2008 Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview

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Table of Contents

Section A: Context - Crime and the Criminal Justice System

Section B: Corrections Administration

Section C: Offender Population

Section D: Conditional Release

Section E: Statistics on Special Applications of Criminal Justice

Erratum
A correction has been made to Table D7 (p. 92). The 2007-08 statistic for successful completions of accelerated day parole should read 84.6% rather than 11.4%.

Section A: Context - Crime and the Criminal Justice System

Police-reported crime rate has been decreasing since 1991

Police-reported crime rate has been decreasing since 1991
Enlarge image

Note:
Violent crimes include homicide, attempted murder, assault, sexual offences, abduction and robbery.
Property crimes include break and enter, motor vehicle thefts, other thefts, possession of stolen goods and fraud.
These crime statistics are based on crimes that are reported to the police. Since not all crimes are reported to the police, these figures underestimate actual crime. See Figure A6 for rates based on victimization surveys (drawn from the General Social Survey), an alternative method of measuring crime.

Police-Reported crime rate has been decreasing since 1991
Year Type of Offence
Property Violent Other CCC Total
1983 5,608 679 2,182 8,470
1984 5,501 701 2,185 8,387
1985 5,451 735 2,227 8,413
1986 5,550 785 2,392 8,727
1987 5,553 829 2,575 8,957
1988 5,439 868 2,613 8,919
1989 5,289 911 2,692 8,892
1990 5,612 973 2,900 9,485
1991 6,160 1,059 3,122 10,342
1992 5,904 1,084 3,052 10,040
1993 5,575 1,082 2,881 9,538
1994 5,257 1,047 2,821 9,125
1995 5,292 1,009 2,707 9,008
1996 5,274 1,002 2,656 8,932
1997 4,880 993 2,603 8,475
1998 4,569 982 2,610 8,161
1999 4,276 958 2,518 7,752
2000 4,081 984 2,601 7,666
2001 4,004 984 2,668 7,655
2002 3,973 969 2,764 7,706
2003 4,121 965 3,057 8,142
2004 3,969 944 3,247 8,161
2005 3,736 949 3,085 7,769
2006 3,596 954 2,993 7,543
2007 3,320 930 2,734 6,984

Source: Uniform Crime Reporting Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Note:
Rates are based on incidents reported per 100,000 population.
Due to rounding, rates may not add to Totals.

Crime Rates are Higher in the West and Highest in the North

Crime Rates are Higher in the West and Highest in the North
Click to enlarge image.

Note:
The crime rate represents all Criminal Code incidents excluding traffic violations and other federal statutes, such as drug offences.

Crime Rates are Higher in the West and Highest in the North
Province/Territory Crime Rate
2003 2004 2005 2006 2007
Newfoundland & Labrador 6,248 6,351 6,156 6,149 6,346
Prince Edward Island 8,691 8,250 7,658 6,808 5,982
Nova Scotia 8,611 8,791 8,206 8,081 7,456
New Brunswick 7,101 7,307 6,425 5,995 5,502
Quebec 6,481 6,329 6,065 5,913 5,317
Ontario 6,008 6,048 6,048 5,722 5,228
Manitoba 12,562 12,752 11,838 11,670 10,829
Saskatchewan 15,444 15,189 14,233 13,706 13,225
Alberta 10,309 10,491 10,068 9,600 9,237
British Columbia 12,482 12,539 11,936 11,388 10,433
Yukon 26,490 23,660 22,779 20,621 21,317
Northwest Territories 37,681 42,179 43,367 41,209 43,762
Nunavut 35,104 36,907 35,178 31,602 29,917
Canada 8,142 8,161 7,769 7,543 6,984

Source: Uniform Crime Reporting Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Note:
Rates are based on 100,000 population.
The crime rate represents all Criminal Code incidents excluding traffic violations and other federal statutes, such as drug offences.

Canada's Incarceration Rate is High Relative to most Western European Countries

Canada's Incarceration Rate is High Relative to most Western European Countries
Click to enlarge image.

Source: World Prison Brief, International Centre for Prison Studies, retrieved October 2008 from www.prisonstudies.org.

Note:
The incarceration rate, in this figure, is a measure of the number of people (i.e., adults and youth) in custody per 100,000 people in the general population. Incarceration rates available from the World Prison Brief are based on the most recently available data from 2007 or 2008. Different practice and variations in measurement in different countries limit the comparability of these figures.

Canada's incarceration rate is high relative to most Western European countries
  1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2007-08*
United States 618 649 682 682 699 700 701 714 723 762
New Zealand 127 137 150 149 149 145 155 168 168 185
Scotland 101 119 119 118 115 120 129 132 136 155
England & Wales 107 120 125 125 124 125 141 142 141 153
Australia -- 95 110 108 108 110 115 117 120 130
Canada 131 126 123 118 116 116 116 108 107 108
Austria 84 86 86 85 84 85 100 106 110 95
Germany 83 90 96 97 97 95 98 96 98 91
France 90 90 88 91 89 80 93 91 91 91
Italy 85 86 85 89 94 95 100 98 96 83
Switzerland 85 88 85 81 79 90 68 81 81 76
Sweden 65 59 60 59 64 65 73 75 81 74
Norway 52 53 57 56 -- 60 59 65 65 69
Finland 58 56 54 46 52 50 70 71 66 64
Denmark 61 62 64 66 61 60 64 70 70 63

Source: World Prison Brief, International Centre for Prison Studies, retrieved October 2008 from www.prisonstudies.org.

Note:
*Incarceration rates available from the World Prison Brief are based on the most recently available data from 2007 or 2008.
Rates are based on 100,000 population.
-- Figures not available.

The Rate of Adults Charged has Declined Since 1982

The Rate of Adults Charged has Declined Since 1982
Click to enlarge image.

Source: Uniform Crime Reporting Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Note:
Violent crimes include homicide, attempted murder, assault, sexual offences, abduction and robbery.
Property crimes include break and enter, motor vehicle thefts, other thefts, possession of stolen goods and fraud.
Total charged includes adults charged under the Criminal Code as well as adults charged under other Federal Statutes such as the Controlled Drugs and Substances Act, the Fisheries Act, the Customs Act, the Indian Act and the Employment Insurance Act but excludes provincial statute offences and municipal by-laws.

The Rate of Adults Charged has Declined Since 1982
Criminal Code Federal Statutes
  Violent Property Other
CCC
Total
CCC
Drugs Other* Total
Charged**
1983 347 1,182 645 2,174 218 81 2,473
1984 363 1,122 620 2,104 203 57 2,364
1985 374 1,007 582 1,963 194 41 2,199
1986 405 974 641 2,021 190 43 2,254
1987 439 962 683 2,085 198 40 2,323
1988 462 941 684 2,087 195 43 2,324
1989 489 880 677 2,047 217 44 2,308
1990 529 905 683 2,118 198 38 2,354
1991 582 968 732 2,282 194 40 2,516
1992 587 925 713 2,225 198 50 2,474
1993 596 839 677 2,112 183 51 2,345
1994 573 739 619 1,932 178 42 2,152
1995 530 719 597 1,846 171 36 2,053
1996 523 727 579 1,829 172 29 2,030
1997 510 651 552 1,713 158 26 1,896
1998 494 615 561 1,670 168 24 1,862
1999 479 569 570 1,618 185 30 1,833
2000 496 528 593 1,617 198 26 1,842
2001 517 522 638 1,677 202 28 1,907
2002 499 507 640 1,645 199 29 1,873
2003 481 514 649 1,643 172 23 1,839
2004 468 514 661 1,643 187 30 1,860
2005 470 490 651 1,612 184 29 1,825
2006 476 471 671 1,618 197 27 1,842
2007 462 437 657 1,556 208 27 1,792

Source: Uniform Crime Reporting Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Note:
*Examples of other Federal Statutes include: the Controlled Drugs and Substances Act, the Fisheries Act, the Customs Act, the Indian Act and the Employment Insurance Act.
**Total charged excludes provincial statute offences and municipal by-laws.
Rates are based on 100,000 population, 18 years of age and older.
Due to rounding, rates may not add to Totals.

Administration of Justice Charges Account for 24% of Charges in Adult Courts

Administration of Justice Charges Account for 24% of Charges in Adult Courts
Click to enlarge image.

Source: Adult Criminal Court Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Note:
The concept of a case has changed from previous editions of this report to more closely reflect court processing. Statistics from the Adult Criminal Court Survey used in this report should not be compared to those in previous editions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview.

The Rate of Adults Charged has Declined Since 1982
Type of Charge Criminal Code and Other Federal Statute Charges
2004-2005 2005-2006 2006-2007
  # % # % # %
Crimes Against the Person 228,606 22.53 246,687 23.36 251,371 23.41
Homicide and Related 421 0.04 448 0.04 483 0.04
Attempted Murder 525 0.05 633 0.06 589 0.05
Robbery 9,606 0.95 9,906 0.94 10,090 0.94
Sexual Assault 8,152 0.80 7,890 0.75 8,439 0.79
Other Sexual Offences 5,037 0.50 4,663 0.44 4,652 0.43
Major Assault (Levels 2 & 3) 41,089 4.05 44,405 4.20 44,957 4.19
Common Assault (Level 1) 79,127 7.80 84,580 8.01 84,965 7.91
Uttering Threats 41,783 4.12 45,120 4.27 44,667 4.16
Criminal Harassment 7,226 0.71 7,419 0.70 7,690 0.72
Weapons 28,489 2.81 33,940 3.21 36,325 3.38
Other Crimes Against Persons 7,151 0.70 7,683 0.73 8,514 0.79
 
Crimes Against Property 273,256 26.93 264,837 25.07 263,541 24.54
Theft 83,032 8.18 79,888 7.56 80,138 7.46
Break and Enter 29,680 2.93 28,842 2.73 28,680 2.67
Fraud 65,357 6.44 63,254 5.99 63,237 5.89
Mischief 34,096 3.36 34,581 3.27 36,051 3.36
Possession of Stolen Property 57,634 5.68 55,504 5.26 53,187 4.95
Other Property Crimes 3,457 0.34 2,768 0.26 2,248 0.21
 
Administration of Justice 227,503 22.42 247,120 23.40 257,112 23.95
Fail to Appear 24,014 2.37 23,421 2.22 23,377 2.18
Breach of probation 79,775 7.86 87,289 8.26 90,675 8.44
Unlawfully at large 6,924 0.68 5,708 0.54 5,827 0.54
Fail to Comply with Order 111,303 10.97 124,734 11.81 131,018 12.20
Other Admin. Justice 5,487 0.54 5,968 0.57 6,215 0.58
 
