6
  Total 4.3 4.4 4.3 4.4 4.5
             
Other Sentence* Female 21.4 23.0 23.8 24.2 24.6
  Male 17.0 18.4 18.2 19.7 20.0
  Total 18.0 19.2 19.2 21.0 20.9

Source: Integrated Criminal Court Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Note:

*“Other Sentence” includes absolute discharge, restitution, prohibition, seizure, forfeiture, compensation, pay purchaser, essays, apologies, counselling programs and conditional discharge, conditional sentence, intensive support and supervision, attendance at non-residential program(s) and reprimand. This category also includes deferred custody and supervision, intensive support and supervision, attendance at non-residential program(s) and reprimand where sentencing data under the Youth Criminal Justice Act (YCJA) are not available.

Unlike previous years, this data represents the most serious sentence and therefore, sanctions are mutually exclusive. However, each case may receive more than one sentence.

The concept of a case has changed to more closely reflect court processing. Statistics from the Youth Court Survey used in this report should not be compared to editions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview prior to 2007.

Section B: Corrections Administration

Expenditures on corrections increased in 2013-14

Figure B1

Expenditures on corrections increased in 2012-13

Source: Correctional Service Canada; Parole Board of Canada; Office of the Correctional Investigator; Statistics Canada Consumer Price Index.

Note:

Federal expenditures on corrections include spending by the Correctional Service Canada (CSC), the Parole Board of Canada (PBC), and the Office of the Correctional Investigator (OCI). The expenditures for the CSC include both operating and capital costs. CSC expenditures exclude CORCAN (a Special Operating Agency that conducts industrial operations within penitentiaries).

Constant dollars (2002) represent dollar amounts calculated on a one-year base that adjusts for inflation, thus allowing the yearly amounts to be directly comparable. Changes in the Consumer Price Index were used to calculate constant dollars.

Table B1
Year Current Dollars Constant 2002 Dollars
Operating
$’000
Capital Total Per capita
$
Operating
$’000
Capital Total Per capita
2009-10                
CSC 2,065,085 200,357 2,265,442 67.17 1,889,986 183,369 2,073,355 61.47
PBC 47,300 -- 47,300 1.40 42,289 -- 43,289 1.28
OCI 4,375 -- 4,375 0.13 4,004 -- 4,004 0.12
Total 2,116,760 200,357 2,317,117 68.70 1,937,279 183,369 2,120,648 62.88
                 
2010-11                
CSC 2,156,955 22,849 2,379,803 69.73 1,981,066 20,986 2,185,742 64.05
PBC 46,000 -- 46,000 1.35 42,249 -- 42,249 1.24
OCI 4,162 -- 4,162 0.12 3,823 -- 3,823 0.11
Total 2,207,117 22,849 2,429,965 71.20 2,027,138 20,986 2,231,813 65.40
                 
2011-12                
CSC 2,313,422 345,327 2,658,750 77.10 2,105,040 314,222 2,419,263 70.16
PBC 52,200 -- 52,200 1.51 47,498 -- 47,498 1.38
OCI 4,936 -- 4,936 0.14 4,491 -- 4,491 0.13
Total 2,370,558 345,327 2,715,886 78.76 2,157,030 314,222 2,471,252 71.66
                 
2012-13                
CSC 2,204,005 437,736 2,641,742 76.01 2,019,281 401,048 2,420,331 69.64
PBC 46,500 -- 46,500 1.34 42,603 -- 42,603 1.23
OCI 4,801 -- 4,801 0.14 4,399 -- 4,399 0.13
Total 2,255,306 437,736 2,693,043 77.49 2,066,283 401,048 2,467,332 70.99
                 
2013-14                
CSC 2,371,700 378,372 2,750,072 78.22 2,203,672 351,566 2,555,238 72.68
PBC 50,400 -- 50,400 1.43 46,829 -- 46,829 1.33
OCI 4,946 -- 4,946 0.14 4,596 -- 4,596 0.13
Total 2,427,046 378,372 2,805,418 79.79 2,255,097 351,566 2,606,663 74.14

Source: Correctional Service Canada; Parole Board of Canada; Office of the Correctional Investigator; Statistics Canada Consumer Price Index.

Note:

Due to rounding, constant dollar amounts may not add to “Total”.

Per capita cost is calculated by dividing the total expenditures by the total Canadian population and thus represents the cost per Canadian for federal correctional services.

Constant dollars represent dollar amounts calculated on a one-year base (2002) that adjusts for inflation allowing the yearly amounts to be directly comparable. Changes in the Consumer Price Index were used to calculate constant dollars.

CSC employees are concentrated in custody centres

Figure B2

CSC employees are concentrated in custody centres - results as of end of fiscal year 2013-14

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

*These parole officers are situated within institutions, with the responsibility of preparing offenders for release.

**The “Other” category represents job classifications such as trades and food services.

***CSC has changed its definition of employee. Previously, the total number of employees included casual employees, employees on leave without pay and suspended employees. These categories have been removed from the total as of 2005-06. These numbers represent Indeterminate and Term equal to, or more than 3 months substantive employment; and Employee Status of Active and Paid Leave as of end of fiscal year 2014-15.

Due to rounding, percentages may not add to 100 percent.

Table B2
Service Area March 31, 2006 March 31, 2015
  # %
Headquarters and Central Services 2,087 14.5 2,641 15.0
Administration 1,699 11.8 2,256 12.8
Health Care 111 0.8 95 0.5
Program Staff 120 0.8 71 0.4
Correctional Officers 28 0.2 29 0.2
Instructors/Supervisors 10 0.1 9 0.1
Parole Officers/Parole Supervisors     2 <0.1
Other* 119 0.8 179 1.0
         
Custody Centres 11,229 77.8 13,510 76.9
Correctional Officers 5,965 41.3 7,730 44.0
Administration 1,914 13.3 1,838 10.5
Health Care 779 5.4 882 5.0
Program Staff 534 3.7 888 5.1
Parole Officers/Parole Supervisors** 648 4.5 665 3.8
Instructors/Supervisors 387 2.7 369 2.1
Other* 1,002 6.9 1,138 6.5
         
Community Supervision 1,125 7.8 1,408 8.0
Parole Officers/Parole Supervisors 581 4.0 686 3.9
Administration 315 2.2 367 2.1
Program Staff 172 1.2 280 1.6
Health Care 34 0.2 74 0.4
Correctional Officers 22 0.2 0 0.0
Other* 1 <0.1 1 <0.1
Total*** 14,441 100.0 17,559 100.0

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

*These parole officers are situated within institutions, with the responsibility of preparing offenders for release.

**The "Other" category represents job classifications such as trades and food services.

***CSC has changed its definition of employee. Previously, the total number of employees included casual employees, employees on leave without pay and suspended employees. These categories have been removed from the total as of 2005-06. These numbers represent Indeterminate and Term equal to, or more than 3 months substantive employment; and Employee Status of Active and Paid Leave as of end of fiscal year 2014-15.

Due to rounding, percentages may not add to 100 percent.

The cost of keeping an inmate incarcerated

Figure B3

The cost of keeping an inmate incarcerated - Federal average daily inmate cost in current dollars

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

The average daily inmate cost includes those costs associated with the operation of the institutions, such as salaries and employee benefit plan contributions, but excludes capital expenditures and expenditures related to CORCAN (a Special Operating Agency that conducts industrial operations within penitentiaries). Total incarcerated and community includes additional NHQ & RHQ administrative costs which are not part of the Institutional and/or Community calculations.

Table B3
Categories Annual Average Costs per Offender (current $)
2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 2013-14
Incarcerated Offenders          
Maximum Security (men only) 150,808 147,418 151,484 148,330 156,768
Medium Security (men only) 98,219 99,519 104,889 99,207 101,583
Minimum Security (men only) 95,038 95,034 91,959 83,910 83,182
Women’s Facilities 211,093 214,614 211,618 210,695 219,884
Exchange of Services Agreements 89,800 90,712 97,545 104,828 108,388
Incarcerated Average 113,974 114,364 117,788 112,197 115,310
           
Offenders in the Community 29,537 31,148 35,101 33,799 34,432
           
Total Incarcerated and Community 93,916 96,412 100,622 95,504 99,923

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

The average daily inmate cost includes those costs associated with the operation of the institutions, such as salaries and employee benefit plan contributions, but excludes capital expenditures and expenditures related to CORCAN (a Special Operating Agency that conducts industrial operations within penitentiaries). Total incarcerated and community includes additional NHQ & RHQ administrative costs which are not part of the Institutional and/or Community calculations.

The number of Parole Board of Canada employees

Figure B4

The number of Parole Board of Canada employees - Full-time equivalents

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Table B4
  Full-Time Equivalents
2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 2013-14 2014-15
Strategic Outcome*          
Conditional Release Decisions 297 310 311 325 325
Conditional Release Openness and Accountability 57 60 56 53 54
Record Suspension and Clemency Recommendations 38 37 58 79 69
Internal Services 46 54 43 48 47
Total 438 461 468 505 495
           
Type of Employees          
Full-time Board Members 40 43 44 42 42
Part-time Board Members 21 21 20 20 18
Staff 377 397 404 443 435
Total 438 461 468 505 495

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Note:

*As of 2006-07, the Receiver General and Treasury Board Secretariat reporting requirements have been changed from Business Line to Strategic Outcome. Consequently, data regarding Conditional Release Openness and Accountability is unavailable prior to 2006-07.

The number of employees in the Office of the Correctional Investigator

Figure B5

The number of employees in the Office of the Correctional Investigator - Full-time equivalents

Source: Office of the Correctional Investigator.

Note:

*The Office of the Correctional Investigator (OCI) may commence an investigation on receipt of a complaint by or on behalf of an offender or on its own initiative. Complaints are made by telephone, letter and during interviews with the OCI's investigative staff at federal correctional facilities. The dispositions in response to complaints involve a combination of internal responses (where the information or assistance sought by the offender can generally be provided by the OCI's investigative staff) and investigations (where, further to a review/analysis of law, policies and documentation, OCI investigative staff make an inquiry or several interventions with Correctional Service Canada and submit recommendations to address the complaint). Investigations vary considerably in terms of scope, complexity, duration and resources required.

Table B5
  Full-Time Equivalents
2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 2013-14 2014-15
Type of Employees          
Correctional Investigator 1 1 1 1 1
Senior Management and Legal Counsel/Advisor 5 5 5 5 5
Investigative Services 20 21 25 25 25
Administrative Services 4 5 5 5 5
Total 30 32 36 36 36

Source: Office of the Correctional Investigator.

Health Care is the most common area of offender complaint received by the Office of the Correctional Investigator

Figure B6

Conditions of Confinement is the most common area of offender complaint received by the Office of the Correctional Investigator - Ten most common complaints in 2013-14

Source: Office of the Correctional Investigator.

Note:

*The Office of the Correctional Investigator (OCI) may commence an investigation on receipt of a complaint by or on behalf of an offender or on its own initiative. Complaints are made by telephone, letter and during interviews with the OCI's investigative staff at federal correctional facilities. The dispositions in response to complaints involve a combination of internal responses (where the information or assistance sought by the offender can generally be provided by the OCI's investigative staff) and investigations (where, further to a review/analysis of law, policies and documentation, OCI investigative staff make an inquiry or several interventions with Correctional Service Canada and submit recommendations to address the complaint). Investigations vary considerably in terms of scope, complexity, duration and resources required.

Table B6
Category of Complaint Number of Complaints*
2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 2013-14 2014-15
  # # # # #
Health Care (including Dental) 797 730 577 613 763
Conditions of Confinement 469 483 509 628 516
Institutional Transfers 369 408 376 403 459
Staff Performance 347 310 368 412 412
Administrative Segregation 346 428 424 363 375
Cell Property 407 386 399 327 356
Telephone 168 141 135 227 268
Visits (includes Private Family Visits) 205 253 213 225 235
Grievance Procedures 284 255 163 161 189
File Information 202 166 162 140 175
Financial Matters 78 108 109 138 172
Correspondence 115 127 84 85 144
Security Classification 135 92 115 98 139
Programs/Services 188 122 101 107 117
Decisions (General) - Implementation** 129 227 372 93 102
Safety/Security of Offender 90 87 54 56 77
Mental Health 112 54 74 50 74
Harassment 88 119 64 42 74
Other*** 1,087 1,061 943 957 1,296
Outside OCI’s Terms of Reference 187 232 235 309 309
Total 5,914 5,789 5,477 5,434 6,252

Source: Office of the Correctional Investigator.

Note:

*The Office of the Correctional Investigator (OCI) may commence an investigation on receipt of a complaint by or on behalf of an offender or on its own initiative. Complaints are made by telephone, letter and during interviews with the OCI's investigative staff at federal correctional facilities. The dispositions in response to complaints involve a combination of internal responses (where the information or assistance sought by the offender can generally be provided by the OCI's investigative staff) and investigations (where, further to a review/analysis of law, policies and documentation, OCI investigative staff make an inquiry or several interventions with Correctional Service Canada and submit recommendations to address the complaint). Investigations vary considerably in terms of scope, complexity, duration and resources required.

OCI has updated the categories of complaints to better reflect their corporate priorities and the changing nature of the complaints that they received in the 2010-11 fiscal year. As a result, some categories reported in previous years have been changed or removed.

  • **Previously, Decisions (General) - Implementation, Correspondence, and Mental Health were reported in "Other", therefore, numbers previous to 2010-11 are not reported.
  • ***“Other” refers to other types of complaints not specified in the table and includes: Cell Placement, Claims Against the Crown, Community Programs/Supervision, Conditional Release, Death or Serious Injury, Diets, Discipline, Discrimination, Double Bunking, Employment, Financial Matters, Food Services, Health and Safety - Inmate Worksites/Programs, Hunger Strike, Inmate Requests, Ion Scan/Drug Dog, Methadone, OCI, Official Languages, Operation/Decisions of the OCI, Release Procedures, Religious/ Spiritual, Safety/Security - Incompatibles/Worksite, Search and Seizure, Sentence Administration, Temporary Absence, Temporary Absence Decision, Uncategorized, Urinalysis and Use of Force. In 2010-11, Cell Placement, Conditional Release, Employment, Inmate Requests, OCI, Religious/Spiritual, Safety/Security - Incompatibles/ Worksite, and Temporary Absence were added to the “Other” category, and Correspondence, General Decision/Implementation, and Mental Health were removed.

The number of individual complaints processed by the OCI has decreased in recent years because the OCI has reallocated resources to sharpen its focus on systemic issues and death in custody investigations.

Section C: Offender Population

Offenders under the responsibility of Correctional Service of Canada

Figure C1

Offenders under the responsibility of Correctional Service of Canada - Total offender population

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Definitions:

Total Offender Population includes all active offenders, who are incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, offenders who are temporarily detained, offenders who are actively supervised and offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days.

In Custody includes all active offenders incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, and offenders who are temporarily detained in a CSC facility.

Temporarily Detained includes offenders who are physically held in a CSC facility or a non-CSC facility after being suspended for a breach of a parole condition or to prevent a breach of parole conditions.

Actively Supervised includes all active offenders on day parole, full parole or statutory release, as well as those who are in the community on long-term supervision orders.

CSC Facilities include all federal institutions and federally funded healing lodges.

In Community Under Supervision includes all active offenders on day parole, full parole, or statutory release, or in the community supervised on a long term supervision order, offenders who are temporarily detained in a non-CSC facility, and offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days.

In addition to that Total Offender Population, there are excluded groups such as:

Federal jurisdiction offenders incarcerated in a Community Correctional Centre or in a non-CSC facility. Federal jurisdiction offenders deported/extradited including offenders for whom a deportation order has been enforced by Citizenship and Immigration Canada. Federal offenders on bail which includes offenders on judicial interim release; they have appealed their conviction or sentence and have been released to await results of a new trial. Escaped includes offenders who have absconded from either a correctional facility or while on a temporary absence and whose whereabouts are unknown. Unlawfully at Large for 90 days or more. This includes offenders who have been released to the community on day parole, full parole, statutory release, or a long-term supervision order for whom a warrant of suspension has been issued at least 90 day but has not yet been executed.

Note:

*The definition of “Offender Population” changed in the 2014 edition of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview (CCRSO). As such, comparisons to editions of the CCRSO prior to 2014 should be done with caution.

Table C1
Status Offenders under the responsibility of Correctional Service Canada
  # # # % % %
In Custody Population (CSC Facility) 14,865         64.8
Incarcerated in CSC Facility   14,203     61.9  
Temporarily Detained in CSC Facility   662     2.9  
In Community under Supervision 8,070         35.2
Temporarily Detained in non-CSC Facility   130     0.6  
Actively Supervised   7,940     34.6  
Day Parole     1,326 5.8    
Full Parole     3,291 14.3    
Statutory Release     2,957 12.9    
Long Term Supervision Order     366 1.6    
Total 22,935*         100.0

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

*In addition to this total offender population, 138 offenders were on bail, 122 offenders had escaped, 180 offenders were under federal jurisdiction serving their sentence in a non-CSC facility, 327 offenders were unlawfully at large for 90 days or more, and 454 offenders were deported or on immigration hold.

The definition of "Offender Population" changed in the 2014 edition of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview (CCRSO). As such, comparisons to editions of the CCRSO prior to 2014 should be done with caution.

The number of offenders in custody in a CSC facility decreased in 2014-15

Figure C2

The number of offenders in custody in a CSC facility has increased in the last five years - results at fiscal year end 2013-14

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

*The data reflect the number of offenders in custody at the end of each fiscal year. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

The term "In custody Offenders" includes all active offenders incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, and offenders who are temporarily detained in a CSC facility.

**Source: Corrections Key Indicator Report for Adults and Youth, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada

Table C2
Year In Custody Offenders
In Custody in a CSC Facility*1 Provincial/Territorial2 Total
Sentenced Remand Other/Temporary Detention Total
2005-06 13,488 9,476 11,040 277 20,794 34,282
2006-07 13,960 10,032 12,169 283 22,484 36,444
2007-08 14,362 9,799 12,973 315 23,086 37,448
2008-09 13,950 9,931 13,548 311 23,790 37,740
2009-10 14,185 10,045 13,739 308 24,092 38,277
2010-11 14,824 10,922 13,086 427 24,435 39,259
2011-12 15,136 11,138 13,369 308 24,814 39,950
2012-13 15,313 11,138 13,739 308 25,185 40,498
2013-14 15,327 9,889 11,493 321 21,704 37,031
2013-14 14,865 -- -- -- -- --

Source: 1Correctional Service Canada.; 2Corrections Key Indicator Report for Adults and Youth, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada

Note:

*Data reflects the number of offenders in custody at the end of each fiscal year. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

The term "In Custody in a CSC Facility" includes all active offenders incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, and offenders who are temporarily detained in a CSC facility.

The figures for provincial and territorial offenders reflect annual average counts.

-- Data not available.

The number of admissions to federal jurisdiction has fluctuated

Figure C3

The number of admissions to federal jurisdiction has fluctuated

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

*“Other” includes transfers from other jurisdictions (exchange of services), terminations, transfers from foreign countries, and admissions where a release is interrupted as a consequence of a new conviction.

These numbers refer to the federal jurisdiction admissions during each fiscal year and may be greater than the actual number of offenders admitted, since an individual offender may be admitted more than once in a given year. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

Table C3
  2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 2013-14 2014-15
Women Men Women Men Women Men Women Men Women Men
Warrant of Committal                    
1st Federal Sentence 294 3,701 302 3,490 227 3,521 289 3,574 321 3,343
All Others 39 1,389 43 1,268 45 1,301 40 1,236 42 1,075
Subtotal 333 5,090 345 4,758 272 4,822 329 4,810 363 4,418
Total 5,423 5,103 5,094 5,139 4,781
                     
Revocations 153 2,630 135 2,546 140 2,829 121 2,717 136 2,455
Total 2,783 2,681 2,969 2,838 2,591
                     
Other* 8 125 17 116 15 127 6 122 7 79
Total 133 133 142 128 86
                     
  494 7,845 497 7,420 427 7,778 456 7,649 506 6,952
Total Admissions 8,339 7,917 8,205 8,105 7,458

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

*“Other” includes transfers from other jurisdictions (exchange of services), terminations, transfers from foreign countries, and admissions where a release is interrupted as a consequence of a new conviction.

These numbers refer to the federal jurisdiction admissions during each fiscal year and may be greater than the actual number of offenders admitted, since an individual offender may be admitted more than once in a given year. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

The number of women admitted from the courts to federal Jurisdiction increased in 2014-15

Figure C4

The number of women admitted from the courts to federal Jurisdiction increased in 2014-15 - Number of warrant of committal admissions for women

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

A warrant of committal is a new admission to federal jurisdiction from the courts.

Table C4
Year Warrant of Committal Admissions Total
  Women   Men
  # % # %  
2005-06 274 5.7 4,510 94.3 4,784
2006-07 318 6.2 4,791 93.8 5,109
2007-08 309 6.2 4,693 93.8 5,002
2008-09 315 6.5 4,513 93.5 4,828
2009-10 312 6.0 4,905 94.0 5,217
2010-11 333 6.1 5,090 93.9 5,423
2011-12 345 6.8 4,758 93.2 5,103
2012-13 272 5.3 4,822 94.7 5,094
2013-14 329 6.4 4,810 93.6 5,139
2014-15 363 7.6 4,418 92.4 4,781

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

A warrant of committal is a new admission to federal jurisdiction from the courts.

Over half of the total offender population in CSC facilities is serving a sentence of less than 5 years

Figure C5

Over half of total offender population in CSC facilities are serving a sentence of less than 5 years - sentence length of total offender population

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

Total Offender Population includes all active offenders who are incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, offenders who are temporarily detained, offenders who are actively supervised, and offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days.

Offenders serving a sentence less than 2 years includes offenders transferred from foreign countries or offenders under a long term supervision order who received a new sentence of less than 2 years.

Table C5
Sentence Length 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 2013-14 2014-15
  # % # % # % # % # %
< than 2 years 277 1.2 262 1.1 280 1.2 294 1.3 297 1.3
2 years to < 3 years 5,927 26.2 5,785 25.3 5,467 23.8 5,298 22.9 5,223 22.8
3 years to < 4 years 3,519 15.5 3,626 15.8 3,729 16.2 3,767 16.3 3,629 15.8
4 years to < 5 years 2,202 9.7 2,290 10.0 2,363 10.3 2,447 10.6 2,418 10.5
5 years to < 6 years 1,516 6.7 1,577 6.9 1,598 7.0 1,635 7.1 1,671 7.3
6 years to < 7 years 996 4.4 999 4.4 1,083 4.7 1,099 4.7 1,102 4.8
7 years to < 10 years 1,580 7.0 1,656 7.2 1,722 7.5 1,790 7.7 1,782 7.8
10 years to < 15 years 988 4.4 978 4.3 961 4.2 955 4.1 931 4.1
15 years and more 674 3.0 630 2.8 608 2.6 611 2.6 561 2.4
Indeterminate 4,984 22.0 5,098 22.3 5,167 22.5 5,258 22.7 5,321 23.2
Total 22,663 100 22,901 100 22,978 100 23,154 100 22,935 100

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

Total Offender Population includes all active offenders who are incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, offenders who are temporarily detained, offenders who are actively supervised, and offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days.

Offenders serving a sentence less than 2 years includes offenders transferred from foreign countries or offenders under a long term supervision order who received a new sentence of less than 2 years.

Offender age at admission to federal jurisdiction is increasing

Figure C6

Offender age at admission to federal jurisdiction is increasing - percentage of warrant of committal admissions

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

*These six offenders include 5 offenders admitted to a youth correctional centre and one offender who was admitted to federal jurisdiction by the courts. A warrant of committal is a new admission to federal jurisdiction from the courts.

Due to rounding, percentages may not add to 100 percent.

Table C6
Age at Admission 2005-06 2014-15
Women Men Total Women Men Total
  # % # % # % # % # % # %
Under 18 0 0.0 6* 0.1 6 0.1 0 0.0 1** 0.0 1 0.0
18 and 19 3 1.1 178 3.9 181 3.8 9 2.5 98 2.2 107 2.2
20 to 24 51 18.6 885 19.6 936 19.6 56 15.4 787 17.8 843 17.6
25 to 29 68 24.8 835 18.5 903 18.9 89 24.5 824 18.7 913 19.1
30 to 34 41 15.0 689 15.3 730 15.3 64 17.6 703 15.9 767 16.0
35 to 39 48 17.5 664 14.7 712 14.9 36 9.9 534 12.1 570 11.9
40 to 44 35 12.8 539 12.0 574 12.0 34 9.4 430 9.7 464 9.7
45 to 49 16 5.8 335 7.4 351 7.3 30 8.3 354 8.0 384 8.0
50 to 59 10 3.6 285 6.3 295 6.2 37 10.2 468 10.6 505 10.6
60 to 69 2 0.7 81 1.8 83 1.7 7 1.9 160 3.6 167 3.5
70 and over 0 0.0 13 0.3 13 0.3 1 0.3 59 1.3 60 1.3
Total 274   4,510   4,784   363   4,418   4,781  

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

*These six offenders include 5 offenders admitted to a youth correctional centre and one offender who was admitted to federal jurisdiction by the courts.

**This offender was admitted to a youth correctional centre.

A warrant of committal is a new admission to federal jurisdiction from the courts.

Due to rounding, percentages may not add to 100 percent.

The average age at admission is lower for Aboriginal offenders than for non-Aboriginal offenders

Figure C7

The average age at admission is lower for Aboriginal offenders than for non-Aboriginal offenders - percentage of warrant of committal admissions

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

A warrant of committal is a new admission to federal jurisdiction from the courts.

Due to rounding, percentages may not add to 100 percent.

Table C7
Age at Admission 2005-06 2014-15
Aboriginal Non-Aboriginal Total Aboriginal Non-Aboriginal Total
  # % # % # % # % # % # %
Under 18 2 0.2 4 0.1 6 0.1 1 0.1 0 0.0 1 0.0
18 and 19 55 5.8 126 3.3 181 3.8 37 3.5 70 1.9 107 2.2
20 to 24 225 23.8 711 18.5 936 19.6 241 23.0 602 16.1 843 17.6
25 to 29 209 22.1 694 18.1 903 18.9 241 23.0 672 18.0 913 19.1
30 to 34 142 15.0 588 15.3 730 15.3 175 16.7 592 15.9 767 16.0
35 to 39 125 13.2 587 15.3 712 14.9 96 9.2 474 12.7 570 11.9
40 to 44 95 10.0 479 12.5 574 12.0 99 9.4 365 9.8 464 9.7
45 to 49 50 5.3 301 7.8 351 7.3 74 7.1 310 8.3 384 8.0
50 to 59 38 4.0 257 6.7 295 6.2 68 6.5 437 11.7 505 10.6
60 to 69 6 0.6 77 2.0 83 1.7 14 1.3 153 4.1 167 3.5
70 and over 0 0.0 13 0.3 13 0.3 3 0.3 57 1.5 60 1.3
Total 947   3,837   4,784   1,049   3,732   4,781  

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

A warrant of committal is a new admission to federal jurisdiction from the courts.

Due to rounding, percentages may not add to 100 percent.

24% of the in-custody offender population is aged 50 or over

Figure C8

23% of the in custody offender population is aged 50 or over - percentage of In Custody offender population

Source: Correctional Service Canada; Statistics Canada.

Note:

*In-custody Population includes all active offenders incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, and offenders who are temporarily detained in a CSC facility.

**2014 Postcensal Estimates, Demography Division, Statistics Canada and include only those age 18 and older.

In community under supervision includes all active offenders on day parole, full parole, statutory release, or in the community supervised on a long term supervision order, offenders who are temporarily detained in a non-CSC facility, and offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days.

Due to rounding, percentages may not add to 100 percent.

Table C8
Age In-Custody In Community Under Supervision Total % of Canadian Adult Population*
  # % # % # % %
Under 18 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0.0
18 and 19 70 0.5 1 0.0 71 0.3 3.2
20 to 24 1,595 10.7 501 6.2 2,096 9.1 8.6
25 to 29 2,392 16.1 979 12.1 3,371 14.7 8.5
30 to 34 2,251 15.1 1,072 13.3 3,323 14.5 8.7
35 to 39 1,863 12.5 874 10.8 2,737 11.9 8.3
40 to 44 1,623 10.9 840 10.4 2,463 10.7 8.2
45 to 49 1,577 10.6 848 10.5 2,425 10.6 8.7
50 to 54 1,380 9.3 874 10.8 2,254 9.8 9.7
55 to 59 906 6.1 702 8.7 1,608 7.0 8.9
60 to 64 569 3.8 535 6.6 1,104 4.8 7.6
65 to 69 361 2.4 405 5.0 766 3.3 64
70 and over 278 1.9 439 5.4 717 3.1 13.1
Total 14,865 100.0 8,070 100.0 22,935 100.0 100.0

Source: Correctional Service Canada; Statistics Canada.

Note:

*2014 Postcensal Estimates, Demography Division, Statistics Canada and include only those age 18 and older.

In-custody population includes all active offenders incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, and offenders who are temporarily detained in a CSC facility.

In community under supervision includes all active offenders on day parole, full parole, statutory release, or in the community supervised on a long term supervision order, offenders who are temporarily detained in a non-CSC facility, and offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days.

Due to rounding, percentage may not add to 100 percent.

60% of offenders are Caucasian

Figure C9

61% of federal offenders are Caucasian - percentage of total offender population

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

The offenders themselves identify to which race they belong. The list of categories may not fully account for all races and the race groupings information has changed; therefore, the comparisons between 2010-11 and 2014-15 should be done with caution.

“Aboriginal” includes offenders who are Inuit, Innu, Métis and North American Indian.

"Asian" includes offenders who are Arab, Arab/West Asian, Asian-East and Southeast, Asian-South, Asian West, Asiatic, Chinese, East Indian, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, South Asian, South East Asian.

“Hispanic” includes offenders who are Hispanic and Latin American.

“Black” includes offenders who are black.

“Other/Unknown” includes offenders who are European French, European-Eastern, European-Northern, European-Southern, European-Western, Multiracial/Ethnic, Oceania, British Isles, Caribbean, Sub-Sahara African, offenders unable to identify to one race, other and unknown.

The data reflects the total offender population, which includes all active offenders who are incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, and offenders who are temporarily detained, offenders who are actively supervised, and offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days.

The data reflect the number of offenders active at the end of each fiscal year. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

Due to rounding, percentages may not add to 100 percent.