Other Criminal Code 58,532 5.77 71,057 6.73 74,033 6.89
Prostitution 3,727 0.37 3,346 0.32 3,616 0.34
Disturbing the Peace 6,307 0.62 6,172 0.58 6,207 0.58
Residual Criminal Code 48,498 4.78 61,539 5.83 64,210 5.98
 
Criminal Code Traffic 122,816 12.11 121,361 11.49 117,288 10.92
Impaired Driving 101,672 10.02 99,672 9.44 95,503 8.89
Other CC Traffic 21,144 2.08 21,689 2.05 21,785 2.03
 
Other Federal Statutes 103,863 10.24 105,150 9.96 110,392 10.28
Drug Possession 30,676 3.02 32,715 3.10 35,001 3.26
Drug Trafficking 25,757 2.54 25,520 2.42 26,910 2.51
Residual Federal Statutes 47,430 4.67 46,915 4.44 48,481 4.52
Total Offences 1,014,576 100.00 1,056,212 100.00 1,073,737 100.00

Source: Adult Criminal Court Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Note:
Weapons have been included under "Crimes Against the Person" in this report. The Adult Criminal Court Survey groups these offences under "Other Criminal Code". Table excludes Youth Criminal Justice Act/Young Offenders Act offences. The Adult Criminal Court Survey groups these offences under "Other Federal Statutes". Due to rounding, percentages may not add to 100 percent. Data from this survey are not nationally comprehensive as they do not include Manitoba for years prior to 2005-06, or Northwest Territories in 2003-04. In addition, Superior Court data are not reported to the Adult Criminal Court Survey for Quebec, Ontario and Saskatchewan. The concept of a case has changed from previous editions of this report to more closely reflect court processing. Statistics from the Adult Criminal Court Survey used in this report should not be compared to those in previous editions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview.

Victimization Rates for Theft of Personal Property Have Increased

Victimization Rates for Theft of Personal Property Have Increased
Enlarge image.

Source: General Social Survey, Statistics Canada, 1999 and 2004.

Note:
*Assault data includes incidents of spousal violence. In previous editions of this document, the victimization data excluded incidents of spousal violence.
The next General Social Survey is in 2009.
Rates are based on 1,000 population, 15 years of age and older.

Victimization Rates for Theft of Personal Property Have Increased
Type of Incident Year
1999 2004
Theft of Personal Property 75 93
Sexual Assault 21 21
Robbery 9 11
Assault* 81 75

Source:  General Social Survey, Statistics Canada, 1999 and 2004.

Note:
*Assault data includes incidents of spousal violence. In previous editions of this document, the victimization data excluded incidents of spousal violence.
The next General Social Survey is in 2009.
Rates are based on 1,000 population, 15 years of age and older.

The Majority of Victims of Violent Crime are Under 30

The Majority of Victims of Violent Crime are Under 30
Click to enlarge image.

Source: Incident-based Uniform Crime Reporting Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Note:
Violent crimes include homicide, attempted murder, assault, sexual offences, abduction, robbery and traffic offences causing bodily harm and death.
The data do not represent 100% coverage. As of December 31, 2007, there were 951 police departments and detachments reporting full-year data to the Incident-based Uniform Crime Reporting Survey and they represented approximately 93.8% of the population of Canada. The data excludes 4,236 cases where age was unknown, 2,428 cases where sex was unknown and 475 cases where both age and sex were unknown.
Due to rounding, totals may not add to 100 percent. 

The Majority of Victims of Violent Crime are Under 30
Age of Victim Males Females Total
  # % # % # %
0 to 4 years 1,548 0.9 1,694 1.0 3,242 1.0
5 to 9 years 3,890 2.3 3,571 2.2 7,461 2.2
10 to 14 years 14,753 8.9 12,521 7.5 27,274 8.2
15 to 19 years 28,010 16.9 27,130 16.4 55,140 16.6
20 to 24 years 23,488 14.1 25,620 15.4 49,108 14.8
25 to 29 years 18,221 11.0 19,977 12.0 38,198 11.5
30 to 34 years 15,138 9.1 17,051 10.3 32,189 9.7
35 to 39 years 14,802 8.9 16,536 10.0 31,338 9.4
40 to 44 years 14,560 8.8 15,093 9.1 29,653 8.9
45 to 49 years 12,020 7.2 11,253 6.8 23,273 7.0
50 to 54 years 8,129 4.9 6,655 4.0 14,784 4.5
55 to 59 years 5,199 3.1 3,731 2.2 8,930 2.7
60 to 64 years 2,974 1.8 2,111 1.3 5,085 1.5
65 to 69 years 1,568 0.9 1,147 0.7 2,715 0.8
70 to 74 years 866 0.5 697 0.4 1,563 0.5
75 and over 1,025 0.6 1,136 0.7 2,161 0.7
Total 166,191 100.0 165,923 100.0 332,114 100.0

Source: Incident-based Uniform Crime Reporting Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Note:
The data do not represent 100% coverage. As of December 31, 2007, there were 951 police departments and detachments reporting full-year data to the Incident-based Uniform Crime Reporting Survey and they represented approximately 93.8% of the population of Canada. The data excludes 4,236 cases where age was unknown, 2,428 cases where sex was unknown and 475 cases where both age and sex were unknown.
Due to rounding, totals may not add to 100 percent.  

Most Adult Custodial Sentences Ordered by the Court are Short

Most Adult Custodial Sentences Ordered by the Court are Short
Click to enlarge image.

Source: Adult Criminal Court Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Note:
Due to rounding, totals may not add to 100 percent.
Excludes cases where length of prison sentence was not known.
Data from this survey are not nationally comprehensive as they do not include Manitoba for any years prior to 2005-06, Northwest Territories for 2001-02, 2002-03 and 2003-04 and Nunavut for 2001-02. In addition, Superior Court data are not reported to the Adult Criminal Court Survey for Quebec, Ontario and Saskatchewan. The concept of case has changed in the Adult Criminal Court Survey to more closely reflect court processing. As a result, these figures should not be compared to the court statistics reported in previous editions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview.

Most Adult Custodial Sentences Ordered by the Court are Short
Length of Prison Sentence 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07
  % % % % %
1 Month or Less          
Women 65.2 68.0 68.3 68.7 69.9
Men 50.8 51.7 52.1 52.4 52.9
Total 52.2 53.3 53.7 54.2 54.6
More Than 1 Month to 6 Months          
Women 21.5 19.9 22.6 22.9 22.2
Men 31.9 31.5 32.5 32.5 32.2
Total 30.9 30.4 31.5 31.5 31.1
More Than 6 Months to 12 Months          
Women 3.3 2.4 4.6 3.9 4.0
Men 5.8 5.6 6.7 6.8 6.8
Total 5.6 5.3 6.5 6.5 6.7
More Than 1 Year to Less Than 2 Years          
Women 1.7 1.4 1.7 1.9 1.9
Men 2.8 2.9 3.6 3.7 3.6
Total 2.7 2.8 3.4 3.5 3.5
2 Years or More          
Women 1.7 2.2 2.0 2.1 2.0
Men 4.0 4.3 4.5 4.2 4.5
Total 3.8 4.1 4.3 4.0 4.2

Source: Adult Criminal Court Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Note:
Due to rounding, totals may not add to 100 percent.
Excludes cases where length of prison sentence was not known.
Data from this survey are not nationally comprehensive as they do not include Manitoba for any years prior to 2005-06, Northwest Territories for 2001-02, 2002-03 and 2003-04 and Nunavut for 2001-02. In addition, Superior Court data are not reported to the Adult Criminal Court Survey for Quebec, Ontario and Saskatchewan. The concept of case has changed in the Adult Criminal Court Survey to more closely reflect court processing. As a result, these figures should not be compared to the court statistics reported in previous editions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview.

Relativly few crimes result in sentences to federal Penitentiaries

Relativly few crimes result in sentences to federal Penitentiaries
Click to enlarge image

Note:
*This figure only includes provincial court convictions and partial data from Superior Court. The concept of case has changed in the Adult Criminal Court Survey to more closely reflect court processing. As a result, these figures should not be compared to the court statistics reported in previous editions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview.
Police data are reported on a calendar year basis whereas court and prison data are reported on a fiscal year basis (April 1 through March 31).

Relativly few crimes result in sentences to federal Penitentiaries
  2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08
Total Number of Offences Reported to Police1 2,819,346 2,863,255 2,756,880 2,709,496 2,564,951
Estimated Convictions in Adult Court1* 232,410 238,456 244,572 242,988 Not available
Sentenced Admissions to Provincial/Territorial Custody1 81,005 78,351 78,081 Not available Not available
Warrant of Committal Admissions to Federal Facilities2 4,226 4,555 4,787 5,122 5,007

Source: 1Uniform Crime Reporting Survey, Adult Criminal Court Survey and Adult Corrections Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada; 2Correctional Service Canada.

Note:
*This figure only includes provincial court convictions and partial data from Superior Court. The concept of case has changed in the Adult Criminal Court Survey to more closely reflect court processing. As a result, these figures should not be compared to the court statistics reported in previous editions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview.
Police data are reported on a calendar year basis whereas court and prison data are reported on a fiscal year basis (April 1 through March 31).

The Rate of Youth Charged Peaked in 1991 and has Declined Steadily Since

The Rate of Youth Charged Peaked in 1991 and has Declined Steadily Since
Click to enlarge image

Note:
*For criminal justice purposes, youth are defined under Canadian law as persons aged 12 to 17 years.
Violent crimes include homicide, attempted murder, assault, sexual offences, abduction and robbery.
Property crimes include break and enter, motor vehicle thefts, other thefts, possession of stolen goods and fraud.
In 2007, 42% of all youths charged with violent crimes were charged with assault level 1 (minor assault).