Table C9
  Total Offender Population
  2010-11 2014-15
  # % # %
Aboriginal 4,285 18.9 5,016 21.9
Inuit 198 0.9 238 1.0
Métis 1,093 4.8 1,381 6.0
North American Indian 2,994 13.2 3,397 14.8
Asian 1,121 4.9 1,305 5.7
Arab/West Asian 268 1.2 344 1.5
Asiatic* 52 0.2 269 1.2
Chinese 134 0.6 131 0.6
East Indian 21 0.1 13 0.1
Filipino 64 0.3 71 0.3
Japanese 1 0.0 5 0.0
Korean 20 0.1 21 0.1
South East Asian 365 1.6 272 1.2
South Asian 196 0.9 179 0.8
Black 1,818 8.0 1,887 8.2
Caucasian 14,597 64.4 13,859 60.4
Hispanic 209 0.9 249 1.1
Hispanic 10 0.0 6 0.0
Latin American 199 0.9 243 1.1
Other/Unknown 633 2.8 619 2.7
Total 22,663 100.0 22,935 100.0

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

*Due to changes in categorization of races, 2013-14 “Asiatic” category includes Asian-East and Southeast/Asian South/Asian West/Asiatic.

The offenders themselves identify to which race they belong. The list of categories may not fully account for all races and the race groupings information has changed; therefore, the comparisons between 2010-11 and 2014-15 should be done with caution.

“Aboriginal” includes offenders who are Inuit, Innu, Métis and North American Indian.

"Asian" includes offenders who are Arab, Arab/West Asian, Asian-East and Southeast, Asian-South, Asian West, Asiatic, Chinese, East Indian, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, South Asian, South East Asian.n.

“Hispanic” includes offenders who are Hispanic and Latin American.

“Black” includes offenders who are black.

"Other/Unknown" includes offenders who are European French, European-Eastern, European-Northern, European-Southern, European-Western, Multiracial/Ethnic, Oceania, British Isles, Caribbean, Sub-Sahara African, offenders unable to identify to one race, other and unknown.

The data reflects the total offender population, which includes all active offenders who are incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, and offenders who are temporarily detained, offenders who are actively supervised, and offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days.

The data reflect the number of offenders active at the end of each fiscal year. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

Due to rounding, percentages may not add to 100 percent.

The religious identification of the offender population is diverse

Figure C10

The religious identification of the offender population is diverse - percentage of total offender population

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

Religious identification is self-declared by offenders while they are incarcerated, and the categories are not comprehensive; therefore, the reader should interpret these data with caution.

Catholic includes offenders who are Catholic, Roman-Catholic, Greek-Catholic, Native-Catholic and Ukrainian-Catholic.

Orthodox includes offenders who are Greek Orthodox, Russian Orthodox and Ukrainian Orthodox.

Protestant includes offenders who are Anglican, Baptist, Christian Missionary, Christian Reform, Hutterite, Lutheran, Mennonite, Moravian, Native Spirit, Nazarene Christ, Pentecostal, Philad. Church God, Presbyterian, Protestant, Salvation Army, Seventh Day Adventist, United Church, Christ Methodist, Christ Wesleyan and Worldwide Church.

Buddhist includes offenders who are Buddhist, Mahayana Buddhist and Theravadan Buddhist.

Other includes other declared identifications such as Agnostic, Asatruar Pagan, Atheist, Baha'i, Christian non spec., Christian Science, Church of Science, Church of Christ Scientist, Druidry Pagan, Hindu, Independant Spirit, Jehovah's Witness, Krishna, Mormon, Pagan, Quaker (Society of Friends), Rastafarian, Scientology, Sufiism, Taoism, Unitarian, Wicca and Zoroastrian.

The data reflect the total offender population which includes all active offenders who are incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on a temporary absence from a CSC facility, offenders who are temporarily detained, offenders who are actively supervised, and offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days.

The data reflect the number of offenders active at the end of each fiscal year. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

Due to rounding, percentages may not add to 100 percent.

Table C10
  Total Offender Population
    2010-11   2014-15
  # % # %
Catholic 8,446 37.3 8,241 35.9
Protestant 4,403 19.4 2,889 12.6
Muslim 990 4.4 1,236 5.4
Native Spirituality 921 4.1 1,157 5.0
Buddhist 456 2.0 475 2.1
Jewish 157 0.7 171 0.7
Orthodox 105 0.5 80 0.3
Sikh 139 0.6 154 0.7
Other 1,499 6.6 2,811 12.3
None 3,719 16.4 3,496 15.2
Unknown 1,828 8.1 2,225 9.7
Total 22,663 100.0 22,935 100.0

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

Religious identification is self-declared by offenders while they are incarcerated, and the categories are not comprehensive; therefore, the reader should interpret these data with caution.

Catholic includes offenders who are Catholic, Roman-Catholic, Greek-Catholic, Native-Catholic and Ukrainian-Catholic.

Orthodox includes offenders who are Greek Orthodox, Russian Orthodox and Ukrainian Orthodox.

Protestant includes offenders who are Anglican, Baptist, Christian Missionary, Christian Reform, Hutterite, Lutheran, Mennonite, Moravian, Native Spirit, Nazarene Christ, Pentecostal, Philad. Church God, Presbyterian, Protestant, Salvation Army, Seventh Day Adventist, United Church, Christ Methodist, Christ Wesleyan and Worldwide Church.

Buddhist includes offenders who are Buddhist, Mahayana Buddhist and Theravadan Buddhist.

Other includes other declared identifications such as Agnostic, Asatruar Pagan, Atheist, Baha'i, Christian non spec., Christian Science, Church of Science, Church of Christ Scientist, Druidry Pagan, Hindu, Independant Spirit, Jehovah's Witness, Krishna, Mormon, Pagan, Quaker (Society of Friends), Rastafarian, Scientology, Sufiism, Taoism, Unitarian, Wicca and Zoroastrian.

The data reflect the total offender population which includes all active offenders who are incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on a temporary absence from a CSC facility, offenders who are temporarily detained, offenders who are actively supervised, and offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days.

The data reflect the number of offenders active at the end of each fiscal year. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

Due to rounding, percentages may not add to 100 percent.

The proportion of Aboriginal offenders in custody is higher than for non-Aboriginal offenders

Figure C11

The proportion of Aboriginal offenders in custody is higher than for non-Aboriginal offenders - percentage of In Custody offender population

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

Offender Population includes all active offenders, who are incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, offenders who are temporarily detained, offenders who are actively supervised, and offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days.

In Custody includes all active offenders incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility,and offenders who are temporarily detained in a CSC facility.

In Community Under Supervision includes all active offenders on day parole, full parole, statutory release, or in the communi ty supervised on a long term supervision order, offenders who are temporarily detained in a non-CSC facility, and offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days.

The data reflect the number of offenders active at the end of each fiscal year. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

Table C11
    In Custody Population In Community Under
Supervision
Total
    # % # %  
Men            
2011-12 Aboriginal 3,163 75.9 1,006 24.1 4,169
  Non-Aboriginal 11,344 64.5 6,247 35.5 17,591
  Total 14,507 66.7 7,253 33.3 21,760
2012-13 Aboriginal 3,361 74.8 1,135 25.2 4,496
  Non-Aboriginal 11,336 65.2 6,046 34.8 17,382
  Total 14,697 67.2 7,181 32.8 21,878
2013-14 Aboriginal 3,324 73.5 1,200 26.5 4,524
  Non-Aboriginal 11,372 65.0 6,135 35.0 17,507
  Total 14,696 66.7 7,335 33.3 22,031
2014-15 Aboriginal 3,420 73.4 1,241 26.6 4,661
  Non-Aboriginal 10,769 63.0 6,317 37.0 17,086
  Total 14,189 65.2 7,558 34.8 21,747
             
Women            
2011-12 Aboriginal 216 67.7 103 32.3 319
  Non-Aboriginal 413 50.2 409 49.8 822
  Total 629 55.1 512 44.9 1,141
2012-13 Aboriginal 205 66.3 104 33.7 309
  Non-Aboriginal 411 52.0 380 48.0 791
  Total 616 56.0 484 44.0 1,100
2013-14 Aboriginal 218 64.9 118 35.1 336
  Non-Aboriginal 413 52.5 374 47.5 787
  Total 631 56.2 492 43.8 1,123
2014-15 Aboriginal 240 67.6 115 32.4 355
  Non-Aboriginal 436 52.3 397 47.7 833
  Total 676 56.9 512 43.1 1,188

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

Total Offender Population includes all active offenders who are incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on a temporary absence from a CSC facility, offenders who are temporarily detained, offenders who are actively supervised, and offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days.

In Custody includes all active offenders incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, and offenders who are temporarily detained in a CSC facility.

In Community Under Supervision includes all active offenders on day parole, full parole, statutory release, or in the community supervised on a long term supervision order, offenders who are temporarily detained in a non-CSC facility, and offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days.

The data reflect the number of offenders active at the end of each fiscal year. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

The majority of in-custody offenders are classified as medium security risk

Figure C12

The majority of in-custody offenders are classified as medium security risk - percentage of classified In Custody offenders

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

The data represent the offender security level decision as of end of fiscal year 2014-15.

In Custody includes all active offenders incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, and offenders who are temporarily detained in a CSC facility.

Table C12
Security Risk Level Aboriginal Non-Aboriginal Total
  # % # % # %
Minimum 590 17.0 2,410 23.2 3,000 21.7
Medium 2,270 65.3 6,449 62.1 8,719 62.9
Maximum 616 17.7 1,520 14.6 2,136 15.4
Total 3,476 100.0 10,379 100.0 13,855 100.0
             
Not Yet Determined* 184   826   1,010  
             
Total 3,660   11,205   14,865  

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

*The “Not Yet Determined” category includes offenders who have not yet been classified.

The data represent the offender security level decision, as of end of fiscal year 2014-15.

In Custody includes all active offenders incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, and offenders who are temporarily detained in a CSC facility.

Admissions with a life or indeterminate sentence decreased in 2014-15

Figure C13

Admissions with a life or indeterminate sentence were stable in 2014-15 - number of warrant of committal admissions

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

*Although life sentences and indeterminate sentences both may result in imprisonment for life, they are different. A life sentence is a sentence of life imprisonment, imposed by a judge at the time of sentence, for example, for murder. An indeterminate sentence is a result of a designation, where an application is made to the court to declare an offender a Dangerous Offender, and the consequence of this designation is imprisonment for an indeterminate period. This table combines offenders serving life sentences and offenders serving indeterminate sentences.

A warrant of committal is a new admission to federal jurisdiction from the courts.

This table combines offenders serving life sentences and offenders serving indeterminate sentences.

Table C13
Year Aboriginal Offenders Non-Aboriginal Offenders Total
Women Men Total Women Men Total Women Men Total
2005-06 4 41 45 9 122 131 13 163 176
2006-07 4 34 38 10 120 130 14 154 168
2007-08 4 35 39 4 133 137 8 168 176
2008-09 4 35 39 2 130 132 6 165 171
2009-10 7 44 51 6 136 142 13 180 193
2010-11 3 34 37 6 132 138 9 166 175
2011-12 8 43 51 9 116 125 17 159 176
2012-13 6 46 52 1 120 121 7 166 173
2013-14 7 37 44 7 123 130 14 160 174
2014-15 1 38 39 8 116 124 9 154 163

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

This table combines offenders serving life sentences and offenders serving indeterminate sentences.

Although life sentences and indeterminate sentences both may result in imprisonment for life, they are different. A life sentence is a sentence of life imprisonment, imposed by a judge at the time of sentence, for example, for murder. An indeterminate sentence is a result of a designation, where an application is made to the court to declare an offender a Dangerous Offender, and the consequence of this designation is imprisonment for an indeterminate period. A warrant of committal is a new admission to federal jurisdiction from the courts.

Offenders with Life or Indeterminate sentences represent 23% of the total offender population

Figure C14

Offenders with Life or Indeterminate sentences represent 23% of the total offender population - sentence imposed for the total offender population

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

*Although life sentences and indeterminate sentences may both result in imprisonment for life, they are different. A life sentence is a sentence of life imprisonment, imposed by a judge at the time of sentence, for example, for murder. An indeterminate sentence is a result of a designation, where an application is made to the court to declare an offender a Dangerous Offender, and the consequence of this designation is imprisonment for an indeterminate period. The Dangerous Sexual Offender and Habitual Offender designations were replaced with Dangerous Offender Legislation in 1977.

The data reflect the total offender population which includes all active offenders, who are incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, offenders who are temporarily detained, offenders who are actively supervised, and offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days.

In-Custody includes all active offenders incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, and offenders who are temporarily detained in a CSC facility. In Community Under Supervision includes all active offenders on day parole, full parole, statutory release, or in the community supervised on a long term supervision order, offenders who are temporarily detained in a non-CSC facility, and offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days.

Table C14
  Total Offender
Population
Current Status
In Custody
in a CSC Facility
In Community Under Supervision
Incarcerated Day Parole Full Parole Other***
  # %        
Offenders with a life sentence for:            
1st Degree Murder 1,139 5.0 935 43 161 0
2nd Degree Murder 3,400 14.8 1,947 203 1,250 0
Other Offences* 206 0.9 129 8 69 0
Total 4,745 20.7 3,011 254 1,480 0
             
Offenders with indeterminate sentences resulting from the special designation of:
Dangerous Offender 532 2.3 511 12 9 0
Dangerous Sexual Offender 20 0.1 12 0 8 0
Habitual Offenders 3 0.0 0 0 3 0
Total 555 2.4 523 12 20 0
             
Offenders serving an indeterminate sentence (due to a special designation) and a life sentence (due to an offence):
  21 0.1 19 0 2 0
Total offenders with Life and/or Indeterminate sentence 5,321 23.2 3,553 266 1,502 0
Offenders Serving Determinate sentences** 17,614 76.8 11,321 1,083 1,799 3,420
Total 22,935 100.0 14,865 1,349 3,301 3,420

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

*“Other offences” include Schedule 1, Schedule 2 and Non-Schedule types of offences.

**This includes 70 offenders designated as Dangerous Offenders who are serving determinate sentences.

***“Other” in the Community Under Supervision includes offenders on statutory release or on a long term supervision order.

Among the 21 offenders serving an indeterminate sentence (due to a special designation) and a life sentence (due to an offence), there was one Habitual Offender.

Although life sentences and indeterminate sentences both may result in imprisonment for life, they are different. A life sentence is a sentence of life imprisonment, imposed by a judge at the time of sentence, for example for murder. An indeterminate sentence is a result of a designation, where an application is made to the court to declare an offender a Dangerous Offender, and the consequence of this designation is imprisonment for an indeterminate period. The Dangerous Sexual Offender and Habitual Offender designations were replaced with Dangerous Offender legislation in 1977.

The data reflect the total offender population which includes all active offenders, who are incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, offenders who are temporarily detained, offenders who are actively supervised, and offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days. In-Custody includes all active offenders incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, and offenders who are temporarily detained in a CSC facility. In Community Under Supervision includes all act ive offenders on day parole, full parole, statutory release, or in the community supervised on a long term supervision order, offenders who are temporarily detained in a non-CSC facility, and offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days.

69% of offenders are serving a sentence for a violent offence*

Figure C15

69% of offenders are serving a sentence for a violent offence* - percentage of total offender population 2013-14

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

*Violent offences include Murder I, Murder II and Schedule I offences.

Schedule I is comprised of sexual offences and other violent crimes excluding first and second degree murder (see the Corrections and Conditional Release Act).

Schedule II is comprised of serious drug offences or conspiracy to commit serious drug offences (see the Corrections and Conditional Release Act).

In cases where the offender is serving a sentence for more than one offence, the data reflect the most serious offence.