The Rate of Youth Charged Peaked in 1991 and has Declined Steadily Since
Type of Offence
Year Violent Property Other CCC Total
  Female Male Total Female Male Total Female Male Total Female Male Total
1988 209 794 509 1,112 5,395 3,306 353 1,760 1,074 1,674 7,949 4,889
1989 246 964 614 1,239 5,455 3,401 387 1,880 1,153 1,872 8,299 5,168
1990 299 1,071 696 1,396 5,906 3,712 381 1,980 1,202 2,076 8,957 5,610
1991 349 1,290 832 1,564 6,367 4,031 473 2,270 1,396 2,386 9,926 6,258
1992 384 1,329 869 1,522 5,622 3,629 504 2,199 1,375 2,409 9,150 5,874
1993 450 1,369 923 1,392 4,951 3,221 484 2,086 1,307 2,326 8,406 5,450
1994 426 1,383 918 1,244 4,514 2,924 442 1,984 1,234 2,112 7,882 5,077
1995 444 1,411 941 1,307 4,323 2,856 493 1,992 1,263 2,244 7,727 5,061
1996 452 1,387 932 1,257 4,186 2,761 522 1,939 1,250 2,231 7,512 4,943
1997 473 1,321 908 1,068 3,640 2,389 535 1,911 1,242 2,076 6,871 4,539
1998 473 1,307 902 999 3,332 2,198 568 1,925 1,266 2,041 6,564 4,365
1999 441 1,247 855 900 2,935 1,945 537 1,875 1,224 1,878 6,056 4,025
2000 476 1,331 915 892 2,795 1,869 567 1,976 1,291 1,935 6,101 4,075
2001 502 1,369 947 902 2,673 1,811 628 2,053 1,359 2,032 6,095 4,117
2002 505 1,313 919 891 2,495 1,714 595 1,939 1,284 1,991 5,7469 3,917
2003 427 1,166 805 582 2,076 1,348 496 1,716 1,121 1,504 4,957 3,274
2004 419 1,121 779 499 1,829 1,180 496 1,636 1,080 1,414 4,586 3,039
2005 410 1,154 791 459 1,631 1,059 456 1,617 1,051 1,326 4,402 2,902
2006 412 1,152 792 477 1,491 997 468 1,639 1,068 1,358 4,282 2,857
2007 434 1,200 827 495 1,434 977 500 1,708 1,120 1,430 4,342 2,923

Source: Uniform Crime Reporting Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Note:
*For criminal justice purposes, youth are defined under Canadian law as persons aged 12 to 17 years.
Rates for "Total" are based on 100,000 youth population (12 to 17 years).
Rates for "Females" are based on 100,000 female youth population (12 to 17 years) and rates for "Males" are based on 100,000 male youth population (12 to 17 years).

The Most Common Youth Court Case is Theft

The Most Common Youth Court Case is Theft
Click to enlarge image

Note:
*Youth Criminal Justice Act offences include failure to comply with a disposition or undertaking, contempt against youth court, assisting a youth to leave a place of custody and harbouring a youth unlawfully at large. Also included are similar offences under the Young Offenders Act, which preceded the Youth Criminal Justice Act.
**"Administration of Justice" category includes the offences failure to appear, failure to comply, breach of recognizance, escape and unlawfully at large.
The concept of a case has changed in the Youth Court Survey to more closely reflect court processing. As a result, these figures should not be compared to the youth court statistics reported in previous editions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview.

The Most Common Youth Court Case is Theft
Type of Case Number of Youth Court Cases
2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07
 
Crimes Against the Person 20,342 18,570 16,988 17,005 17,122
Common Assault 7,440 6,768 5,953 5,940 5,682
Major Assault 3,892 3,633 3,400 3,488 3,435
Robbery 2,598 2,227 2,021 1,990 2,228
Weapons / Firearms / Explosives 1,896 1,854 1,861 1,839 1,996
Sexual Assault / Sexual Offences 1,499 1,451 1,305 1,252 1,165
Homicide and Related Offences 75 66 61 56 63
Other Crimes Against the Person 2,942 2,571 2,387 2,440 2,553
 
Crimes Against Property 31,359 25,532 22,722 21,522 21,279
Theft 12,413 9,211 7,977 7,503 7,687
Break and Enter 7,344 6,653 6,087 5,607 5,066
Possession of Stolen Goods 5,218 4,262 3,680 3,504 3,505
Mischief 4,647 3,765 3,557 3,728 3,878
Fraud 1,345 1,181 1,009 827 817
Other Crimes Against Property 392 460 412 353 326
 
Administration of Justice 5,924 5,186 4,904 4,793 4,945
Escape / Unlawfully at Large 1,131 889 666 596 549
Other Administration of Justice* 4,793 4,297 4,238 4,197 4,396
 
Other Criminal Code 4,119 3,819 3,475 3,558 3,558
Prostitution 28 27 11 26 19
Disturbing the Peace 363 260 230 228 244
Impaired Driving / Other CC traffic 1,329 1,216 1,136 1,049 1,086
Residual Criminal Code 2,399 2,316 2,098 2,255 2,212
 
Other Federal Statutes 14,409 10,895 9,499 9,393 9,556
Drug Possession 3,899 2,214 2,198 2,236 2,430
Drug Trafficking 1,635 1,427 1,309 1,243 1,305
Youth Criminal Justice Act** 8,678 7,118 5,828 4,966 4,795
Residual Federal Statutes 197 136 164 948 1,026
Total 76,153 64,002 57,588 56,271 56,463

Source: Youth Court Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Note:
*"Other Administration of Justice" includes the offences failure to appear, failure to comply, and breach of recognizance.
**Youth Criminal Justice Act (YCJA) offences include failure to comply with a disposition or undertaking, contempt against youth court, assisting a youth to leave a place of custody and harbouring a youth unlawfully at large. Also included are similar offences under the Young Offenders Act, which preceded the Youth Criminal Justice Act.
The concept of a case has changed in the Youth Court Survey to more closely reflect court processing. As a result, these figures should not be compared to the youth court statistics reported in previous editions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview.  

Fewer youth are receiving custodial sentences under the YCJA

Fewer youth are receiving custodial sentences under the YCJA
Click to enlarge image

Note:
*"Other" includes absolute discharge, restitution, prohibition, seizure, forfeiture, compensation, pay purchaser, essays, apologies, counseling programs and conditional discharge. Commencing in 2003-04, it also includes conditional sentence, intensive support and supervision, attendance at non-residential program and reprimand.
The concept of a case has changed in the Youth Court Survey to more closely reflect court processing. As a result, these figures should not be compared to the youth court statistics reported in previous editions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview.

Fewer youth are receiving custodial sentences under the YCJA
Type of Disposition Gender Year
2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07
    % % % % %
Probation Female 70.0 61.0 60.1 59.6 57.4
  Male 70.1 63.8 63.1 61.1 59.5
  Total 70.0 63.2 62.4 60.1 59.1
Custody Female 22.6 17.0 16.2 15.3 13.5
  Male 28.1 23.4 22.4 19.9 18.1
  Total 26.9 22.1 21.1 18.4 17.2
Community Service
Order
Female 26.6 26.0 25.6 23.9 22.3
  Male 27.2 27.7 27.7 26.1 25.1
  Total 27.1 27.4 27.2 24.8 24.5
Fine Female 5.2 5.2 4.9 4.1 4.0
  Male 7.3 6.4 6.0 5.8 5.8
  Total 6.9 6.2 5.8 5.5 5.5
Deferred Custody
and Supervision
Female 0.0 1.0 2.7 3.0 2.5
  Male 0.0 1.5 3.0 3.7 3.5
  Total 0.0 1.4 3.0 3.5 3.3
Other* Female 28.4 34.2 40.1 37.4 36.8
  Male 31.1 35.6 42.1 41.0 40.3
  Total 28.4 35.3 41.8 38.9 39.6

Source: Youth Court Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Note:
*"Other" includes absolute discharge, restitution, prohibition, seizure, forfeiture, compensation, pay purchaser, essays, apologies, counseling programs and conditional discharge. Commencing in 2003-04, it also includes conditional sentence, intensive support and supervision, attendance at a non-residential program and reprimand.
The concept of a case has changed in the Youth Court Survey to more closely reflect court processing. As a result, these figures should not be compared to the youth court statistics reported in previous editions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview.

Section B: Corrections Administration

Federal Expenditures on corrections increased in 2006-07

Federal Expenditures on corrections increased in 2006-07
Click to enlarge image

Note:
Federal expenditures on corrections include the spending by the Correctional Service Canada (CSC), the National Parole Board (NPB) and the Office of the Correctional Investigator (OCI). The expenditures for the CSC include both operating and capital costs. CSC expenditures exclude CORCAN (a Special Operating Agency that conducts industrial operations within penitentiaries).
Constant dollars represent dollar amounts calculated on a one-year base (2002) that adjusts for inflation allowing the yearly amounts to be directly comparable. Changes in the Consumer Price Index were used to calculate constant dollars.

Federal Expenditures on corrections increased in 2006-07
Year Current Dollars Constant 2002 Dollars
Operating Capital Total Per capita Operating Capital Total Per capita
  $'000     $ $'000     $
2002-03
CSC 1,412,455 125,955 1,538,410 49.04 1,412,455 125,955 1,538,410 49.04
NPB 36,500 -- 36,500 1.16 36,500 -- 36,500 1.16
OCI 2,732 -- 2,732 0.09 2,732 -- 2,732 0.09
Total 1,451,687 125,955 1,577,642 50.29 1,451,687 125,955 1,577,642 50.29
2003-04
CSC 1,411,746 110,530 1,522,276 48.06 1,373,294 107,519 1,480,813 46.75
NPB 35,600 -- 35,600 1.13 34,728 -- 34,728 1.10
OCI 2,431 -- 2,431 0.08 2,365 -- 2,365 0.07
Total 1,449,777 110,530 1,560,307 49.26 1,410,386 107,519 1,517,906 47.92
2004-05
CSC 1,480,721 105,893 1,586,614 49.59 1,414,251 1,014,139 1,515,391 47.36
NPB 41,100 -- 41,100 1.29 39,351 -- 39,351 1.23
OCI 2,871 -- 2,871 0.09 2,742 -- 2,742 0.09
Total 1,524,692 105,893 1,630,585 50.97 1,456,344 1,014,139 1,557,483 48.68
2005-06
CSC 1,533,498 116,843 1,650,341 51.08 1,433,176 109,199 1,542,375 47.73
NPB 42,800 -- 42,800 1.32 39,780 -- 39,780 1.22
OCI 3,115 -- 3,115 0.10 2,911 -- 2,911 0.09
Total 1,579,413 116,843 1,696,256 52.50 1,476,087 109,199 1,585,286 49.06
2006-07
CSC 1,743,847 124,538 1,868,386 57.23 1,598,393 114,150 1,712,544 52.45
NPB 43,400 -- 43,400 1.33 39,780 -- 39,780 1.22
OCI 3,100 -- 3,100 0.09 2,841 -- 2,841 0.09
Total 1,790,347 124,538 1,914,886 58.65 1,641,015 114,150 1,755,166 53.76

Source: Correctional Service Canada; National Parole Board; Office of the Correctional Investigator; Statistics Canada Consumer Price Index.