The data reflect the total offender population which includes all active offenders, who are incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, offenders who are temporarily detained, offenders who are actively supervised, and offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days.

Table C15
Offence Category Aboriginal Non-Aboriginal Total
Women Men Total Women Men Total Women Men Total
Murder I 10 205 215 34 908 942 44 1,113 1,157
Percent 2.8 4.4 4.3 41 5.3 5.3 3.7 5.1 5.0
                   
Murder II 54 637 691 108 2,616 2,724 162 3,253 3,415
Percent 15.2 13.7 13.8 13.0 15.3 15.2 13.6 15.0 14.9
                   
Schedule I 197 2,840 3,037 251 7,920 8,171 448 10,760 11,208
Percent 55.5 60.9 60.5 30.1 46.4 45.6 37.7 49.5 48.9
                   
Schedule II 53 413 466 267 3,210 3,477 320 3,623 3,943
Percent 14.9 8.9 9.3 32.1 18.8 19.4 26.9 16.7 17.2
                   
Non-Schedule 41 566 607 173 2,432 2,605 214 2,998 3,212
Percent 11.5 12.1 12.1 20.8 14.2 14.5 18.0 13.8 14.0
  355 4,661   833 17,086   1,188 21,747  
Total 5,016   17,919   22,935  

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

*Violent offences include Murder I, Murder II and Schedule I offences.

Schedule I is comprised of sexual offences and other violent crimes excluding first and second degree murder (see the Corrections and Conditional Release Act).

Schedule II is comprised of serious drug offences or conspiracy to commit serious drug offences (see the Corrections and Conditional Release Act).

In cases where the offender is serving a sentence for more than one offence, the data reflect the most serious offence.

The data reflect the total offender population, which includes all active offenders who are incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, offenders who are temporarily detained, offenders who are actively supervised, and offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days.

The number of Aboriginal offenders has increased

Figure C16

The number of Aboriginal offenders has increased - Aboriginal offender population

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

In-Custody Population includes all active offenders incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, and offenders who are temporarily detained in a CSC facility.

In Community Under Supervision Population includes all active offenders on day parole, full parole, statutory release, or in the community supervised on a long term supervision order, offenders who are temporarily detained in a non-CSC facility, and offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days.

Regional statistics for Correctional Service Canada account for data relating to the northern territories in the following manner: data for Nunavut are reported in the Ontario Region, data for the Northwest Territories are reported in the Prairies Region, and data for the Yukon Territories are reported in the Pacific Region.

Table C16
Aboriginal Offenders   Fiscal Year
2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 2013-14 2014-15
In Custody            
Atlantic Region Men 117 131 153 181 174
  Women 10 17 15 14 11
Quebec Region Men 329 375 382 419 441
  Women 11 12 13 17 21
Ontario Region Men 439 488 494 440 441
  Women 41 37 35 36 33
Prairie Region Men 1,633 1,665 1,778 1,682 1,759
  Women 104 118 109 113 138
Pacific Region Men 480 504 554 602 605
  Women 30 32 33 38 37
National Total Men 2,998 3,163 3,361 3,324 3,420
  Women 196 216 205 218 240
  Total 3,194 3,379 3,566 3,542 3,660
             
In Community Under Supervision            
Atlantic Region Men 44 32 42 50 60
  Women 9 8 12 11 12
Quebec Region Men 87 116 121 134 158
  Women 5 2 2 7 12
Ontario Region Men 154 138 157 181 180
  Women 20 24 20 20 21
Prairie Region Men 501 492 582 584 574
  Women 50 52 55 63 53
Pacific Region Men 207 228 233 251 269
  Women 14 17 15 17 17
National Total Men 993 1,006 1,135 1,200 1,241
  Women 98 103 104 118 115
  Total 1,091 1,109 1,239 1,318 1,356
             
Total In Custody & In Community Under Supervision 4,285 4,488 4,805 4,860 5,016

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

In Custody includes all active offenders incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, and offenders who are temporarily detained in a CSC facility.

In Community Under Supervision includes all active offenders on day parole, full parole, statutory release, or in the community supervised on a long term supervision order, offenders who are temporarily detained in a non-CSC facility, and offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days.

Regional statistics for the Correctional Service of Canada account for data relating to the northern territories in the following manner: data for Nunavut are reported in the Ontario Region, data for the Northwest Territories are reported in the Prairies region, and data for the Yukon Territories are reported in the Pacific Region.

The total number of admissions to administrative segregation has fluctuated

Figure C17

The total number of admissions to administrative segregation has fluctuated - number of admissions to administrative segregation

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

These reports count admissions, not offenders. Offenders admitted multiple times to segregation are counted once for each admission. Offenders segregated under paragraph (f), subsection 44(1) of the Corrections and Conditional Release Act (Disciplinary Segregation) are not included.

Administrative segregation is the involuntary or voluntary separation, when specific legal requirements are met, of an inmate from the general population, other than pursuant to a disciplinary decision.

Voluntary administrative segregation is when the inmate requests placement in administrative segregation, and the Institutional Head believes, on reasonable grounds, that the continued presence of the inmate in the general population would jeopardize the inmate's own safety and that there is no reasonable alternative to placement in administrative segregation.

Involuntary administrative segregation is when the placement meets the requirements of subsection 31(3) of the Corrections and Conditional Release Act and the placement in administrative segregation is not voluntary.

Table C17
Year and Type of Administrative Segregation By Gender By Race
Women Men Total Aboriginal Non-Aboriginal Total
2010-11            
Involuntary 384 6,293 6,677 1,846 4,831 6,677
Voluntary 12 1,402 1,414 457 957 1,414
Total 396 7,695 8,091 2,303 5,788 8,091
             
2011-12            
Involuntary 393 6,548 6,941 1,844 5,097 6,941
Voluntary 24 1,358 1,382 443 939 1,382
Total 417 7,906 8,323 2,287 6,036 8,323
             
2012-13            
Involuntary 390 6,322 6,712 1,957 4,755 6,712
Voluntary 26 1,483 1,509 522 987 1,509
Total 416 7,805 8,221 2,479 5,742 8,221
             
2013-14            
Involuntary 331 6,248 6,579 1,891 4,688 6,579
Voluntary 16 1,542 1,558 552 1,006 1,558
Total 347 7,790 8,137 2,443 5,694 8,137
             
2014-15            
Involuntary 442 6,284 6,726 1,962 4,764 6,726
Voluntary 19 1,574 1,593 573 1,020 1,593
Total 461 7,858 8,319 1,535 5,784 8,319

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

These reports count admissions, not offenders. Offenders admitted multiple times to segregation are counted once for each admission. Offenders segregated under paragraph (f), subsection 44(1) of the Corrections and Conditional Release Act (Disciplinary Segregation) are not included.

Administrative segregation is the involuntary or voluntary separation, when specific legal requirements are met, of an inmate from the general population, other than pursuant to a disciplinary decision.

Voluntary administrative segregation is when the inmate requests placement in administrative segregation, and the Institutional Head believes, on reasonable grounds, that the continued presence of the inmate in the general population would jeopardize the inmate's own safety and that there is no reasonable alternative to placement in administrative segregation.

Involuntary administrative segregation is when the placement meets the requirements of subsection 31(3) of the Corrections and Conditional Release Act and the placement in administrative segregation is not voluntary.

67% of admissions to administrative segregation stay for less than 30 days

Figure C18

67% of admissions to administrative segregation stay for less than 30 days - length of stay in administrative segregation

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

These reports count admissions, not offenders. Offenders admitted multiple times to segregation are counted once for each admission. Offenders segregated under paragraph (f), subsection 44(1) of the Corrections and Conditional Release Act (Disciplinary Segregation) are not included.

Administrative segregation is the involuntary or voluntary separation, when specific legal requirements are met, of an inmate from the general population, other than pursuant to a disciplinary decision.

Table C18
Length of Stay in Administrative Segregation By Gender By Race  
Women Men Aboriginal Non-Aboriginal Total
  # % # % # % # % # %
2014-15                    
< 30 days 446 97.0 5,221 65.6 1,706 65.9 3,961 68.0 5,667 67.3
30-60 days 12 2.6 1,419 17.8 430 16.6 1,001 17.2 1,431 17.0
61-90 days 1 0.2 508 6.4 171 6.6 338 5.8 509 6.0
91-120 days 0 0.0 311 3.9 103 4.0 208 3.6 311 3.7
> 120 days 1 0.2 496 6.2 180 6.9 317 5.4 497 5.9
Total 460 100.0 7,955 100.0 2,590 100.0 5,825 100.0 8,415 100.0

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

These reports count admissions, not offenders. Offenders admitted multiple times to segregation are counted once for each admission. Offenders segregated under paragraph (f), subsection 44(1) of the Corrections and Conditional Release Act (Disciplinary Segregation) are not included.

Administrative segregation is the involuntary or voluntary separation, when specific legal requirements are met, of an inmate from the general population, other than pursuant to a disciplinary decision.

The number of offender deaths while in custody has fluctuated

Figure C19

The number of offender deaths while in custody has fluctuated - number of offender deaths

Source: Adult Correctional Services Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada

Note:

*Other causes of death include: natural causes, accidental deaths, death as a result of a legal intervention, other causes of death and where cause of death was not stated.

**For the calculation of rates, the total actual in-count numbers between 2004-05 and 2013-14 was used as the denominator.

The data on cause of death are subject to change following an official review or investigation, and should be used/interpreted with caution. The data presented were provided by the Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics at Statistics Canada, and may not reflect the outcome of recent reviews or investigations on cause of death.

Table C19
Year Type of Death
  Homicide   Suicide   Other* Total
  # % # % # % #
Federal              
2004-05 3 6.1 9 28.4 37 75.5 49
2005-06 3 6.1 10 20.4 36 73.5 49
2006-07 3 4.9 10 16.4 48 78.7 61
2007-08 1 2.5 5 12.5 34 85.0 40
2008-09 2 3.1 9 13.8 54 83.1 65
2009-10 1 2.0 9 18.4 39 79.6 49
2010-11 5 10.0 4 8.0 41 82.0 50
2011-12 3 5.7 8 15.1 42 79.2 53
2012-13 1 1.8 11 20.0 43 78.2 55
2013-14 1 2.1 9 18.8 38 79.2 48
Total 29 4.4 84 16.2 412 79.4 519
               
Provincial              
2004-05 0 0.0 12 25.0 36 75.0 48
2005-06 2 4.0 20 40.0 28 56.0 50
2006-07 0 0.0 8 23.5 26 76.5 34
2007-08 0 0.0 6 20.7 23 79.3 29
2008-09 1 3.0 7 21.2 25 75.8 33
2009-10 1 2.6 5 12.8 33 84.6 39
2010-11 0 0.0 5 14.3 30 85.7 35
2011-12 0 0.0 16 42.1 22 57.9 38
2012-13 1 2.3 8 18.2 35 79.5 44
2013-14 0 0.0 6 20.0 24 80.0 30
Total 5 1.3 93 24.5 282 74.2 380
               
Total Federal and Provincial Offender Deaths 28 3.1 177 19.7 694 77.2 899

Source: Adult Correctional Services Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada

Note:

*Other causes of death include: natural causes, accidental deaths, death as a result of a legal intervention, other causes of death and where cause of death was not stated.

Percent calculation include deaths where the cause was unknown. Between 2001-02 and 2013-14, there were 54 deaths in federal custody and 129 deaths in provincial custody where the cause was unknown.

The data on cause of death are subject to change following an official review or investigation, and should be used/interpreted with caution. The data presented were provided by the Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics at Statistics Canada, and may not reflect the outcome of recent reviews or investigations on cause of death.

The number of escapes was stable in 2014-15

Figure C20

The number of escapes was stable in 2014-15 - number of escapees from Federal institutions

Source: Security, Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

The data represent the number of escape incidents from federal facilities during each fiscal year. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

Table C20
Type of Escapes 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 2013-14 2014-15
Escapes from Multi-level Security 0 0 0 0 0
Number of Escapees 0 0 0 0 0
Escapes from Maximum Security 0 0 0 0 0
Number of Escapees 0 0 0 0 0
Escapes from Medium Security 0 0 0 1 0
Number of Escapees 0 0 0 1 0
Escapes from Minimum Security 14 15 18 10 13
Number of Escapees 17 16 24 12 13
Total Number of Escape Incidents 14 15 18 11 13
Total Number of Escapees 17 16 24 13 13

Source: Security, Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

The data represents the number of escape incidents from federal facilities during each fiscal year. An escape can involve more than one offender.

A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

The population of offenders in the community under supervision has increased in the past 2 years

Figure C21

The population of offenders in the community under supervision has increased in the past 2 years - results at fiscal year end 2014-15

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

*These cases reflect the number of offenders on active supervision at fiscal year end. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

The data reflect the offender population in the community under supervision which includes all active offenders on day parole, full parole, statutory release, offenders who are temporarily detained in a non-CSC facility, and offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days.

The data presented above do not include offenders who were on long term supervision orders (See Figure/Table E4).

Day parole is a type of conditional release granted by the Parole Board of Canada whereby offenders are permitted to participate in community-based activities in preparation for full parole or statutory release. The conditions require offenders to return nightly to an institution or half-way house unless otherwise authorized by the Parole Board of Canada.

Full parole is a type of conditional release granted by the Parole Board of Canada whereby the remainder of the sentence is served under supervision in the community.

Statutory release refers to a conditional release that is subject to supervision after the offender has served two-thirds of the sentence.

Table C21
Year Supervision Type of Offenders
Day Parole Full Parole Statutory Release Totals % change*
Women Men Women Men Women Men Women Men Both Both
2005-06 85 1,096 306 3,407 79 2,298 470 6,801 7,271 0.4
2006-07 108 1,071 319 3,493 80 2,426 507 6,990 7,497 3.1
2007-08 114 1,062 326 3,477 112 2,395 552 6,934 7,486 -0.1
2008-09 106 1,017 343 3,421 113 2,682 562 7,120 7,682 2.6
2009-10 108 1,084 329 3,419 94 2,612 531 7,115 7,646 -0.5
2010-11 79 1,017 314 3,443 109 2,601 502 7,061 7,563 -1.1
2011-12 123 1,123 257 3,155 127 2,668 507 6,946 7,453 -1.5
2012-13 116 1,108 225 2,932 137 2,805 478 6,845 7,323 -1.7
2013-14 106 1,105 225 3,014 153 2,874 484 6,993 7,477 2.1
2014-15 115 1,234 239 3,062 151 2,899 505 7,195 7,700 3.0

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

The data reflect the offender population in the community under supervision which includes all active offenders on day parole, full parole, statutory release, offenders who are temporarily detained in a non-CSC facility, and offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days.

The data presented above do not include offenders who were on long term supervision orders (See Figure/Table E4).

Day parole is a type of conditional release granted by the Parole Board of Canada whereby offenders are permitted to participate in community-based activities in preparation for full parole or statutory release. The conditions require offenders to return nightly to an institution or half-way house unless otherwise authorized by the Parole Board of Canada.

Full parole is a type of conditional release granted by the Parole Board of Canada whereby the remainder of the sentence is served under supervision in the community.

Statutory release refers to a conditional release that is subject to supervision after the offender has served two-thirds of the sentence.

*Percent change is measured from the previous year.

These cases reflect the number of offenders on active supervision at fiscal year end. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

Provincial/territorial community corrections population decreased in 2013-14

Figure C22

Provincial/territorial community corrections population decreased in 2011-12 - average monthly offender counts

Source: Corrections Key Indicator Report for Adults and Youth, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Note:

A conditional sentence is a disposition of the court where the offender serves a term of imprisonment in the community under specified conditions. This type of sentence can only be imposed in cases where the term of imprisonment would be less than two years. Conditional sentences have been a provincial and territorial sentencing option since September 1996.

Table C22
Year Average Monthly Offender
Counts on Probation
Average Monthly Offender
Counts on Conditional Sentence
Total
2004-05 92,922 13,213 106,135
2005-06 92,004 13,252 105,256
2006-07 93,754 12,776 106,530
2007-08 96,795 12,535 108,330
2008-09 97,529 13,124 110,653
2009-10 99,498 13,105 112,603
2010-11 101,825 12,969 114,794
2011-12 98,843 12,616 111,459
2012-13 96,115 12,202 108,317
2013-14 84,905 10,077 94,982

Source: Corrections Key Indicator Report for Adults and Youth, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Note:

A conditional sentence is a disposition of the court where the offender serves a term of imprisonment in the community under specified conditions. This type of sentence can only be imposed in cases where the term of imprisonment would be less than two years. Conditional sentences have been a provincial and territorial sentencing option since September 1996.

The number of offenders on provincial parole increased in 2013-14

Figure C23

The number of offenders on provincial parole has decreased over the past decade - number of offenders on provincial parole (average monthly counts)

Source: Corrections Key Indicator Report for Adults and Youth, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Note:

Provincial parole boards operate in Quebec and Ontario. On April 1, 2007, the Parole Board of Canada assumed responsibility for parole decisions relating to offenders serving sentences in British Columbia's provincial correctional facilities. The Parole Board of Canada has jurisdiction over granting parole to provincial offenders in the Atlantic and Prairie provinces, British Columbia, and to territorial offenders in the Yukon, Nunavut and Northwest Territories.

Table C23
Year Average Monthly Counts on Provincial Parole
Provincial Boards Parole Board of Canada** Total Percent Change
Quebec Ontario British Columbia* Total
2004-05 517 127 166 810 176 986 -8,3
2005-06 628 152 147 926 163 1,089 10.4
2006-07 593 142 120 855 136 991 -9.0
2007-08 581 205 n/a 785 237 1,022 3.1
2008-09 533 217 n/a 750 190 940 -8.0
2009-10 506 194 n/a 700 168 868 -7.7
2010-11 482 171 n/a 653 167 820 -5.6
2011-12 481 179 n/a 660 144 804 -2.0
2012-13 462 164 n/a 626 143 769 -4.4
2013-14 527 172 n/a 699 154 853 11.0

Source: Corrections Key Indicator Report for Adults and Youth, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Note:

*On April 1, 2007, the Parole Board of Canada assumed responsibility for parole decisions relating to offenders serving sentences in British Columbia's provincial correctional facilities.

**The data represent the number of provincial offenders who are released from custody on the authority of the Parole Board of Canada and supervised by the Correctional Service of Canada.

Provincial parole boards operate in Quebec and Ontario. The Parole Board of Canada has jurisdiction over granting parole to provincial offenders in the Atlantic and Prairie provinces, British Columbia, and to territorial offenders in the Yukon, Nunavut and Northwest Territories.

Section D: Conditional Release

The percentage of offenders released from federal penitentiaries at statutory release decreased in the past two years

Figure D1

The percentage of offenders released from federal penitentiaries at statutory release decreased in the past two years - percentage of offenders released on statutory release

Source: Correctional Service of Canada.

Note:

*Percentage is calculated based on the number of statutory releases compared to the total releases for each offender group.

The data includes all releases from federal penitentiaries in a given fiscal year excluding offenders with quashed sentences, offenders who died in custody LTSO releases, offenders released at warrant expiry and offenders transferred to foreign countries. An offender may be released more than once a year in cases where a previous release was subject to revocation, suspension, temporary detention, or interruption.

Statutory release refers to a conditional release that is subject to supervision after the offender has served two-thirds of the sentence.

A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

Table D1
  Aboriginal Non-Aboriginal Total Offender Population
Year Statutory Release Total Releases Percent* Statutory Release Total Releases Percent* Statutory Release Total Releases Percent*
2005-06 1,209 1,602 75.5% 4,008 6,232 64.3% 5,217 7,834 66.6%
2006-07 1,215 1,556 78.1% 4,035 6,149 65.6% 5,250 7,705 68.1%
2007-08 1,370 1,704 80.4% 4,116 6,275 65.6% 5,486 7,979 68.8%
2008-09 1,427 1,710 83.5% 4,338 6,429 67.5% 5,765 8,139 70.8%
2009-10 1,380 1,692 81.6% 4,172 6,175 67.6% 5,552 7,867 70.6%
2010-11 1,283 1,544 83.1% 3,811 5,759 66.2% 5,094 7,303 69.8%
2011-12 1,405 1,699 82.7% 3,922 5,605 70.0% 5,327 7,304 72.9%
2012-13 1,531 1,848 82.8% 4,022 5,678 70.8% 5,553 7,526 73.8%
2013-14 1,630 1,936 84.2% 4,005 5,775 69.4% 5,635 7,711 73.1%
2014-15 1,665 1,981 84.0% 3,671 5,558 66.0% 5,336 7,539 70.8%

Source: Correctional Service of Canada.

Note:

*Percentage is calculated based on the number of statutory releases compared to the total releases for each offender group.

The data includes all releases from federal penitentiaries in a given fiscal year excluding offenders with quashed sentences, offenders who died in custody LTSO releases, offenders released at warrant expiry and offenders transferred to foreign countries. An offender may be released more than once a year in cases where a previous release was subject to revocation, suspension, temporary detention , or interruption.

Statutory release refers to a conditional release that is subject to supervision after the offender has served two-thirds of the sentence.

A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

The percentage of offenders released from federal penitentiaries on day and full parole increased in the past two years

Figure D2

The percentage of offenders released from federal penitentiaries on day and full parole increased in the past two years - percentage of offenders released

Source: Correctional Service of Canada.

Note:

Percentage is calculated based on the number of day and full paroles compared to the total releases for each offender group.

The data includes all releases from federal penitentiaries in a given fiscal year excluding offenders with quashed sentences, offenders who died in custody LTSO releases, offenders released at warrant expiry and offenders transferred to foreign countries. An offender may be released more than once a year in cases where a previous release was subject to revocation, suspension, temporary detention, or interruption.

Day parole is a type of conditional release granted by the Parole Board of Canada whereby offenders are permitted to participate in community-based activities in preparation for full parole or statutory release. The conditions require offenders to return nightly to an institution or half-way house unless otherwise authorized by the Parole Board of Canada.

Full parole is a type of conditional release granted by the Parole Board of Canada whereby the remainder of the sentence is served under supervision in the community.

A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

Table D2
    Aboriginal Non-Aboriginal Total Offender Population
Year   Day Parole Full Parole Total Releases Day Parole Full Parole Total Releases Day Parole Full Parole Total Releases
2005-06 # 370 23 1,602 1,990 234 6,232 2,360 257 7,834
  % 23.1% 1.4%   31.9% 3.8%   30.1% 3.3%  
2006-07 # 326 15 1,556 1,933 181 6,149 2,259 196 7,705
  % 21.0% 1.0%   31.4% 2.9%   29.3% 2.5%  
2007-08 # 316 18 1,704 1,984 175 6,275 2,300 193 7,979
  % 18.5% 1.1%   31.6% 2.8%   28.8% 2.4%  
2008-09 # 267 16 1,710 1,873 218 6,429 2,140 234 8,139
  % 15.6% 0.9%   29.1% 3.4%   26.3% 2.9%  
2009-10 # 299 13 1,692 1,839 164 6,175 2,138 177 7,867
  % 17.7% 0.8%   29.8% 2.7%   27.2% 2.2%  
2010-11 # 249 12 1,544 1,810 138 5,759 2,059 150 7,303
  % 16.1% 0.8%   31.4% 2.4%   28.2% 2.1%  
2011-12 # 281 13 1,699 1,567 116 5,605 1,848 129 7,304
  % 16.5% 0.8%   28.0% 2.1%   25.3% 1.8%  
2012-13 # 308 9 1,848 1,564 110 5,678 1,854 119 7,526
  % 16.7% 0.5%   27.2% 1.9%   24.6% 1.6%  
2013-14 # 288 18 1,936 1,624 146 5,775 1,912 164 7,711
  % 14.9% 0.9%   28.1% 2.5%   24.8% 2.1%  
2014-15 # 306 10 1,981 1,711 176 5,558 2,017 186 7,539
  % 15.4% 0.5%   30.8% 3.2%   26.8% 2.5%  

Source: Correctional Service of Canada.

Note:

Percentage is calculated based on the number of day and full paroles compared to the total releases for each offender group.

The data includes all releases from federal penitentiaries in a given fiscal year excluding offenders with quashed sentences, offenders who died in custody LTSO releases, offenders released at warrant expiry and offenders transferred to foreign countries. An offender may be released more than once a year in cases where a previous release was subject to revocation, suspension, temporary detention , or interruption.

Day parole is a type of conditional release granted by the Parole Board of Canada whereby offenders are permitted to participate in community-based activities in preparation for full parole or statutory release. The conditions require offenders to return nightly to an institution or half-way house unless otherwise authorized by the Parole Board of Canada.

Full parole is a type of conditional release granted by the Parole Board of Canada whereby the remainder of the sentence is served under supervision in the community.

A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

The federal day and full parole grant rates increased in 2014-15

Figure D3

The federal day and full parole grant rates increased in 2014-15 - Federal parole grant rate (%)

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Note:

The grant rate represents the percentage of pre-release reviews resulting in a grant by the Parole Board of Canada.

Day parole is a type of conditional release granted by the Parole Board of Canada in which offenders are permitted to participate in community-based activities in preparation for full parole or statutory release. The conditions require offenders to return nightly to an institution or half-way house unless otherwise authorized by the Parole Board of Canada. Not all offenders apply for day parole, and some apply more than once before being granted day parole.

Full parole is a type of conditional release granted by the Parole Board of Canada in which the remainder of the sentence is served under supervision in the community. The Parole Board of Canada must review the cases of all offenders for full parole at the time prescribed by legislation, unless the offender advises the Parole Board of Canada in writing that he/she does not wish to be considered for full parole.

On March 28, 2011, Bill C-59 (Abolition of Early Parole Act) eliminated the accelerated parole review (APR) process, affecting first-time non-violent offenders serving sentences for schedule II and non-scheduled offences, who in 2011-12 were no longer eligible for an APR review. These offenders are now assessed on general reoffending as compared to the APR risk assessment, which considered the risk of committing a violent offence only. To better illustrate historical trends, APR decisions were excluded.

Grant rates should be read with caution. Even though comparisons were made between federal regular day parole and full parole grant rates only, they nevertheless contain an APR residual effect between 2011-12 and 2014-15. A sufficiently large proportion of APR-affected population were granted regular federal day parole and full parole, perhaps inflating the grant rates.

Table D3
Type of Release Year Granted Denied Grant Rate (%) APR*
Women Men Women Men Women Men Total Directed Total
Day Parole 2005-06 128 2,111 25 719 83.7 74.6 75.1 970 1,345
  2006-07 143 2,039 31 876 82.2 69.9 70.6 984 1,428
  2007-08 162 2,001 22 776 88.0 72.1 73.0 977 1,482
  2008-09 135 1,908 24 825 84.9 69.8 70.6 1,000 1,525
  2009-10 151 1,959 40 967 79.1 67.0 67.7 947 1,491
  2010-11 134 1,856 40 1,151 77.0 61.7 62.6 970 1,591
  2011-12 248 2,492 64 1,443 79.5 63.3 64.5 0 0
  2012-13 287 2,823 71 1,417 80.2 66.6 67.6 14 21
  2013-14 244 2,828 52 1,274 82.4 69.8 69.8 39 47
  2014-15 293 3,026 51 1,281 85.2 70.3 71.4 38 45
Full Parole 2005-06 38 533 67 1,924 36.2 21.7 22.3 1,057 1,066
  2006-07 41 523 81 2,035 33.6 20.4 21.0 1,038 1,042
  2007-08 40 490 70 1,990 36.4 19.8 20.5 1,030 1,036
  2008-09 43 495 61 2,017 41.3 19.7 20.6 1,097 1,100
  2009-10 32 459 89 2,077 26.4 18.1 18.5 1,004 1,010
  2010-11 20 435 85 2,206 19.0 16.5 16.6 1,046 1,059
  2011-12 76 643 126 2,317 37.6 21.7 22.7 0 0
  2012-13 90 913 141 2,329 39.0 28.2 28.9 26 26
  2013-14 84 901 103 2,201 44.9 29.0 29.9 126 142
  2014-15 87 965 106 2,305 45.1 29.5 30.4 119 137

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Note:

The grant rate represents the percentage of pre-release reviews resulting in a grant by the Parole Board of Canada.

Day parole is a type of conditional release granted by the Parole Board of Canada in which offenders are permitted to participate in community-based activities in preparation for full parole or statutory release. The conditions require offenders to return nightly to an institution or half-way house unless otherwise authorized by the Parole Board of Canada. Not all offenders apply for day parole, and some apply more than once before being granted day parole.

Full parole is a type of conditional release granted by the Parole Board of Canada in which the remainder of the sentence is served under supervision in the community. The Parole Board of Canada must review the cases of all offenders for full parole at the time prescribed by legislation, unless the offender advises the Parole Board of Canada in writing that he/she does not wish to be considered for full parole.

*On March 28, 2011, Bill C-59 (Abolition of Early Parole Act) eliminated the accelerated parole review (APR) process, affecting first-time non-violent offenders serving sentences for schedule II and non-scheduled offences, who in 2011-12 were no longer eligible for an APR review. These offenders are now assessed on general reoffending as compared to the APR risk assessment, which considered the risk of committing a violent offence only. To better illustrate historical trends, APR decisions were excluded from grant rates. However information on APR (those who were directed and total eligible) is included separately in the table for the reader. Grant rates should be read with caution. Even though comparisons were made between federal regular day parole and full parole grant rates only, they nevertheless contain an APR residual effect between 2011-12 and 2014-15. A sufficiently large proportion of APR-affected population were granted regular federal day parole and full parole, perhaps inflating the grant rates.

The federal day parole grant rate for Aboriginal offenders increased in 2014-15

Figure D4

The federal day parole grant rate for Aboriginal offenders increased in 2014-15 - Federal parole grant rate (%)

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Note:

The grant rate represents the percentage of pre-release reviews resulting in a grant by the Parole Board of Canada.

Day parole is a type of conditional release granted by the Parole Board of Canada in which offenders are permitted to participate in community-based activities in preparation for full parole or statutory release. The conditions require offenders to return nightly to an institution or half-way house unless otherwise authorized by the Parole Board of Canada. Not all offenders apply for day parole, and some apply more than once before being granted day parole.

Full parole is a type of conditional release granted by the Parole Board of Canada in which the remainder of the sentence is served under supervision in the community. The Parole Board of Canada must review the cases of all offenders for full parole at the time prescribed by legislation, unless the offender advises the Parole Board of Canada in writing that he/she does not wish to be considered for full parole.

On March 28, 2011, Bill C-59 (Abolition of Early Parole Act) eliminated the accelerated parole review (APR) process, affecting first-time non-violent offenders serving sentences for schedule II and non-scheduled offences, who in 2011-12 were no longer eligible for an APR review. These offenders are now assessed on general reoffending as compared to the APR risk assessment, which considered the risk of committing a violent offence only. To better illustrate historical trends, APR decisions were excluded. Grant rates should be read with caution. Even though comparisons were made between federal regular day parole and full parole grant rates only, they nevertheless contain an APR residual effect between 2011-12 and 2014-15. A sufficiently large proportion of APR-affected population were granted regular federal day parole and full parole, perhaps inflating the grant rates.