Note:
Due to rounding, constant dollar amounts may not add to "Total".
Per capita cost is calculated by dividing the total expenditures by the total Canadian population and thus represents the cost per Canadian for federal correctional services.
Constant dollars represent dollar amounts calculated on a one-year base (2002) that adjusts for inflation allowing the yearly amounts to be directly comparable. Changes in the Consumer Price Index were used to calculate constant dollars.

CSC employees are concentrated in custody centres

CSC employees are concentrated in custody centres
Click to enlarge image

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:
*These parole officers are situated within institutions, with the responsibility of preparing offenders for release.
**CSC has changed its definition of employee. Previously the total number of employees included casual employees, employees on leave without pay and suspended employees. These categories have been removed from the total as of 2005-06. These numbers represent active employees as of March 31, 2008.  

CSC employees are concentrated in custody centres
Service Area Number of Staff Percent
     
Headquarters and Central Services 2,327 15.1
Administrative Support 1,956 12.7
Program Staff 86 0.6
Health Care Workers 123 0.8
Correctional Officers 22 0.1
Instructors/Supervisors 14 0.1
Other** 126 0.8
     
Custody Centres 11,841 76.8
Correctional Officers 6,165 40.0
Administrative Support 1,915 12.4
Health Care Workers 844 5.5
Parole Officers / Parole Supervisors* 707 4.6
Program Staff 741 4.8
Instructors/Supervisors 410 2.7
Other** 1,059 6.9
     
Community Supervision 1,257 8.1
Parole Officers / Parole Supervisors 664 4.3
Administrative Support 314 2.0
Program Staff 190 1.2
Health Care Workers 60 0.4
Correctional Officers 21 0.1
Other** 8 0.1
Total*** 15,425 100.0

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:
*These parole officers are situated within institutions, with the responsibility of preparing offenders for release.
**The "Other" category represents job classifications such as trades and food services.
***CSC has changed its definition of employee. Previously the total number of employees included casual employees, employees on leave without pay and suspended employees. These categories have been removed from the total as of 2005-06. These numbers represent active employees as of March 31, 2008. Due to rounding, percentages may not add to 100.

The cost of keeping an inmate incarcerated has increased

The cost of keeping an inmate incarcerated has increased
Enlarge image

Note:
The average daily inmate cost includes those costs associated with the operation of the institutions such as salaries and employee benefit plan contributions, but excludes capital expenditures and expenditures related to CORCAN (a Special Operating Agency that conducts industrial operations within penitentiaries).
In 2001-02, the cost allocation methodology was refined to better reflect expenditures directly related to offenders. In addition, the cost of keeping a woman incarcerated includes the cost of maximum security units for women co-located within institutions for men.

The cost of keeping an inmate incarcerated has increased
Categories Annual Average Costs per Offender (current $)
2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07
Incarcerated Offenders          
Maximum Security (males only) 110,213 110,223 113,591 113,645 121,294
Medium Security (males only) 69,716 71,640 75,661 75,251 80,545
Minimum Security (males only) 69,239 74,431 83,643 82,676 83,297
Women's Facilities 169,399 150,867 166,642 170,684 166,830
Exchange of Services Agreements 54,450 56,393 65,932 71,605 77,428
Incarcerated Average 81,206 83,276 87,919 88,067 93,030
Offenders in the Community 20,478 20,698 20,320 23,105 23,076
Total Incarcerated and Community 64,464 65,991 68,216 71,004 74,261

Source: Public Accounts of Canada, Correctional Service Canada.

Note:
Exchange of Services Agreements are agreements that the Correctional Service of Canada has with the provinces and territories to cover costs associated with the provinces and territories providing services to federal offenders.
The Average Cost per Offender is calculated by dividing the total costs for the year by the average number of offenders in the institutions over the year. The total cost includes money received from the provinces for maintaining provincial offenders in federal facilities. The average number of offenders includes the number of provincial offenders maintained in federal facilities.

The number of National Parole Board employees

he number of National Parole Board employees
Enlarge image

Note:
Section 103 of the Corrections and Conditional Release Act limits the National Parole Board to 45 full-time members.

The number of National Parole Board employees
Full-Time Equivalents
  2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08
Strategic Outcome*          
Conditional Release Decisions 264 296 305 278 288
Conditional Release Openess and Accountability -- -- -- 57 53
Pardon Decisions and Clemency Recommendations 28 40 65 32 36
Corporate Management 74 49 34 49 39
Total 366 385 404 416 416
           
Type of Employees          
Full-time Board Members 43 41 43 40 41
Part-time Board Members 13 15 18 19 22
Staff 310 329 343 357 353
Total 366 385 404 416 416**

Source: National Parole Board.

Note:
*As of 2006-07, the Receiver General and Treasury Board Secretariat reporting requirements have been changed from Business Line to Strategic Outcome. Consequently, data regarding Conditional Release Openess and Accountability is unavailable prior to 2006-07.
**The National Parole Board transferred the Information Technology function to Correctional Services of Canada effective April 1st, 2007. This represented a reduction of 23 full-time equivalents.
Section 103 of the Corrections and Conditional Release Act limits the National Parole Board to 45 full-time members.

The number of employees in the Office of the Correctional Investigator

The number of employees in the Office of the Correctional Investigator
Enlarge image

Note:
*The Office of the Correctional Investigator (OCI) may commence an investigation on receipt of a complaint by or on behalf of an offender or on its own initiative. Complaints are made by telephone, letter and during interviews with the OCI's investigative staff at federal correctional facilities. The dispositions in response to complaints involve a combination of internal responses (where the information or assistance sought by the offender can generally be provided by the OCI's investigative staff) and investigations (where, further to a review/analysis of law, policies and documentation, OCI investigative staff make an inquiry or several interventions with Correctional Service Canada and submit recommendations to address the complaint). Investigations vary considerably in terms of scope, complexity, duration and resources required.

The number of employees in the Office of the Correctional Investigator
Full-Time Equivalents
  2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08
Type of Employees          
Correctional Investigator 1 1 1 1 1
Senior Management 4 4 4 4 4
Investigative Services 16 13 13 13 13
Administrative Services 5 4 4 4 4
Legal Counsel/Advisor 1 1 1 1 1
Total 27 23 23 23 23

Source: Office of the Correctional Investigator.

Health care is the most common area of offender complaint received by the Office of the Correctional Investigator

Health care is the most common area of offender complaint  received by the Office of the Correctional Investigator
Enlarge image

Note:
*The Office of the Correctional Investigator (OCI) may commence an investigation on receipt of a complaint by or on behalf of an offender or on its own initiative. Complaints are made by telephone, letter and during interviews with the OCI's investigative staff at federal correctional facilities. The dispositions in response to complaints involve a combination of internal responses (where the information or assistance sought by the offender can generally be provided by the OCI's investigative staff) and investigations (where, further to a review/analysis of law, policies and documentation, OCI investigative staff make an inquiry or several interventions with Correctional Service Canada and submit recommendations to address the complaint). Investigations vary considerably in terms of scope, complexity, duration and resources required.

Health care is the most common area of offender complaint received by the Office of the Correctional Investigator
Category of Complaint Number of Complaints*
Year
2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08
  # # # # #
Health Care 750 891 913 916 849
Institutional Transfers 611 653 613 610 555
Cell Property 472 567 617 686 520
Administrative Segregation 379 468 467 453 406
Case Preparation for Decisions 295 348 410 429 379
Conditions of Confinement 354 330 427 374 350
Staff Performance 430 429 363 452 316
Visits 475 467 384 357 315
File Information 272 351 284 343 297
Grievance Procedures 280 378 293 296 264
Financial Matters 185 261 275 248 196
Telephone 165 211 195 180 189
Programs 202 220 291 239 180
Safety/Security of Offender 159 215 199 167 176
Security Classification 174 183 227 193 172
Employment 120 104 149 146 100
Cell Placement 127 93 118 128 79
Other** 1,189 1,234 1,046 1,155 852
Outside OCI's Terms of Reference 253 293 320 290 203
Total 6,892 7,696 7,591 7,662 6,398

Source: Office of the Correctional Investigator.

Note:
*The Office of the Correctional Investigator (OCI) may commence an investigation on receipt of a complaint by or on behalf of an offender or on its own initiative. Complaints are made by telephone, letter and during interviews with the OCI's investigative staff at federal correctional facilities. The dispositions in response to complaints involve a combination of internal responses (where the information or assistance sought by the offender can generally be provided by the OCI's investigative staff) and investigations (where, further to a review/analysis of law, policies and documentation, OCI investigative staff make an inquiry or several interventions with Correctional Service Canada and submit recommendations to address the complaint). Investigations vary considerably in terms of scope, complexity, duration and resources required.
**Other refers to other types of complaints not specified in the table and includes Claims Against the Crown, Community Programs/Supervision, Correspondence, Death or Serious Injury, General Decision/Implementation, Diet, Discipline, Discrimination, Food Services, Harassment, Health and Safety/Worksite, Ion Scan/Drug Dog, Mental Health, Methadone, Official Languages, Operation/Decisions of the OCI, Release Procedures, Request for Information, Search and Seizure, Sentence Administration/Calculation, Temporary Absence Decision, Urinalysis and Use of Force. 

Section C
Offender Population

Federal offenders under the jurisdiction of Correctional Service of Canada

Federal offenders under the jurisdiction of Correctional Service of Canada
Enlarge image

Definitions:

Total Offender Population includes male and female federal offenders who are incarcerated (serving their sentences in federal or provincial institutions and those on temporary absence), offenders who are temporarily detained, actively supervised, on bail, escaped, unlawfully at large and those that have been deported.

Incarcerated includes male and female federal offenders serving their sentences in federal or provincial institutions.

On Bail includes offenders on a judicial interim release; they have appealed their conviction or sentence and have been released to await the results of a new trial.

Actively Supervised includes federal offenders on day parole, full parole or statutory release, as well as those who are in the community on long-term supervision orders.

Community Supervision includes federal offenders on day parole, full parole, statutory release, or in the community supervised on a long term supervision order, as well as those who are temporarily detained or paroled for deportation.

Temporarily Detained includes offenders who are physically held in a provincial detention centre or a federal institution after being suspended for a breach of a parole condition or to prevent a breach of parole conditions.

Deported includes offenders for whom a deportation order has been issued by Citizenship and Immigration Canada.

Escaped includes offenders who have absconded from either a correctional facility or while on a temporary absence and whose whereabouts are unknown.

Unlawfully at Large includes offenders who have been released to the community on day parole, full parole, statutory release or a long term supervision order for whom a warrant for suspension has been issued, but has not yet been executed.