Table D4
Type of Release Year Aboriginal Non-Aboriginal Total Number Granted/Denied
Number Granted Number Denied Grant Rate (%) Number Granted Number Denied Grant Rate (%)
Day Parole 2005-06 490 122 80.1 1,749 622 73.8 2,983
  2006-07 447 169 72.6 1,735 738 70.2 3,089
  2007-08 403 126 76.2 1,760 672 72.4 2,961
  2008-09 380 156 70.9 1,663 693 70.6 2,892
  2009-10 398 200 66.6 1,712 807 68.0 3,117
  2010-11 367 282 56.5 1,623 909 64.1 3,181
  2011-12 449 335 57.3 2,291 1,172 66.2 4,247
  2012-13 541 312 63.4 2,569 1,176 68.6 4,598
  2013-14 512 290 63.8 2,560 1,036 71.2 4,398
  2014-15 550 256 68.2 2,769 1,076 72.0 4,651
Full Parole 2005-06 105 389 21.3 466 1,602 22.5 2,562
  2006-07 76 400 16.0 488 1,716 22.1 2,680
  2007-08 82 349 19.0 448 1,711 20.8 2,590
  2008-09 73 385 15.9 465 1,693 21.5 2,616
  2009-10 50 396 11.2 441 1,770 19.9 2,657
  2010-11 71 470 13.1 384 1,821 17.4 2,746
  2011-12 74 453 14.0 645 1,990 24.5 3,162
  2012-13 99 464 17.6 904 2,006 31.1 3,473
  2013-14 118 417 22.1 867 1,887 31.5 3,289
  2014-15 105 435 19.4 947 1,976 32.4 3,463

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Note:

The grant rate represents the percentage of pre-release reviews resulting in a grant by the Parole Board of Canada.

Day parole is a type of conditional release granted by the Parole Board of Canada in which offenders are permitted to participate in community-based activities in preparation for full parole or statutory release. The conditions require offenders to return nightly to an institution or half-way house unless otherwise authorized by the Parole Board of Canada. Not all offenders apply for day parole, and some apply more than once before being granted day parole.

Full parole is a type of conditional release granted by the Parole Board of Canada in which the remainder of the sentence is served under supervision in the community. The Parole Board of Canada must review the cases of all offenders for full parole at the time prescribed by legislation, unless the offender advises the Parole Board of Canada in writing that he/she does not wish to be considered for full parole.

On March 28, 2011, Bill C-59 (Abolition of Early Parole Act) eliminated the accelerated parole review (APR) process, affecting first-time non-violent offenders serving sentences for schedule II and non-scheduled offences, who in 2011-12 were no longer eligible for an APR review. These offenders are now assessed on general reoffending as compared to the APR risk assessment, which considered the risk of committing a violent offence only. To better illustrate historical trends, APR decisions were excluded. Grant rates should be read with caution. Even though comparisons were made between federal regular day parole and full parole grant rates only, they nevertheless contain an APR residual effect between 2011-12 and 2014-15. A sufficiently large proportion of APR-affected population were granted regular federal day parole and full parole, perhaps inflating the grant rates.

Federal parole hearings involving an Aboriginal Cultural Advisor decreased

Figure D5

Federal parole hearings involving an Aboriginal Cultural Advisor decreased - Number of Federal parole hearings held with an Aboriginal Cultural Advisor

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Note:

The presence of an Aboriginal Cultural Advisor is an alternative approach to the traditional parole hearing, and was introduced by the Parole Board of Canada to ensure that conditional release hearings were sensitive to Aboriginal cultural values and traditions. This type of hearing is available to both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal offenders.

Table D5
Year Hearings held with an Aboriginal Cultural Advisor
Aboriginal Offenders Non-Aboriginal Offenders All Offenders
Total Hearings With Cultural Advisor Total Hearings With Cultural Advisor Total Hearings With Cultural Advisor
  # # % # # % # # %
2005-06 1,410 642 45.5 5,169 100 1.9 6,579 742 11.3
2006-07 1,367 606 44.3 5,269 79 1.5 6,636 685 10.3
2007-08 1,252 471 37.6 4,749 50 1.1 6,001 521 8.7
2008-09 1,204 425 35.3 4,416 53 1.2 5,620 478 8.5
2009-10 1,160 361 31.1 4,520 59 1.3 5,680 420 7.4
2010-11 1,193 437 36.6 4,387 52 1.2 5,580 489 8.8
2011-12 1,209 423 35.0 4,702 47 1.0 5,911 470 8.0
2012-13 1,275 424 33.3 4,685 45 1.0 5,960 469 7.9
2013-14 878 340 38.7 3,724 35 0.9 4,602 375 8.1
2014-15 863 326 37.8 3,873 41 1.1 4,736 367 7.7

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Note:

The presence of an Aboriginal Cultural Advisor is an alternative approach to the traditional parole hearing, and was introduced by the Parole Board of Canada to ensure that conditional release hearings were sensitive to Aboriginal cultural values and traditions. This type of hearing is available to both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal offenders.

Proportion of sentence served prior to being released on parole decreased

Figure D6

Proportion of sentence served prior to being released on parole decreased - Timing of first parole supervision in the sentence

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Note:

Timing of parole in the sentence refers to the percentage of the sentence served at the time the first day parole or full parole starts during the sentence. In most cases a full parole is preceded by a day parole.

These calculations are based on sentences under federal jurisdiction, excluding life sentences and indeterminate sentences.

Offenders (other than those serving life or indeterminate sentences or subject to judicial determination) normally become eligible for full parole after serving 1/3 of their sentence or seven years, whichever is less. Eligibility for day parole is normally at 6 months before full parole eligibility.

The increases in the average proportion of time served after 2010-11 are in part due to the effect of Bill C-59 and were driven primarily by offenders serving sentences for schedule II and non-scheduled offences (some of whom were former APR-eligible offenders).

Table D6
Year Type of Supervision
First Day Parole First Full Parole
Women Men Total Women Men Total
  Percentage of sentence incarcerated
2005-06 28.5 32.9 32.5 36.1 39.3 38.9
2006-07 27.4 33.2 32.6 37.2 39.3 39.1
2007-08 30.3 32.3 32.1 37.9 38.4 38.4
2008-09 28.2 32.4 31.9 36.6 38.7 38.5
2009-10 29.5 33.2 32.8 36.1 38.5 38.2
2010-11 29.2 31.8 31.5 36.6 38.1 37.9
2011-12 35.0 38.1 37.8 40.3 41.7 41.6
2012-13 38.9 38.3 38.4 45.6 46.8 46.7
2013-14 34.9 38.3 38.0 44.0 46.8 46.5
2013-14 35.2 37.9 37.6 44.4 45.7 45.6

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Note:

Timing of parole in the sentence refers to the percentage of the sentence served at the time the first day parole or full parole starts during the sentence. In most cases a full parole is preceded by a day parole.

These calculations are based on sentences under federal jurisdiction, excluding life sentences and indeterminate sentences.

Offenders (other than those serving life or indeterminate sentences or subject to judicial determination) normally become eligible for full parole after serving 1/3 of their sentence or seven years, whichever is less. Eligibility for day parole is normally at 6 months before full parole eligibility.

The increases in the average proportion of time served after 2010-11 are in part due to the effect of Bill C-59 and were driven primarily by offenders serving sentences for schedule II and non-scheduled offences (some of whom were former APR-eligible offenders).

Aboriginal offenders serve a higher proportion of their sentences before being released on parole

Figure D7

Aboriginal offenders serve a higher proportion of their sentences before being released on parole - Timing of first parole supervision in the sentence (%)

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Note:

Timing of parole in the sentence refers to the percentage of the sentence served at the time the first day parole or full parole starts during the sentence. In most cases a full parole is preceded by a day parole.

These calculations are based on sentences under federal jurisdiction, excluding life sentences and indeterminate sentences.

Offenders (other than those serving life or indeterminate sentences or subject to judicial determination) normally become eligible for full parole after serving 1/3 of their sentence or seven years, whichever is less. Eligibility for day parole is normally at 6 months before full parole eligibility.

The increases in the average proportion of time served after 2010-11 are in part due to the effect of Bill C-59 and were driven primarily by offenders serving sentences for schedule II and non-scheduled offences (some of whom were former APR-eligible offenders).

Table D7
Year Type of Supervision
First Day Parole First Full Parole
Aboriginal Non-Aboriginal Total Aboriginal Non-Aboriginal Total
  Percentage of sentence incarcerated
2005-06 36.6 31.8 32.5 42.3 38.5 38.9
2006-07 37.4 31.9 32.6 41.1 38.9 39.1
2007-08 38.4 31.1 32.1 41.2 38.1 38.4
2008-09 38.3 31.0 31.9 41.0 38.2 38.5
2009-10 38.9 31.8 32.8 41.2 37.9 38.2
2010-11 37.2 30.8 31.5 41.8 37.5 37.9
2011-12 41.8 37.1 37.8 44.0 41.4 41.6
2012-13 42.1 37.7 38.4 48.8 46.5 46.7
2013-14 43.0 37.1 38.0 49.0 46.2 46.5
2014-15 40.9 37.1 37.6 47.2 45.5 45.6

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Note:

Timing of parole in the sentence refers to the percentage of the sentence served at the time the first day parole or full parole starts during the sentence. In most cases a full parole is preceded by a day parole.

These calculations are based on sentences under federal jurisdiction, excluding life sentences and indeterminate sentences.

Offenders (other than those serving life or indeterminate sentences or subject to judicial determination) normally become eligible for full parole after serving 1/3 of their sentence or seven years, whichever is less. Eligibility for day parole is normally at 6 months before full parole eligibility.

The increases in the average proportion of time served after 2010-11 are in part due to the effect of Bill C-59 and were driven primarily by offenders serving sentences for schedule II and non-scheduled offences (some of whom were former APR-eligible offenders).

The majority of federal day paroles are successfully completed

Figure D8

The majority of federal day paroles are successfully completed - Day parole outcomes

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Note:

*Revocation for Breach of Conditions includes revocation with outstanding charges.

A day parole is considered successful if it was completed without a return to prison for a breach of conditions or for a new offence.

Table D8
Federal Full Parole Outcomes* 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 2013-14 2014-15
  # % # % # % # % # %
Successful Completion                    
Regular 1,750 86.8 1,912 87.4 2,737 88.6 2,765 89.3 2,770 90.8
Accelerated 871 90.2 364 89.2 21 95.5 27 100.0 36 100.0
Total 2,621 87.9 2,276 87.7 2,758 88.6 2,792 89.3 2,806 90.9
Revocation for Breach of Conditions**                    
Regular 214 10.6 232 10.6 288 9.3 293 9.5 253 8.3
Accelerated 72 7.5 35 8.6 1 4.5 0 0.0 0 0.0
Total 286 9.6 267 10.3 289 9.3 293 9.4 253 8.2
Revocation with Non-Violent Offence                    
Regular 41 2.0 37 1.7 59 1.9 34 1.1 27 0.9
Accelerated 23 2.4 8 2.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0
Total 64 2.1 45 1.7 59 1.9 34 1.1 27 0.9
Revocation with Violent Offence***                    
Regular 10 0.5 7 0.3 6 0.2 6 0.2 0 0.0
Accelerated 0 0.0 1 0.2 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0
Total 10 0.3 8 0.3 6 0.2 6 0.2 0 0.0
Total                    
Regular 2,015 67.6 2,188 84.3 3,090 99.3 3,098 99.1 3,050 98.8
Accelerated 966 32.4 408 15.7 22 0.7 27 0.9 36 1.2
Total 2,981 100.0 2,596 100.0 3,112 100.0 3,125 100.0 3,086 100.0

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Note:

*Revocation for Breach of Conditions includes revocation with outstanding charges.

**Violent offences include murder and Schedule I offences (listed in the Corrections and Conditional Release Act) such as assaults, sexual offences, arson, abduction, robbery and some weapon offences.

A day parole is considered successful if it was completed without a return to prison for a breach of conditions or for a new offence.

The majority of federal full paroles are successfully completed

Figure D9

The majority of federal full paroles are successfully completed - Full parole outcomes

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Note:

*Excludes offenders serving indeterminate sentences because they do not have a warrant expiry date and can only successfully complete full parole upon [their] death.

**Revocation for Breach of Conditions includes revocation with outstanding charges.

A full parole is considered successful if it was completed without a return to prison for a breach of conditions or for a new offence.

Table D9
Federal Full Parole Outcomes* 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 2013-14 2014-15
  # % # % # % # % # %
Successful Completion                
Regular 360 80.2 335 82.5 425 80.0 578 81.9 731 87.2
Accelerated 663 74.4 668 76.8 589 89.0 246 93.2 96 87.3
Total 1,023 76.3 1,023 78.6 1,014 85.0 824 84.9 827 87.2
Revocation for Breach of Conditions**                    
Regular 55 12.2 54 13.3 78 14.7 93 13.2 83 9.9
Accelerated 168 18.9 146 16.3 50 7.6 14 5.3 12 10.9
Total 223 16.6 200 15.4 128 10.7 107 11.0 95 10.0
Revocation with Non-Violent Offence                    
Regular 26 5.8 15 3.7 22 4.1 30 4.2 24 2.9
Accelerated 54 6.1 57 6.4 22 3.3 4 1.5 2 1.8
Total 80 6.0 72 5.5 44 3.7 34 3.5 26 2.7
Revocation with Violent Offence***                    
Regular 8 1.8 2 0.5 6 1.1 5 0.7 0 0.0
Accelerated 6 0.7 5 0.6 1 0.2 0 0.0 0 0.0
Total 14 1.0 7 0.5 7 0.6 5 0.5 0 0.0
Total                    
Regular 449 33.5 406 31.2 531 44.5 706 72.8 838 88.4
Accelerated 891 66.5 896 68.8 662 55.5 264 27.2 100 11.6
Total 1,340 100.0 1,302 100.0 1,193 100.0 970 100.0 948 100.0

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Note:

*Excludes offenders serving indeterminate sentences because they do not have a warrant expiry date and can only successfully complete full parole upon [their] death.

**Revocation for Breach of Conditions includes revocation with outstanding charges.

***Violent offences include murder and Schedule I offences (listed in the Corrections and Conditional Release Act) such as assaults, sexual offences, arson, abduction, robbery and some weapon offences.

A full parole is considered successful if it was completed without a return to prison for a breach of conditions or for a new offence.

Statutory releases have the lowest rate of successful completion

Figure D10

Statutory releases have the lowest rate of successful completion - Statutory release outcomes

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Note:

*Revocation for Breach of Conditions includes revocation with outstanding charges.

A statutory release is considered successful if it was completed without a return to prison for a breach of conditions or for a new offence.

An offender serving a determinate sentence, if he/she is not detained, will be subject to statutory release after serving 2/3 of his/her sentence if he/she is not on full parole at that time. On statutory release, an offender is subject to supervision until the end of his/her sentence.

Table D10
Statutory Release Outcomes 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 2013-14 2014-15
  # % # % # % # % # %
Successful Completion 3,453 61.8 3,429 61.3 3,738 60.1 3,819 61.6 3,744 63.4
Revocation for Breach of Conditions* 1,474 26.4 1,548 27.7 1,848 29.7 1,767 28.5 1,697 28.8
Revocation with Non-Violent Offence 534 9.6 487 8.7 509 8.2 514 8.3 410 6.9
Revocation with Violent Offence** 124 2.2 128 2.3 129 2.1 95 1.5 51 0.9
Total 5,585 100 5,592 100 6,224 100 6,195 100 5,902 100

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Note:

*Revocation for Breach of Conditions includes revocation with outstanding charges.

**Violent offences include murder and Schedule I offences (listed in the Corrections and Conditional Release Act) such as assaults, sexual offences, arson, abduction, robbery and some weapon offences.

A statutory release is considered successful if it was completed without a return to prison for a breach of conditions or for a new offence.

An offender serving a determinate sentence, if he/she is not detained, will be subject to statutory release after serving 2/3 of his/her sentence if he/she is not on full parole at that time. On statutory release, an offender is subject to supervision until the end of his/her sentence.

Over the past decade, the rate of violent convictions for offenders while under supervision has declined

Figure D11

Over the past decade, the rate of violent convictions for offenders while under supervision has declined - per 1,000 supervised offenders

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Note:

*Supervised offenders include offenders who are on parole, statutory release, those temporarily detained in federal institutions, and those who are unlawfully at large.

**Violent offences include murder and Schedule I offences (listed in the Corrections and Conditional Release Act) such as assaults, sexual offences, arson, abduction, robbery and some weapon offences.

Day and full parole include those offenders serving determinate and indeterminate sentences.

The dotted line between 2013-14 and 2014-15 is intended to signify that due to delays in the court process, these numbers under-represent the actual number of convictions, as verdicts may not have been reached by year-end.

Table D11
Year # of Offenders Convicted for Violent Offences Rate per 1,000 Supervised Offenders*
Day Parole Full Parole Statutory Release Total Day Parole Full Parole Statutory Release
2005-06 16 28 178 222 12 7 58
2006-07 25 21 213 259 19 6 67
2007-08 18 22 213 253 14 6 68
2008-09 22 17 152 191 18 4 45
2009-10 17 16 149 182 13 4 46
2010-11 10 19 124 153 8 5 38
2011-12 8 10 128 146 6 3 36
2012-13 6 11 129 146 5 3 37
2013-14 6 6 95 107 5 2 27
2014-15** 0 1 51 52 0 0 14

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Note:

*Supervised offenders include offenders who are on parole, statutory release, those temporarily detained in federal institutions, and those who are unlawfully at large.

**Due to delays in the court processes, the numbers under-represent the actual number of convictions, as verdicts may not have been reached by year-end.

Day and full parole include those offenders serving determinate and indeterminate sentences.

***Violent offences include murder and Schedule I offences (listed in the Corrections and Conditional Release Act) such as assaults, sexual offences, arson, abduction, robbery and some weapon offences.

The number of offenders granted temporary absences decreased in 2014-15

Figure D12

The number of offenders granted temporary absences decreased in 2014-15

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

A temporary absence is permission given to an eligible offender to be away from the normal place of confinement for medical, administrative, community service, family contact, personal development for rehabilitative purposes, or compassionate reasons, including parental responsibilities.

A work release is a structured program of release of specified duration for work or community service outside the penitentiary, under the supervision of a staff member or other authorized person or organization.

These numbers depict the number of offenders who received at least one temporary absence permit (excluding those for medical purposes) or at least one work release. An offender may be granted more than one temporary absence permit or work release over a period of time.

Table D12
Year Temporary Absences Work Releases
Escorted Unescorted
  # of Offenders # of Permits # of Offenders # of Permits # of Offenders # of Permits
2005-06 2,558 36,959 498 2,939 355 997
2006-07 2,519 39,422 499 4,122 340 729
2007-08 2,500 41,460 464 3,679 301 616
2008-09 2,321 36,116 431 3,649 239 654
2009-10 2,210 35,774 386 3,280 251 1,053
2010-11 2,289 40,035 351 3,095 321 1,303
2011-12 2,682 44,371 414 3,860 408 820
2012-13 2,746 47,798 443 3,693 432 766
2013-14 2,734 49,425 447 3,987 385 593
2014-15 2,524 49,332 404 3,522 275 370

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

A temporary absence is permission given to an eligible offender to be away from the normal place of confinement for medical, administrative, community service, family contact, personal development for rehabilitative purposes, or compassionate reasons, including parental responsibilities.

A work release is a structured program of release of specified duration for work or community service outside the penitentiary, under the supervision of a staff member or other authorized person or organization.

These numbers depict the number of offenders who received at least one temporary absence permit (excluding those for medical purposes) or at least one work release. An offender may be granted more than one temporary absence permit or work release over a period of time.

Section E: Statistics on Special Applications of Criminal Justice

The number of initial detention reviews decreased in 2014-15

Figure E1

The number of initial detention reviews decreased in 2014-15

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Note:

According to the Corrections and Conditional Release Act, an offender entitled to statutory release after serving two-thirds of the sentence may be held in custody until warrant expiry if it is established that the offender is likely to commit, before the expiry of his/her sentence, an offence causing death or serious harm, a serious drug offence or a sex offence involving a child.

Table E1
Year Outcome of Initial Detention Reviews Total
Detained Statutory Release Total
Abor. Non - Abor. Total % Abor. Non - Abor. Total % Abor. Non - Abor.
2000-01 69 146 215 93.9 6 8 14 6.1 75 154 229
2001-02 75 182 257 94.5 2 13 15 5.5 77 195 272
2002-03 81 164 245 86.3 14 25 39 13.7 95 189 284
2003-04 72 207 279 92.1 8 16 24 7.9 80 223 303
2004-05 70 155 225 91.1 6 16 22 8.9 76 171 247
2005-06 75 158 233 89.3 11 17 28 10.7 86 175 261
2006-07 64 158 222 88.8 4 24 28 11.2 68 182 250
2007-08 87 160 247 93.2 7 11 18 6.8 94 171 265
2008-09 105 151 256 95.9 5 6 11 4.1 110 157 267
2009-10 97 164 261 93.9 2 15 17 6.1 99 179 278
2010-11 112 127 239 94.5 5 9 14 5.5 117 136 253
2011-12 88 119 207 96.7 3 4 7 3.3 91 123 214
2012-13 90 142 232 98.3 4 0 4 1.7 94 142 236
2013-14 85 115 200 96.2 4 4 8 3.8 89 119 208
2014-15 68 96 164 94.3 5 5 10 5.7 73 101 174
Total 1,238 2,244 3,482 93.1 83 173 259 6.9 1,324 2,417 3,741

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Note:

According to the Corrections and Conditional Release Act, an offender entitled to statutory release after serving two-thirds of the sentence may be held in custody until warrant expiry if it is established that the offender is likely to commit, before the expiry of his/her sentence, an offence causing death or serious harm, a serious drug offence or a sex offence involving a child.

77% of judicial review hearings result in earlier parole eligibility

Figure E2

77% of judicial review hearings result in earlier parole eligibility

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

*Of the 49 offenders no longer under active supervision, 14 were in custody, 27 were deceased, six were deported, one was temporarily detained, and one was unlawfully at large.

Judicial review is an application to the court for a reduction in the time required to be served before being eligible for parole. Judicial review procedures apply to offenders who have been sentenced to imprisonment for life without eligibility for parole until more than fifteen years of their sentence has been served.

Offenders can apply when they have served at least 15 years of their sentence.

Judicial reviews are conducted in the province where the conviction took place.

Table E2
Province/Territory of Judicial Review Parole Ineligibility Reduced by Court Reduction Denied by Court Total
1st degree murder 2nd degree murder 1st degree murder 2nd degree murder 1st degree murder 2nd degree murder
Northwest Territories 0 0 0 0 0 0
Nunavut 0 0 0 0 0 0
Yukon 0 0 0 0 0 0
Newfoundland & Labrador 0 0 0 0 0 0
Prince Edward Island 0 0 0 0 0 0
Nova Scotia 1 1 1 0 2 1
New Brunswick 1 0 0 0 1 0
Quebec 66 15 4 2 70 17
Ontario 22 0 25 1 47 1
Manitoba 8 3 1 0 9 3
Saskatchewan 6 0 3 0 9 0
Alberta 19 0 7 0 26 0
British Columbia 20 1 6 0 26 1
Sub-total 143 20 47 3 190 23
Total 163 50 213

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

These numbers represent total decisions as of end of fiscal year 2014-15.

Judicial reviews are conducted in the province where the conviction took place.

The number of dangerous offender designations

Figure E3

The number of dangerous offender designations per year

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

*The number of Dangerous Offenders designated per year does not include overturned decisions.

Offenders who have died since receiving designations are no longer classified as "active"; however, they are still represented in the above graph, which depicts the total number of offenders "designated".

Dangerous Offender legislation came into effect in Canada on October 15, 1977, replacing the Habitual Offender and Dangerous Sexual Offender provisions that were abolished. A Dangerous Offender (DO) is an individual given an indeterminate or determinate sentence on the basis of a particularly violent crime or pattern of serious violent offences where it is judged that the offender's behaviour is unlikely to be inhibited by normal standards of behavioural restraint (see section 753 of the Criminal Code of Canada). Determinate sentences for Dangerous Offenders must be a minimum punishment of imprisonment for a term of two years and have an order that the offender be subject to a long-term supervision period that does not exceed 10 years.

In addition to the DOs, there were 19 Dangerous Sexual Offenders and four Habitual Offenders.

Table E3
Province/Territory
of Designation
All Designations (# designated since 1978) Active Dangerous Offenders
# of Indeterminate Offenders # of Determinate Offenders Total
Newfoundland & Labrador 11 7 0 7
Nova Scotia 23 19 1 20
Prince Edward Island 0 0 0 0
New Brunswick 8 5 0 5
Quebec 90 71 11 82
Ontario 309 229 31 260
Manitoba 21 19 1 20
Saskatchewan 72 48 16 64
Alberta 58 48 2 50
British Columbia 129 95 5 100
Yukon 3 1 2 3
Northwest Territories 9 9 0 9
Nunavut 2 1 0 1
Total 735 552 70 622

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

Numbers presented are as of end of fiscal year 2014-15.

The number of Dangerous Offenders declared per year does not include overturned decisions.

Offenders who have died since receiving designations are no longer classified as "active"; however, they are still represented in the total number of offenders "designated".

Most long term supervision orders are for a 10-year period

Figure E4

Most long term supervision orders are for a 10-year period - number of long term supervision orders imposed

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

Long Term Supervision Order (LTSO) legislation, which came into effect in Canada on August 1, 1997, allows the court to impose a sentence of two years or more for the predicate offence and order that the offender be supervised in the community for a further period not exceeding 10 years.

Fifty-one offenders under these provisions have died and 113 offenders have completed their long term supervision period.

Remand is a temporary detention of a person while awaiting trial, sentencing, or the commencement of a custodial disposition.

Table E4
Province or Territory of Order Length of Supervision Order (years) Current Status
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Total Incarcerated DP, FP or SR* LTSO period LTSO** interrupted Total
Newfoundland & Labrador 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 7 7 0 1 3 1 6
Nova Scotia 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 1 0 13 19 4 0 8 2 14
Prince Edward Island 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 2 0 0 0 0 0
New Brunswick 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 7 10 1 2 2 2 7
Quebec 1 1 3 2 55 15 35 10 1 198 321 95 23 126 12 256
Ontario 0 0 0 5 14 8 18 18 0 208 271 65 14 129 9 217
Manitoba 0 0 0 0 1 1 2 1 0 30 35 10 1 15 1 27
Saskatchewan 0 1 1 1 12 8 10 11 1 48 93 42 9 28 1 80
Alberta 0 0 0 0 7 1 0 1 0 61 70 22 3 30 0 55
British Columbia 0 0 0 2 12 4 5 6 0 98 127 30 8 57 4 99
Yukon 0 0 0 0 1 0 3 0 0 11 15 4 0 9 0 13
Northwest Territories 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 2 3 0 0 2 0 2
Nunavut 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 1 0 3 7 1 0 4 0 5
Total 1 2 5 10 112 38 73 50 2 687 980 275 61 413 32 781

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

*This category includes offenders whose current status is either supervised on day parole (DP), full parole (FP) or statutory release (SR).

**This category includes offenders convicted of a new offence while on the supervision portion of an LTSO. When this occurs, the LTSO supervision period is interrupted until the offender has served the new sentence to its warrant expiry date. At that time, the LTSO supervision period resumes where it left off.

These numbers are as of end of fiscal year 2014-15.

Fifty-one offenders under these provisions have died and 113 offenders have completed their long term supervision period.

The number of record suspension applications received has decreased

Figure E5

The number of record suspension applications received has decreased

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Note:

*Refers to record suspension applications received between March 13 and March 31, 2012.

The number of record suspension applications received and accepted in 2012-13 should be considered with caution as the Record Suspension program, formerly the Pardon Program, underwent substantial changes between 2010-11 and 2012-13.

**Source: Royal Canadian Mounted Police Criminal Records Division, 2009.

On March 13, 2012, Bill C-10 amended the CRA by replacing the term "pardon" with the term "record suspension". The Record Suspension and Clemency program involves the review of record suspension applications, the ordering of record suspensions and the making of clemency recommendations. The amendments to the CRA increased the waiting periods for a record suspension to five years for all summary convictions and to ten years for all indictable offences. Individuals convicted of sexual offences against minors (with certain exceptions) and those who have been convicted of more than three indictable offences, each with a sentence of two or more years, became ineligible for a record suspension.

Table E5
Applications Processed 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 2013-14 2014-15
Applications Received   1,039* 19,523 14,253 12,414
Applications Accepted   793 11,291 9,632 9,074
Percentage Accepted   76.3 57.8 67.6 73.1
Record Suspension          
Ordered     6,030 8,515 8,438
Refused     208 777 731
Total Record Suspension Applications Ordered/Refused     6,238 9,292 9,169
Percentage Ordered     96.7 91.6 92.0
Pardon          
Granted 9,393 3,270 612 8,278 5,630
Issued 2,693
Denied 293 276 130 588 686
Total Pardon Applications Granted/Issued/Denied 12,379 3,546 742** 8,866** 6,316**
Percentage Granted/Issued 97.6 92.2 82.5 93.4 89.1
Pardon/Record Suspension Revocations/Cessations          
Revocations*** 71 1,132 991 669 441
Cessations 1,055 907 706 588 580
Total Revocations/Cessations 1,126 2,039 1,697 1,257 1,021
Cumulative Granted/Issued**** 453,330 456,600 463,242 480,035 494,103
Cumulative Revocations/Cessations**** 17,339 19,378 21,075 22,332 23,353

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Note:

*Refers to record suspension applications received between March 13 and March 31, 2012.

**Refers to pardon applications received on or before March 12, 2012.

The number of record suspension applications received and accepted in 2012-13 should be considered with caution as the Record Suspension program, formerly the Pardon Program, underwent substantial changes between 2010-11 and 2012-13. The grant/issued rate for pardon applications processed in 2012/13 should be considered with caution. The Record Suspension program, formerly the Pardon Program, underwent substantial changes between 2010/11 and 2012/13.

***Revocations fluctuate due to resource re-allocation to deal with backlogs.

****Cumulative data reflects activity since 1970, when the pardon process was established under the Criminal Records Act.