(as of April 13, 2008)

Federal offenders under the jurisdiction of Correctional Service of Canada
Status Federal Offenders
  #   %  
Incarcerated 13, 581   59.5  
On Bail 77   0.3  
Actively Supervised 6,977   30.6  
Day Parole   1,059   4.6
Full Parole   3,543   15.5
Statutory Release   2,189   9.6
Long Term Supervision Order   186   0.8
Temporarily Detained, while on: 1,129   4.9  
Day Parole   179   0.8
Full Parole   150   0.7
Statutory Release   777   3.4
Long Term Supervision Order   23   0.1
Deported 330   1.4  
Escaped 131   0.6  
Unlawfully At Large 606   2.7  
Total 22, 831   100.0  

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:
It is possible for an offender under federal jurisdiction to serve his or her sentence in a provincial institution. The data presented include these offenders as they are still under federal jurisdiction.  

The number of incarcerated federal offenders increased in 2007-08

The number of incarcerated federal offenders increased in 2007-08
Enlarge image

Note:
*The data reflect the number of offenders incarcerated at the end of each fiscal year. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.
The term "incarcerated federal offenders" refers to those offenders serving a sentence of two years or more who are currently serving their sentence in a federal or provincial correctional facility. These numbers include those offenders who are in the community on some form of temporary absence at the time of the count. These numbers do not include those offenders who have had their supervision period suspended and are temporarily detained, those offenders who are on bail, or those offenders who have escaped and have not yet been recaptured at the time of the count.

The number of incarcerated federal offenders increased in 2007-08
Year Incarcerated Offenders
Provincial/Territorial2 Total
Federal1 Sentenced Remand Other/Temporary Detention
1998-99 13,131 12,478 6,472 271 19,221 32,352
1999-00 12,816 11,438 6,665 548 18,651 31,467
2000-01 12,794 10,806 7,428 432 18,666 31,460
2001-02 12,663 10,931 7,980 351 19,262 31,925
2002-03 12,652 10,621 8,728 337 19,686 32,338
2003-04 12,413 9,851 9,177 342 19,370 31,783
2004-05 12,624 9,815 9,660 346 19,821 32,445
2005-06 12,671 9,800 10,754 302 20,856 33,527
2006-07 13,171 -- -- -- -- --
2007-08 13,581 -- -- -- -- --

Source: 1Correctional Service Canada; 2Adult Correctional Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Note:
Incarcerated includes male and female federal offenders serving their sentences in federal or provincial institutions.
The figures for federal offenders reflect yearly snapshots as of the last day of each fiscal year. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year. The figures for provincial and territorial offenders reflect annual average counts.
-- Data not available.

The number of admissions to federal jurisdiction has increased over the past decade

The number of admissions to federal jurisdiction has increased over the past decade
Enlarge image

Note:
*"Other" includes transfers from other jurisdictions (exchange of services), terminations, transfers from foreign countries, and admissions where a release is interrupted as a consequence of a new conviction.
These numbers refer to the federal jurisdiction admissions during each fiscal year and may be greater than the actual number of offenders admitted, since an individual offender may be admitted more than once in a given year. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.   

The number of admissions to federal jurisdiction increased over the past decade
Type of Admission 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08
 Women Men  Women  Men  Women Men  Women Men  Women Men
Warrant of Committal                    
1st Federal Sentence 202 2,722 217 3,026 240 3,162 276 3,411 274 3,358
All Others 35 1,267 20 1,292 35 1,350 42 1,393 33 1,342
Subtotal 237 3,989 237 4,318 275 4,512 318 4,804 307 4,700
Total 4,226 4,555 4,787 5,122 5,007
                     
Revocations 139 3,081 153 3,090 162 3,125 156 3,218 147 3,210
Total 3,220 3,243 3,287 3,374 3,357
                     
Other* 12 164 16 151 12 149 8 116 11 156
Total 176 167 161 124 167
                     
  388 7,234 406 7,559 449 7,786 482 8,138 465 8,066
Total Admissions 7,622 7,965 8,235 8,620 8,531

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:
*"Other" includes transfers from other jurisdictions through exchange of services, terminations, transfers from foreign countries, and admissions where a release is interrupted as a consequence of a new conviction.
These numbers refer to the federal jurisdiction admissions during each fiscal year and may be greater than the actual number of offenders admitted, since an individual offender may be admitted more than once in a given year. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

The number of women admitted from the courts to federal jurisdiction increased over the past decade

The number of women admitted from the courts to federal jurisdiction increased over the past decade
Enlarge image

Note:
A warrant of committal is a new admission to federal jurisdiction from the courts.

The number of women admitted from the courts to federal jurisdiction increased over the past decade
Year Warrant of Committal Admissions Total
Women       Men
  # % # %  
1998-99 232 5.0 4,407 95.0 4,639
1999-00 227 5.2 4,122 94.8 4,349
2000-01 231 5.4 4,044 94.6 4,275
2001-02 202 4.9 3,914 95.1 4,116
2002-03 204 4.8 4,070 95.2 4,274
2003-04 237 5.6 3,989 94.4 4,226
2004-05 237 5.2 4,318 94.8 4,555
2005-06 275 5.7 4,512 94.3 4,787
2006-07 318 6.2 4,804 93.8 5,122
2007-08 307 6.1 4,700 93.9 5,007

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:
A warrant of committal is a new admission to federal jurisdiction from the courts.

Offender age at admission to federal jurisdiction is increasing

Offender age at admission to federal jurisdiction is increasing
Enlarge image

Note:
A warrant of committal is a new admission to federal jurisdiction from the courts.

Offender age at admission to federal jurisdiction is increasing
Age at Admission 1998-99 2007-08
  Women Men Total Women Men Total
  # % # % # % # % # % # %
Under 18 0 0.0 11 0.2 11 0.2 0 0.0 4 0.1 4 0.1
                         
18 and 19 8 3.4 252 5.7 260 5.6 10 3.3 172 3.7 182 3.6
                         
20 to 24 36 15.5 857 19.4 893 19.2 54 17.6 894 19.0 948 18.9
                         
25 to 29 50 21.6 842 19.1 892 19.2 54 17.6 841 17.9 895 17.9
                         
30 to 34 58 25.0 769 17.4 827 17.8 40 13.0 678 14.4 718 14.3
                         
35 to 39 38 16.4 646 14.7 684 14.7 50 16.3 639 13.6 689 13.8
                         
40 to 44 17 7.3 439 10.0 456 9.8 50 16.3 583 12.4 633 12.6
                         
45 to 49 11 4.7 227 5.2 238 5.1 29 9.4 400 8.5 429 8.6
                         
50 to 59 12 5.2 263 6.0 275 5.9 15 4.9 353 7.5 368 7.3
                         
60 to 69 2 0.9 82 1.9 84 1.8 5 1.6 104 2.2 109 2.2
                         
70 and over 0 0.0 19 0.4 19 0.4 0 0.0 32 0.7 32 0.6
                         
Total 232 4,407 4,639 307 4,700 5,007

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:
A warrant of committal is a new admission to federal jurisdiction from the courts.
Due to rounding, percentages may not add to 100 percent.

The average age at admission is lower for Aboriginal offenders than for non-Aboriginal offenders

The average age at admission is lower for Aboriginal offenders than for non-Aboriginal offenders
Enlarge image

Note:
A warrant of committal is a new admission to federal jurisdiction from the courts.

The average age at admission is lower for Aboriginal offenders than for non-Aboriginal offenders
Age at Admission 1998-99 2007-08
Aboriginal Non-
Aboriginal
Total Aboriginal Non-
Aboriginal
Total
  # % # % # % # % # % # %
Under 18 8 0.9 3 0.1 11 0.2 3 0.3 1 <0.1 4 0.1
                         
18 and 19 63 7.5 197 5.2 260 5.6 45 5.1 137 3.3 182 3.6
                         
20 to 24 192 22.8 701 18.5 893 19.2 203 23.0 745 18.1 948 18.9
                         
25 to 29 173 20.5 719 18.9 892 19.2 185 21.0 710 17.2 895 17.9
                         
30 to 34 162 19.2 665 17.5 827 17.8 140 15.9 578 14.0 718 14.3
                         
35 to 39 112 13.3 572 15.1 684 14.7 117 13.3 572 13.9 689 13.8
                         
40 to 44 65 7.7 391 10.3 456 9.8 88 10.0 545 13.2 633 12.6
                         
45 to 49 31 3.7 207 5.5 238 5.1 55 6.2 374 9.1 429 8.6
                         
50 to 59 29 3.4 246 6.5 275 5.9 37 4.2 331 8.0 368 7.3
                         
60 to 69 6 0.7 78 2.1 84 1.8 8 0.9 101 2.4 109 2.2
                         
70 and over 2 0.2 17 0.4 19 0.4 2 0.2 30 0.7 32 0.6
                         
Total 843 3,796 4,639 883 4,124 5,007

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:
A warrant of committal is a new admission to federal jurisdiction from the courts.
Due to rounding, percentages may not add to 100 percent.

17% of the federal incarcerated offender population is age 50 or over

17% of the federal incarcerated offender population is age 50 or over
Enlarge image

Note:
*Preliminary Postcensal Estimates, July 1, 2007; Demography Division, Statistics Canada.
Incarcerated includes male and female federal offenders serving their sentences in federal or provincial institutions, as well as those on temporary absence.

17% of the federal incarcerated offender population is age 50 or over
Age Incarcerated Community Total % of Canadian
Adult Population*
  # % # % # % %
Under 18 1 0.0 1 0.0 2 0.0 -
18 and 19 128 0.9 14 0.2 142 0.6 3.4
20 to 24 1,615 11.9 666 7.9 2,281 10.4 8.8
25 to 29 2,207 16.3 1,093 13.0 3,300 15.0 8.8
30 to 34 1,927 14.2 1,014 12.0 2,941 13.4 8.7
35 to 39 1,949 14.4 1,089 12.9 3,038 13.8 9.1
40 to 44 1,942 14.3 1,121 13.3 3,063 13.9 10.2
45 to 49 1,524 11.2 1,072 12.7 2,596 11.8 10.5
50 to 54 971 7.1 826 9.8 1,797 8.2 9.4
55 to 59 626 4.6 562 6.7 1,188 5.4 8.2
60 to 64 367 2.7 429 5.1 796 3.6 6.6
65 to 69 194 1.4 282 3.3 476 2.2 4.9
70 and over 130 1.0 265 3.1 395 1.8 11.5
Total 13,581 100.0 8,434 100.0 22,015 100.0 100.0

Source: Correctional Service Canada; Statistics Canada.

Note:
*Preliminary Postcensal Estimates, July 1, 2007; Demography Division, Statistics Canada.
Incarcerated includes male and female federal offenders serving their sentences in federal or provincial institutions, and those on temporary absence.
Community supervision includes federal offenders on day parole, full parole, statutory release or in the community supervised on a long term supervision order, as well as those who are temporarily detained or paroled for deportation.
The data presented is a snapshot of the offender population as of April 13, 2008.
Due to rounding, percentages may not add to 100.0.

68% of federal offenders are Caucasian

68% of federal offenders are Caucasian
Enlarge image

Note:
These data are self-identified by offenders while they are incarcerated, and the categories are not comprehensive; therefore, the reader should interpret these data with caution.
"Aboriginal" includes offenders who are Inuit, Innu, Métis and North American Indian. "Asian" includes offenders who are Arab, West Indian, Asiatic, Chinese, East Indian, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, South East Asian and South Asian. "Hispanic" includes offenders who are Hispanic and Latin American.
The data reflects the total offender population, which includes male and female federal offenders who are incarcerated (serving their sentences in federal or provincial institutions, and those on temporary absence), offenders who are on community supervision, on bail, escaped and unlawfully at large. Community supervision includes federal offenders on day parole, full parole, statutory release, or in the community supervised on a long term supervision order, as well as those who are temporarily detained or paroled for deportation.

68% of federal offenders are Caucasian
Offender Population
  2002-03 2007-08
  # % # %
Aboriginal 3,394 15.5 3,932 17.2
Inuit 116 0.5 149 0.7
Métis 961 4.4 1,075 4.7
North American Indian 2,317 10.6 2,708 11.9
Asian 934 4.3 1,062 4.7
Arab/West Asian 150 0.7 195 0.9
Asiatic 254 1.2 128 0.6
Chinese  106 0.5 140 0.6
East Indian 65 0.3 34 0.1
Filipino 48 0.2 45 0.2
Japanese 6 0.03 5 <0.1
Korean 13 0.06 11 <0.1
South East Asian 189 0.9 338 1.5
South Asian 103 0.5 166 0.7
Black 1,404 6.4 1,566 6.9
Caucasian 15,394 70.5 15,414 67.5
Hispanic 121 0.6 162 0.7
Hispanic 46 0.2 19 0.1
Latin American 75 0.3 143 0.6
Other/Unknown 583 2.7 695 3.0
Total 21,830 100.0 22,831 100.0

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:
The data reflects the total offender population, which includes male and female federal offenders who are incarcerated (serving their sentences in federal or provincial institutions and those on temporary absence), offenders who are on community supervision, on bail, escaped and unlawfully at large. Community supervision includes federal offenders on day parole, full parole, statutory release, or in the community supervised on a long term supervision order, as well as those who are temporarily detained or paroled for deportation.
These data are self-identified by offenders while they are incarcerated, and the categories are not comprehensive; therefore, the reader should interpret these data with caution.
The data reflect the number of offenders active at the end of each fiscal year. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.
Due to rounding, percentages may not add to 100.0.

The religious identification of the offender population is diverse

The religious identification of the offender population is diverse
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Note:
Religious identification is self-declared by offenders while they are incarcerated, and the categories are not comprehensive; therefore, the reader should interpret these data with caution.
Catholic includes offenders who are Catholic, Roman-Catholic, Greek-Catholic, Native-Catholic and Ukrainian-Catholic.
Orthodox includes offenders who are Greek Orthodox, Russian Orthodox and Ukrainian Orthodox.
Protestant includes offenders who are Anglican, Baptist, Christian Missionary, Christian Reform, Hutterite, Lutheran, Mennonite, Moravian, Native Spirit Protestant, Pentecostal, Presbyterian, Protestant, Salvation Army, Seventh Day Adventist, United Church, Christ Methodist, Christ Wesleyan and Worldwide Church.
Other includes other declared identifications such as Agnostic, Atheist, Baha'i, Christian Science, Hindu, Jehovah's Witness, Mormon, Rastafarian, Scientology, Siddha Yoga, Taoism, Pagan, Sufiism, Wicca and Zoroastrian.
The data reflect the total offender population, which includes federal offenders who are incarcerated (serving their sentences in federal or provincial institutions, and those on temporary absence) and federal offenders who are on community supervision, on bail, escaped and unlawfully at large. Community supervision includes federal offenders on day parole, full parole, statutory release, or in the community supervised on a long term supervision order, as well as those who are temporarily detained or paroled for deportation. 

The religious identification of the offender population is diverse
Total Offender Population
  2002-03 2007-08
  # % # %
Catholic 9,681 44.3 9,188 40.2
Protestant 4,671 21.4 4,575 20.0
Muslim 751 3.4 874 3.8
Native Spirituality 672 3.1 863 3.8
Buddhist 357 1.6 371 1.6
Jewish 157 0.7 163 0.7
Orthodox 101 0.5 104 0.5
Sikh 84 0.4 136 0.6
Other 1,450 6.6 1,471 6.4
None 2,730 12.5 3,620 15.9
Unknown 1,176 5.4 1,466 6.4
Total 21,830 100.0 22,831 100.0

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:
Religious identification is self-declared by offenders while they are incarcerated, and the categories are not comprehensive; therefore, the reader should interpret these data with caution.
The data reflect the total offender population, which includes federal offenders who are incarcerated (serving their sentences in federal or provincial institutions, and those on temporary absence) and federal offenders who are on community supervision, on bail, escaped and unlawfully at large. Community supervision includes federal offenders on day parole, full parole, statutory release, or in the community supervised on a long term supervision order, as well as those who are temporarily detained or paroled for deportation.
The data reflect the number of offenders active at the end of each fiscal year. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.
Due to rounding, percentages may not add to 100.0.

11% of federal offenders have a mental health diagnosis at admission

11% of federal offenders have a mental health diagnosis at admission
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Note:
Data are from the Correctional Service of Canada's Offender Intake Assessment process, where all new admissions are screened at intake.
The percentage is taken from answers "Yes" and "No" to the Mental Health Indicator at time of admission. The unknown and the blank answers are not taken into consideration in the denominator.

11% of federal offenders have a mental health diagnosis at admission
Mental Health Indicator
At Time of Admission
Women Men Total
# % # % # %
Diagnosis 52 21.8 394 10.4 446 11.1
Prescribed Psychiatric
Medication
78 33.2 772 20.6 850 21.3
Past Psychiatric Hospitalization 72 30.1 547 14.5 619 15.5
Psychiatric Outpatient 21 8.7 225 5.9 246 6.1

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:
Data are from the Correctional Service of Canada's Offender Intake Assessment process, where all new admissions are screened at intake.
The percentage is taken from answers "Yes" and "No" to the Mental Health Indicator at time of admission. The unknown and the blank answers are not taken into consideration in the denominator.

The proportion of Aboriginal offenders incarcerated is higher than for non-Aboriginal offenders

The proportion of Aboriginal offenders incarcerated is higher than for non-Aboriginal offenders
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Note:
*2006 Census, Statistics Canada.
Incarcerated includes male and female federal offenders serving their sentences in federal or provincial institutions.
The data reflect the number of offenders active at the end of each fiscal year. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year. 

The proportion of Aboriginal offenders incarcerated is higher than for non-Aboriginal offenders
  Incarcerated Community Total
Men # % # %  
2004-05 Aboriginal 2,196 68.8 994 31.2 3,190
  Non-Aboriginal 10,060 59.9 6,735 40.1 16,795
  Total 12,256 61.3 7,729 38.7 19,985
2005-06 Aboriginal 2,245 68.3 1,041 31.7 3,286
  Non-Aboriginal 10,018 59.5 6,824 40.5 16,842
  Total 12,263 60.9 7,865 39.1 20,128
2006-07 Aboriginal 2,432 71.1 989 28.9 3,421
  Non-Aboriginal 10,263 59.6 6,944 40.4 17,207
  Total 12,695 61.5 7,933 38.5 20,628
2007-08 Aboriginal 2,493 70.7 1,031 29.3 3,524
  Non-Aboriginal 10,593 60.8 6,842 39.2 17,435
  Total 13,086 62.4 7,873 37.6 20,959
Women
2004-05 Aboriginal 100 52.4 91 47.6 191
  Non-Aboriginal 268 40.2 398 59.8 666
  Total 368 42.9 489 57.1 857
2005-06 Aboriginal 128 56.1 100 43.9 228
  Non-Aboriginal 280 41.2 400 58.8 680
  Total 408 44.9 500 55.1 908
2006-07 Aboriginal 148 59.0 103 41.0 251
  Non-Aboriginal 328 44.4 410 55.6 738
  Total 476 48.1 513 51.9 989
2007-08 Aboriginal 164 58.8 115 41.2 279
  Non-Aboriginal 331 42.6 446 57.4 777
  Total 495 46.9 561 53.1 1,056

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:
Incarcerated includes male and female federal offenders serving their sentences in federal or provincial institutions.
Community supervision includes federal offenders on day parole, full parole, statutory release, or in the community supervised on a long term supervision order, as well as those who are temporarily detained or paroled for deportation.
The data reflect the number of offenders active at the end of each fiscal year. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year. 

The majority of incarcerated federal offenders are classified as medium security risk

The majority of incarcerated federal offenders are classified as medium security risk
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Note:
The data represent the offender security level decision, as of April 13, 2008.

The majority of incarcerated federal offenders are classified as medium security risk
Security Risk Level Aboriginal Non-Aboriginal Total
# % # % # %
Minimum 372 14.8 2,232 22.0 2,604 20.6
Medium 1,736 69.1 6,504 64.1 8,240 65.1
Maximum 406 16.1 1,406 13.9 1,812 14.3
Total 2,514 100.0 10,142 100.0 12,656 100.0
Not yet determined* 143   782   925  
Total 2,657 10,924 13,581

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:
*The "not yet determined" category includes offenders who have not yet been classified.
The data represent the offender security level decision, as of April 13, 2008.
Incarcerated offenders include male and female federal offenders serving their sentences in federal or provincial institutions, as well as those on temporary absence.

Admissions with a life or indeterminate sentence stabilized over the last three years

Admissions with a life or indeterminate sentence stabilized over the last three years
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Note:
*Although life sentences and indeterminate sentences both may result in imprisonment for life, they are different. A life sentence is a sentence of life imprisonment, imposed by a judge at the time of sentence, for example for murder. An indeterminate sentence is a result of a designation, where an application is made to the court to declare an offender a Dangerous Offender, and the consequence of this designation is imprisonment for an indeterminate period.
A warrant of committal is a new admission to federal jurisdiction from the courts.

Admissions with a life or indeterminate sentence stabilized over the last three years
Year Aboriginal Offenders Non-Aboriginal Offenders Total
Women Men Total Women Men Total Women Men Total
1998-99 2 41 43 3 123 126 5 164 169
1999-00 4 26 30 4 129 133 8 155 163
2000-01 2 30 32 8 124 132 10 154 164
2001-02 2 29 31 4 123 127 6 152 158
2002-03 1 33 34 3 112 115 4 145 149
2003-04 0 17 17 2 122 124 2 139 141
2004-05 1 23 24 5 117 122 6 140 146
2005-06 4 38 42 9 123 132 13 161 174
2006-07 4 30 34 11 128 139 15 158 173
2007-08 4 26 30 3 142 145 7 168 175

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:
This table combines offenders serving life sentences and offenders serving indeterminate sentences.
Although life sentences and indeterminate sentences both may result in imprisonment for life, they are different. A life sentence is a sentence of life imprisonment, imposed by a judge at the time of sentence, for example for murder. An indeterminate sentence is a result of a designation, where an application is made to the court to declare an offender a Dangerous Offender, and the consequence of this designation is imprisonment for an indeterminate period.

Offenders with Life or Indeterminate sentences represent 21% of the total offender population

Offenders with Life or Indeterminate sentences represent 21% of the total offender population
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Note:
* Although life sentences and indeterminate sentences may both result in imprisonment for life, they are different. A life sentence is a sentence of life imprisonment, imposed by a judge at the time of sentence, for example for murder. An indeterminate sentence is a result of a designation, where an application is made to the court to declare an offender a Dangerous Offender, and the consequence of this designation is imprisonment for an indeterminate period. The Dangerous Sexual Offender and Habitual Offender designations were replaced with Dangerous Offender Legislation in 1977. 

Offenders with Life or Indeterminate sentences represent 21% of the total offender population
  Offenders under
CSC Jurisdiction
Current Status
      Custody Community
  # % Incarcerated Day Parole Full Parole Other***
Offenders with a life sentence for:
1st Degree Murder 970 4.2 781 42 136 11
2nd Degree Murder 3,236 14.2 1,779 183 1,146 128
Other Offences* 223 1.0 107 16 79 21
Total 4,429 19.4 2,667 241 1,361 160
Offenders with indeterminate sentences resulting from the special designation of:
Dangerous Offender 372 1.6 354 6 11 1
Dangerous Sexual Offender 38 0.2 18 3 15 2
Habitual Offenders 8 >0.1 0 0 3 5
Total 418 1.8 372 9 29 8
Offenders serving an indeterminate sentence (due to a special designation) and a life sentence (due to an offence)
  18 0.1 16 0 2 0
Total offenders with Life and/or Indeterminate sentence 4,865 21.3 3,055 250 1,392 168
Offenders Serving Determinate sentences** 17,966 78.7 11,655 809 2,151 3,351
Total 22,831 100.0 14,710 1,059 3,543 3,519

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:
*Other offences include Schedule 1, Schedule 2 and Non-Schedule types of offences.
**This includes six offenders designated as Dangerous Offenders who are serving determinate sentences.
***Other in the Community includes federal offenders on bail, statutory release, on a long term supervision order, deported, have escaped, or are unlawfully at large. As offenders serving a life or indeterminate sentence are ineligible for Statutory Release, this includes a total of 126 offenders who have been deported, five on bail, 10 escapes, and 27 unlawfully at large.
Offenders in custody include offenders who are temporarily detained and presently in custody.

68% of federal offenders are serving a sentence for a violent offence*

68% of federal offenders are serving a sentence for a violent offence
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Note:
*Violent offence includes Murder I, Murder II and Schedule I offences.
Schedule I is comprised of sexual offences and other violent crimes excluding first and second degree murder (see the Corrections and Conditional Release Act).
Schedule II is comprised of serious drug offences or conspiracy to commit serious drug offences (see the Corrections and Conditional Release Act).
In cases where the offender is serving a sentence for more than one offence, the data reflect the most serious offence.

68% of federal offenders are serving a sentence for a violent offence*
Offence Category Aboriginal Non-Aboriginal Total
Women Men Total Women Men Total Women Men Total
Murder I 3 133 136 27 822 849 30 955 985
Percent 1.0 3.7 3.5 3.3 4.5 4.5 2.7 4.4 4.3
Murder II 35 507 542 103 2,603 2,706 138 3,110 3,248
Percent 11.9 13.9 13.8 12.6 14.4 14.3 12.5 14.3 14.2
Schedule I 177 2,281 2,458 262 8,668 8,930 439 10,949 11,388
Percent 60.4 62.7 62.5 32.1 47.9 47.3 39.6 50.4 49.9
Schedule II 54 219 273 281 3,195 3,476 335 3,414 3,749
Percent 18.4 6.0 6.9 34.5 17.7 18.4 30.2 15.7 16.4
Non-Schedule 24 499 523 142 2,796 2,938 166 3,295 3,461
Percent 8.2 13.7 13.3 17.4 15.5 15.5 15.0 15.2 15.2
  293 3,639   815 18,084   1,108 21,723  
Total 3,932 18,899 22,831

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:
*Violent offence includes Murder I, Murder II and Schedule I offences.
Schedule I is comprised of sexual offences and other violent crimes excluding first and second degree murder (see the Corrections and Conditional Release Act).
Schedule II comprises serious drug offences or conspiracy to commit serious drug offences (see the Corrections and Conditional Release Act).
The data reflect the total offender population, which includes male and female federal offenders who are incarcerated (serving their sentences in federal or provincial institutions, and those on temporary absence), offenders who are on community supervision, on bail, escaped and unlawfully at large. Community supervision includes federal offenders on day parole, full parole, statutory release, or in the community supervised on a long term supervision order, as well as those who are temporarily detained or paroled for deportation.
These figures are based on the offender population as of April 13, 2008.

The number of federal Aboriginal offenders is increasing

The number of federal Aboriginal offenders is increasing
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Note:
*Incarcerated includes male and female federal offenders serving their sentences in federal or provincial institutions.
**Community supervision includes federal offenders on day parole, full parole, statutory release, or in the community supervised on a long term supervision order, as well as those who are temporarily detained or paroled for deportation.

The number of federal Aboriginal offenders is increasing
Aboriginal Offenders Fiscal Year
2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08
Incarcerated          
Atlantic Region Men 86 83 75 110 120
  Women 6 3 9 7 4
Quebec Region Men 202 184 201 218 226
  Women 5 3 3 6 14
Ontario Region Men 289 290 296 323 351
  Women 11 11 12 24 25
Prairie Region Men 1,202 1,213 1,268 1,367 1,357
  Women 66 69 85 93 99
Pacific Region Men 414 426 405 414 439
  Women 20 14 19 18 22
National Total Men 2,193 2,196 2,245 2,432 2,493
  Women 108 100 128 148 164
  Total 2,301 2,296 2,373 2,580 2,657
Community
Atlantic Region Men 27 31 33 25 37
  Women 1 5 8 8 10
Quebec Region Men 84 67 82 85 81
  Women 2 2 3 1 1
Ontario Region Men 117 112 109 121 152
  Women 10 10 9 12 21
Prairie Region Men 573 598 605 550 543
  Women 48 57 66 68 62
Pacific Region Men 208 186 212 208 218
  Women 10 17 14 14 21
National Total Men 1,009 994 1,041 989 1,031
  Women 71 91 100 103 115
  Total 1,080 1,085 1,141 1,092 1,146
Total Incarcerated & Community 3,381 3,381 3,514 3,672 3,803

Source: Correctional Service of Canada

Note:
Regional statistics for the Correctional Service of Canada account for data relating to the northern territories in the following manner: data for Nunavut are reported in the Ontario Region, data for the Northwest Territories are reported in the Prairies region and data for the Yukon Territories are reported in the Pacific Region.

The number of offender deaths while in federal custody has fluctuated

The number of offender deaths while  in federal custody has fluctuated
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Note:
*For the calculation of rates, the total actual in-count between 1996-97 and 2005-06 was used as the denominator.

The number of offender deaths while in federal custody has fluctuated
Year Type of Death
Homicide Suicide Other Total
# % # % # % # %
1996-97 5 9.8 10 19.6 36 70.6 51 100.0
1997-98 2 4.0 9 18.0 39 78.0 50 100.0
1998-99 7 10.9 17 26.6 40 62.5 64 100.0
1999-00 8 13.6 11 18.6 39 66.1 59 100.0
2000-01 0 0.0 9 20.9 33 76.7 43 100.0
2001-02 1 2.0 13 25.5 36 70.6 51 100.0
2002-03 2 4.1 12 24.5 31 63.3 49 100.0
2003-04 8 11.9 11 16.4 48 71.6 67 100.0
2004-05 3 6.1 9 18.4 37 75.5 49 100.0
2005-06 3 6.1 10 20.4 36 73.5 49 100.0
Total 39 7.3 111 20.9 375 70.5 532 100.0

Source: Adult Correctional Services Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Note:
Percent calculation includes deaths where the cause was unknown. Between 1996-97 and 2005-06, there were seven deaths where the cause was unknown.

The number of escapes has decreased

The number of escapes has decreased
Enlarge image

The number of escapes has decreased
Type of Escapes 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08
Escapes from Multi-level Institutions 2 1 0 0 0
Number of Escapees 2 1 0 0 0
           
Escapes from Maximum Security Level Institutions 0 0 0 0 0
Number of Escapees 0 0 0 0 0
           
Escapes from Medium Security Level Institutions 1 1 0 0 0
Number of Escapees 1 1 0 0 0
           
Escapes from Minimum Security Level Institutions 47 30 23 31 29
Number of Escapees 54 31 26 37 33
           
Total Number of Escape Incidents 50 32 23 31 29
Total Number of Escapees 57 33 26 37 33

Source: Security, Correctional Service Canada.

Note:
The data represent the number of escape incidents from federal facilities during each fiscal year. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.
An escape incident can involve more than one offender.

The supervised federal offender population in the community has decreased in the last decade

The supervised federal offender population in the community has decreased in the last decade
Enlarge image

Note:
*A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.
**The data presented above do not include offenders temporarily detained following suspension of a conditional release, offenders who were on long term supervision orders (See Figure/Table E4), offenders paroled for deportation or offenders unlawfully at large.
Day parole is a type of conditional release granted by the National Parole Board whereby offenders are permitted to participate in community-based activities in preparation for full parole or statutory release. The conditions require offenders to return nightly to an institution or half-way house unless otherwise authorized by the National Parole Board.
Full parole is a type of conditional release granted by the National Parole Board whereby the remainder of the sentence is served under supervision in the community.
Statutory release refers to a conditional release that is subject to supervision after the offender has served two-thirds of the sentence.

The supervised federal offender population in the community has decreased in the last decade
Supervision Type of Federal Offenders
Year Day Parole Full Parole  Statutory Release Totals Percent Change*
  Women Men Women Men Women Men Women Men Both Both
                     
1998-99 85 1,300 287 3,881 39 2,112 411 7,293 7,704 --
1999-00 83 1,200 334 4,013 35 2,184 452 7,397 7,849 1.9
2000-01 68 1,097 328 3,925 51 2,112 447 7,134 7,581 -3.4
2001-02 55 1,018 298 3,654 56 2,109 409 6,781 7,190 -5.2
2002-03 71 969 267 3,469 54 2,132 392 6,570 6,962 -3.2
2003-04 67 986 259 3,412 42 2,120 368 6,518 6,886 -1.1
2004-05 90 872 249 3,296 69 1,999 408 6,167 6,575 -4.5
2005-06 75 1,002 285 3,231 64 1,998 424 6,231 6,655 1.2
2006-07 97 973 289 3,243 64 2,116 450 6,332 6,782 1.9
2007-08 102 957 292 3,251 89 2,100 483 6,308 6,791 0.1

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:
*Percent change is measured from the previous year.
These cases reflect the number of offenders on active supervision at fiscal year end. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.
The data presented above do not include offenders temporarily detained following suspension of a conditional release, offenders who were on long term supervision orders (See Figure/Table E4), offenders paroled for deportation or offenders unlawfully at large. 

Conditional Sentences have increased the provincial/territorial community corrections population

Conditional Sentences have increased the provincial/territorial community corrections population
Enlarge image

Note:
As of press time, the 2006-07 statistics were unavailable for this publication.
A conditional sentence is a disposition of the court where the offender serves a term of imprisonment in the community under specified conditions. This type of sentence can only be imposed in cases where the term of imprisonment would be less than two years. Conditional sentences have been a provincial and territorial sentencing option since September 1996.
Probation count data are not available for Nunavut in 1999-00, 2000-01, 2002-03 and 2003-04 and for New Brunswick in 2000-01. Data are not available from the Northwest Territories for all years except 2002-03.
--Data reporting conditional sentences begins in 1997-98 as this was the first full year for which data were available. For 1998-99 and 1999-00, figures are not available for Prince Edward Island. For 1997-98 to 2000-01, figures are not available for New Brunswick. For 1997-98 to 2005-06, figures are not available for the Northwest Territories. For 1999-00, 2000-01, 2002-03 and 2003-04 figures are not available for Nunavut.  

Conditional Sentences have increased the provincial/territorial community corrections population
Year Average Monthly Offender
Counts on Probation
Average Monthly Offender
Counts on Conditional Sentence
Total
1996-97 103,630 -- 103,630
1997-98 105,861 6,868 112,729
1998-99 101,868 7,627 109,495
1999-00 102,860 8,984 111,844
2000-01 100,526 9,885 110,411
2001-02 101,915 11,941 113,856
2002-03 105,062 13,193 118,256
2003-04 100,993 13,632 114,625
2004-05 98,736 13,912 112,648
2005-06 98,073 14,143 112,216

Source: Adult Corrections Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Note:
As of press time, the 2006-07 statistics were unavailable for this publication.
A conditional sentence is a disposition of the court where the offender serves a term of imprisonment in the community under specified conditions. This type of sentence can only be imposed in cases where the term of imprisonment would be less than two years. Conditional sentences have been a provincial and territorial sentencing option since September 1996.
Probation count data are not available for Nunavut in 1999-00, 2000-01, 2002-03 and 2003-04 and for New Brunswick in 2000-01. Data are not available from the Northwest Territories for all years except 2002-03.
--Data reporting conditional sentences begins in 1997-98 as this was the first full year for which data were available. For 1998-99 and 1999-00, figures are not available for Prince Edward Island. For 1997-98 to 2000-01, figures are not available for New Brunswick. For 1997-98 to 2005-06, figures are not available for the Northwest Territories. For 1999-00, 2000-01, 2002-03 and 2003-04 figures are not available for Nunavut.  

The number of offenders on provincial parole has increased

The number of offenders on provincial parole has increased
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Note:
As of press time, the 2006-07 statistics were unavailable for this publication.
Provincial parole boards operate in Quebec, Ontario and British Columbia. The National Parole Board has jurisdiction over granting parole to provincial offenders in the Atlantic and Prairie provinces and to territorial offenders in the Yukon, Nunavut and Northwest Territories.

The number of offenders on provincial parole has increased
Year Average Monthly Counts on Provincial Parole
Provincial Boards National
Parole Board*
Total Percent
Change
Quebec Ontario British Columbia Total
1996-97 1,808 744 594 3,146 343 3,489 --
1997-98 1,640 621 246 2,507 307 2,814 -19.3
1998-99 1,334 574 239 2,147 287 2,434 -13.5
1999-00 1,291 406 203 1,900 336 2,236 -8.1
2000-01 903 322 249 1,474 287 1,761 -21.2
2001-02 846 276 265 1,387 229 1,616 -8.2
2002-03 581 210 223 1,014 195 1,209 -25.1
2003-04 550 146 189 885 190 1,075 -11.1
2004-05 517 127 166 810 176 986 -8.3
2005-06 628 152 147 926 162 1,088 10.3

Source: Adult Corrections Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Note:
As of press time, the 2006-07 statistics were unavailable for this publication.
*The data represent the number of provincial offenders who are released from custody on the authority of the National Parole Board and supervised by the Correctional Service of Canada.
Provincial parole boards operate in Quebec, Ontario and British Columbia. The National Parole Board has jurisdiction over granting parole to provincial offenders in the Atlantic and Prairie provinces and to territorial offenders in the Yukon, Nunavut and Northwest Territories.

Section D

Conditional Release

The federal parole grant rate has stabilized

The federal parole grant rate has stabilized
Enlarge image

Note:
The grant rate represents the percentage of pre-release reviews resulting in a grant by the National Parole Board.
Day parole is a type of conditional release granted by the National Parole Board in which offenders are permitted to participate in community-based activities in preparation for full parole or statutory release. The conditions require offenders to return nightly to an institution or half-way house unless otherwise authorized by the National Parole Board.
Not all offenders apply for day parole, and some apply more than once before being granted day parole.
Full parole is a type of conditional release granted by the National Parole Board in which the remainder of the sentence is served under supervision in the community.
The National Parole Board must review the cases of all offenders for full parole at the time prescribed by legislation, unless the offender advises the National Parole Board in writing that he/she does not wish to be considered for full parole.

The federal parole grant rate has stabilized
Type of Release Year Granted Denied Grant Rate (%)
Women Men Women Men Women Men Total
Day Parole 1998-99 220 3,581 27 1,273 89.1 73.8 74.5
  1999-00 231 3,609 38 1,428 85.9 71.7 72.4
  2000-01 224 3,236 27 1,325 89.2 71.0 71.9
  2001-02 189 2,981 29 1,228 86.7 70.8 71.6
  2002-03 196 2,830 24 1,181 89.1 70.6 71.5
  2003-04 213 2,909 25 1,047 89.5 73.5 74.4
  2004-05 258 2,819 24 1,027 91.5 73.3 74.5
  2005-06 247 2,961 33 1,087 88.2 73.1 74.1
  2006-07 261 2,904 41 1,312 86.4 68.9 70.0
  2007-08 283 2,856 38 1,264 88.2 69.3 70.7
Full Parole 1998-99 154 1,962 71 2,663 68.4 42.4 43.6
  1999-00 195 1,974 84 2,739 69.9 41.9 43.4
  2000-01 173 1,641 57 2,407 75.2 40.5 42.4
  2001-02 148 1,512 53 2,128 73.6 41.5 43.2
  2002-03 112 1,391 57 1,965 66.3 41.5 42.6
  2003-04 156 1,449 48 1,897 76.5 43.3 45.2
  2004-05 155 1,376 72 1,750 68.3 44.0 45.7
  2005-06 168 1,486 67 1,958 71.5 43.2 45.0
  2006-07 169 1,450 82 2,058 67.3 41.3 43.1
  2007-08 168 1,398 69 2,009 70.9 41.0 43.0

Source: National Parole Board.

Note:
The grant rate represents the percentage of pre-release reviews resulting in a grant by the National Parole Board.
Day parole is a type of conditional release granted by the National Parole Board in which offenders are permitted to participate in community-based activities in preparation for full parole or statutory release. The conditions require offenders to return nightly to an institution or half-way house unless otherwise authorized by the National Parole Board.
Not all offenders apply for day parole, and some apply more than once before being granted day parole.
Full parole is a type of conditional release granted by the National Parole Board in which the remainder of the sentence is served under supervision in the community.
The National Parole Board must review the cases of all offenders for full parole at the time prescribed by legislation, unless the offender advises the National Parole Board in writing that he/she does not wish to be considered for full parole.

The federal parole grant rate for Aboriginal offenders increased last year

The federal parole grant rate for Aboriginal offenders increased last year
Enlarge image

Note:
The grant rate represents the percentage of pre-release reviews resulting in a grant by the National Parole Board.
Day parole is a type of conditional release granted by the National Parole Board in which offenders are permitted to participate in community-based activities in preparation for full parole or statutory release. The conditions require offenders to return nightly to an institution or half-way house unless otherwise authorized by the National Parole Board.
Not all offenders apply for day parole, and some apply more than once before being granted day parole.
Full parole is a type of conditional release granted by the National Parole Board in which the remainder of the sentence is served under supervision in the community.
The National Parole Board must review the cases of all offenders for full parole at the time prescribed by legislation, unless the offender advises the National Parole Board in writing that he/she does not wish to be considered for full parole.

The federal parole grant rate for Aboriginal offenders increased last year
Type of Release Year Aboriginal Non-Aboriginal Total Number Granted/
Denied
Number Granted Number Denied Grant Rate (%) Number Granted Number Denied Grant Rate (%)
Day Parole 1998-99 533 209 71.8 3,268 1,091 75.0 5,101
  1999-00 533 229 69.9 3,307 1,237 72.8 5