On June 29, 2010, Bill C-23A amended the CRA by extending the ineligibility periods for certain applications for pardon. Additionally, the bill resulted in significant changes to program operations. The process was modified to include additional inquiries and new, more exhaustive investigations by staff for some applications and required additional review time by Board members. New concepts of merit and disrepute to the administration of justice form part of the statute. As a result of these new changes, application processing time increased. On March 13, 2012, Bill C-10 amended the CRA by replacing the term "pardon" with the term "record suspension". The Record Suspension and Clemency program involves the review of record suspension applications, the ordering of record suspensions and the making of clemency recommendations. The amendments to the CRA increased the waiting periods for a record suspension to five years for all summary convictions and to ten years for all indictable offences. Individuals convicted of sexual offences against minors (with certain exceptions) and those who have been convicted of more than three indictable offences, each with a sentence of two or more years, became ineligible for a record suspension.

Section F: Victims of Crime

Victimization rates for theft of personal property have decreased

Figure F1

Victimization rates for theft of personal property have decreased - per 1,000 population

Source: General Social Survey, Statistics Canada, 1999, 2004, 2009 and 2014.

Note:

*Assault data includes incidents of spousal violence. In previous editions of this document, the victimization data excluded incidents of spousal violence.

Rates are based on 1,000 population, 15 years of age and older, across the 10 provinces.

Table F1
Type of Incident Year
1999 2004 2009 2014
Theft of Personal Property 75 93 108 73
Sexual Assault 21 21 24 22
Robbery 9 11 13 6
Assault* 80 75 80 48

Source: General Social Survey, Statistics Canada, 1999, 2004, 2009 and 2014.

Note:

*Assault data includes incidents of spousal violence. In previous editions of this document, the victimization data excluded incidents of spousal violence.

Rates are based on 1,000 population, 15 years of age and older, across the 10 provinces.

The majority of victims of violent crime are under 30

Figure F2

The majority of victims of violent crime are under 30

Source: Incident-based Uniform Crime Reporting Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Note:

*Population estimates are as of July 1, 2010.

The data excludes traffic violations, victims whose age is above 89, victims whose age is unknown and victims whose gender is unknown.

Due to rounding, totals may not add to 100 percent.

Table F2 (2012)
Age of Victim Men Women Total
  # % # % # %
0 to 4 years 1,761 1.0 2,053 1.1 3,814 1.1
5 to 9 years 3,803 2.2 3,724 2.0 7,527 2.1
10 to 14 years 11,716 6.7 12,109 6.5 23,825 6.6
15 to 19 years 25,294 14.4 27,674 14.9 52,968 14.6
20 to 24 years 24,712 14.1 29,380 15.8 54,092 15.0
25 to 29 years 21,477 12.2 23,897 12.9 45,374 12.5
30 to 34 years 17,282 9.8 20,001 10.8 37,283 10.3
35 to 39 years 14,829 8.4 17,403 9.4 32,232 8.9
40 to 44 years 14,607 8.3 15,456 8.3 30,063 8.3
45 to 49 years 13,568 7.7 13,038 7.0 26,606 7.4
50 to 54 years 10,965 6.2 9,051 4.9 20,016 5.5
55 to 59 years 6,983 4.0 5,149 2.8 12,132 3.4
60 to 64 years 4,081 2.3 2,792 1.5 6,873 1.9
65 to 69 years 2,321 1.3 1,605 0.9 3,926 1.1
70 to 74 years 1,128 0.6 977 0.5 2,105 0.6
75 and over 1,228 0.7 1,507 0.8 2,735 0.8
Total 175,755 100.0 185,816 100.0 361,571 100.0

Source: Incident-based Uniform Crime Reporting Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Note:

The data excludes traffic violations, victims whose age is above 89, victims whose age is unknown and victims whose gender is unknown.

Due to rounding, totals may not add to 100 percent.

The majority of victims receiving services are victims of violent crime

Figure F3

The majority of victims receiving services are victims of violent crime - Number of victims receiving formal assistance on May 24, 2012

Source: Victim Services in Canada, 2011/2012; Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Note:

Victim services are defined as agencies that provide direct services to primary or secondary victims of crime, and that are funded in whole or in part by a ministry responsible for justice matters. Survey respondents included 684 victim service providers.

Table F3
Type of Crime Gender of Victim
Women Men Not Reported Total
Snapshot on May 27, 2010 # % # % # % # %
Homicide 154 2.4 70 3.3 3 0.5 227 2.5
Other offences causing death 95 1.5 77 32.7 8 1.4 180 2.0
Sexual assault 1,922 30.0 379 18.1 160 28.3 2,461 27.1
Other violent offences 3,323 51.8 917 43.8 262 46.4 4,502 49.6
Other criminal offences* 496 7.7 357 17.0 73 12.9 926 10.2
Other Incidents** 421 6.6 295 14.1 59 10.4 775 8.5
Total without unknown 6,411 100.0 2,095 100.0 565 100.0 9,071 100.0
Unknown type of crime 197 81 113 391
Total 6,608   2,176   678   9,462  
Snapshot on May 24, 2012                
Homicide 179 2.6 126 5.3 3 0.9 308 3.2
Other offences causing death 90 1.3 47 2.0 0 0.0 137 1.4
Sexual assault 2,105 30.2 356 15.1 37 11.6 2,498 25.9
Other violent offences 3,461 49.7 1,103 46.8 179 56.1 4,743 49.2
Other criminal offences* 676 9.7 507 21.5 66 20.7 1,249 13.0
Other Incidents** 448 6.4 220 9.3 34 10.7 702 7.3
Total without unknown 6,959 100.0 2,359 100.0 319 100.0 9,637 100.0
Unknown type of crime 310 81 636 1,027
Total 7,269   2,440   955   10,664  

Source: Victim Services in Canada, 2009/2010; Victim Services in Canada 2011/2012; Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Note:

*Other criminal offences include arson, property crimes, traffic offences, and other Criminal Code offences.

**Other incidents include those of a non-criminal nature as well as those that are still under investigation to determine if they are criminal offences.

Victim services are defined as agencies that provide direct services to primary or secondary victims of crime, and that are funded in whole or in part by a ministry responsible for justice matters. Survey respondents included 684 victim service providers.

The number of victims registered with the federal correctional system has increased

Figure F4

The number of victims registered with the federal correctional system has increased - numbers of registered victims

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

*In order to register to receive information under sections 26 and 142 of the Corrections and Conditional Release Act, a person must meet the definition of a victim that appears in section 2, or subsections 26(3) or 142(3) of the Act. Victims can register with the Correctional Service of Canada or the Parole Board of Canada by completing a Victims Request for Information form, though a signed letter of request can be considered as meeting this requirement.

**A notification is a contact with a registered victim, by phone or mail, to provide information to which sections 26 and 142 of the Corrections and Conditional Release Act entitles them.

Data is reported by CSC's data warehouse using a snapshot of data as of April of each year.

Table F4
Year Number of Offenders with Registered Victims Number of Registered Victims* Number of Notifications** to Registered Victims
2006-07 3,147 4,979 13,829
2007-08 3,295 5,294 16,281
2008-09 3,412 5,816 28,069
2009-10 3,509 6,366 37,471
2010-11 3,726 6,940 41,986
2011-12 3,824 7,322 46,689
2012-13 3,935 7,585 51,379
2013-14 4,017 7,838 51,723
2014-15 4,053 7,929 54,683

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

*In order to register to receive information under sections 26 and 142 of the Corrections and Conditional Release Act, a person must meet the definition of a victim that appears in section 2, or subsections 26(3) or 142(3) of the Act. Victims can register with the Correctional Service of Canada or the Parole Board of Canada by completing a Victims Request for Information form, though a signed letter of request can be considered as meeting this requirement.

**A notification is a contact with a registered victim, by phone or mail, to provide information to which sections 26 and 142 of the Corrections and Conditional Release Act entitles them.

Data is reported by CSC's data warehouse using a snapshot of data as of April of each year.

Offences causing death are the most common type of offence** that harmed the victims registered* with Correctional Service Canada

Figure F5

Offences causing death are the most common type of offence** that harmed the victims registered* with Correctional Service Canada - Offences of victimization 2013-14

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

*In order to register to receive information under sections 26 and 142 of the Corrections and Conditional Release Act, a person must meet the definition of a victim that appears in section 2, or subsections 26(3) or 142(3) of the Act. Victims can register with the Correctional Service of Canada or the Parole Board of Canada by completing a Victims Request for Information form, though a signed letter of request can be considered as meeting this requirement.

**Some victims were harmed by more than one offence; therefore the number of Offences of Victimization are higher than the actual number of Registered Victims. The percentages represent the number of registered victims who were harmed by that offence.

Table F5
Type of Offence** That Harmed Victim* 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 2013-14 2014-15
# % # % # % # % # %
Offences Causing Death 3,804 54.8 4,056 55.4 4,292 56.6 4,533 57.8 5,432 68.5
Sexual Offences 2,098 30.2 2,114 28.9 2,169 28.6 2,237 28.5 2,493 31.4
Assaults 998 14.4 998 13.6 965 12.7 941 12.0 1,178 14.9
Involving Violence or Threats 680 9.8 707 9.7 710 9.4 720 9.2 849 10.7
Property Crimes 509 7.3 534 7.3 551 7.3 541 6.9 617 7.8
Other Offences 396 5.7 452 6.2 441 5.8 475 6.1 583 7.4
Attempts to Cause Death 251 2.6 272 3.7 281 3.7 249 3.2 330 4.2
Deprivation of Freedom 233 3.4 241 3.3 246 3.2 283 3.6 299 3.8
Driving Offences 123 1.8 125 1.7 152 2.0 153 2.0 163 2.1
Offence Not Recorded 55 0.8 6 0.1 4 0.1 9 0.1 85 1.1
Total Number of Victims** 6,940   7,322   7,585   7,838   7,929  

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

*In order to register to receive information under sections 26 and 142 of the Corrections and Conditional Release Act, a person must meet the definition of a victim that appears in section 2, or subsections 26(3) or 142(3) of the Act. Victims can register with the Correctional Service of Canada or the Parole Board of Canada by completing a Victims Request for Information form, though a signed letter of request can be considered as meeting this requirement.

**Some victims were harmed by more than one offence, therefore the number of Offences of Victimization are higher than the number of Registered Victims.

The percentages in the table represent the number of registered victims who were harmed by that offence and do not add up to 100%.

Temporary Absence information is the most common type of information provided during a notification to registered victims* with Correcional Service Canada

Figure F6

Temporary Absence information is the most common type of information provided during a notification to registered victims* with Correcional Service Canada

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

Temporary Absence information includes information on unescorted and escorted temporary absences and work release. Conditional Release information includes information regarding day and full parole, statutory release, suspensions, detention, and long-term supervision orders. Sentencing information includes information on the offender's sentence, offender information, warrant expiry date, judicial review, and public domain.

Disclosure means a type of information identified in section 26 of the CCRA that has been disclosed to a registered victim during a notification.

As of December 2, 2011 as per Bill S6, Correctional Services Canada now provides information to some victims who are not registered which requires providing information to family members of murdered victims where the offender is still eligible to apply for Judicial Review including when the offender does not apply for a Judicial Review within the allotted time period, as well as the next date the offender can apply. Notification to unregistered victims are excluded for the data.

*In order to register to receive information under section 26 and 142 of the Corrections and Conditional Release Act, a person must meet the definition of a victim that appears in section 2 or subsection 26(3) or 142(3) of the Act. Victims can register with the Correctional Service of Canada or the Parole Board of Canada by completing a Victims Request for Information form, though a signed letter of request can be considered as meeting this requirement.

**In 2012, Bill C10 expanded the types of information that could be disclosed to victims. These types now include information on reintegration programs taken by offenders and disciplinary offences committed by offenders.

Table F6
Information 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 2013-14 2014-15
Temporary Absences 62,702 75,848 93,609 100,934 96,131
Travel Permits 10,136 10,877 28,763 34,294 34,501
Institutional Location 6,993 6,859 14,434 17,495 16,242
Program & Disciplinary Offence Information**     11,208 14,826 16,790
Conditional Release 10,353 10,870 11,803 12,318 13,253
Sentencing Information 13,770 16,268 12,813 10,333 10,792
Custody 2,192 2,414 2,569 2,476 2,423
Total 106,146 123,136 175,199 192,676 190,132

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

Temporary Absence information includes information on unescorted and escorted temporary absences and work release. Conditional Release information includes information regarding day and full parole, statutory release, suspensions, detention, and long-term supervision orders. Sentencing information includes information on the offender's sentence, offender information, warrant expiry date, judicial review, and public domain.

Disclosure means a type of information identified in section 26 of the CCRA that has been disclosed to a registered victim during a notification.

As of December 2, 2011 as per Bill S6, Correctional Services Canada now provides information to some victims who are not registered which requires providing information to family members of murdered victims where the offender is still eligible to apply for Judicial Review including when the offender does not apply for a Judicial Review within the allotted time period, as well as the next date the offender can apply. Notification to unregistered victims are excluded for the data.

*In order to register to receive information under section 26 and 142 of the Corrections and Conditional Release Act, a person must meet the definition of a victim that appears in section 2 or subsection 26(3) or 142(3) of the Act. Victims can register with the Correctional Service of Canada or the Parole Board of Canada by completing a Victims Request for Information form, though a signed letter of request can be considered as meeting this requirement.

**In 2012, Bill C10 expanded the types of information that could be disclosed to victims. These types now include information on reintegration programs taken by offenders and disciplinary offences committed by offenders.

Parole Board of Canada contacts with victims have increased

Figure F7

Parole Board of Canada contacts with victims have decreased

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Note:

*A victim contact refers to each time the Parole Board of Canada has contact with a victim by mail, fax, or by telephone.

**Bill C-10 (Safe Streets and Communities Act) , which came into force on June 13, 2012, resulted in changes to the categories of victims defined in section 2 of the CCRA. An actual victim is a person who survived a crime 2(1). If the person is dead, ill or otherwise incapacitated, a) a spouse/common law 2(1)(a), b) a relative/dependant 2(1)(b), c) anyone who is responsible for the care of the person 2(1)(c), d) anyone who is responsible for the care of a dependant of the person 2(1)(d) are considered as victims. If physical or emotional harm was done to a person as a result of the offender’s act, whether or not the offender is prosecuted or convicted of the act, and if the person made a complaint to the police or the Crown attorney, the person is recognized as a victim per CCRA 26 (3) and 142(3).

Table F7
Year Total Number of Contacts*
2000-01 12,718
2001-12 14,013
2002-03 14,270
2003-04 15,263
2004-05 15,479
2005-06 16,711
2006-07 21,434
2007-08 20,457
2008-09 20,039
2009-10 22,181
2010-11 22,483
2011-12 21,449
2012-13 22,475
2013-14 22,323
2014-15 27,191

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Note:

*A victim contact refers to each time the Parole Board of Canada has contact with a victim by mail, fax, or by telephone.

Bill C-10 (Safe Streets and Communities Act), which came into force on June 13, 2012, resulted in changes to the categories of victims defined in section 2 of the CCRA. An actual victim is a person who survived a crime 2(1). If the person is dead, ill or otherwise incapacitated, a) a spouse/common law 2(1)(a), b) a relative/dependant 2(1)(b), c) anyone who is responsible for the care of the person 2(1)(c), d) anyone who is responsible for the care of a dependant of the person 2(1)(d) are considered as victims. If physical or emotional harm was done to a person as a result of the offender’s act, whether or not the offender is prosecuted or convicted of the act, and if the person made a complaint to the police or the Crown attorney, the person is recognized as a victim per CCRA 26(3) and 142(3).

Date modified: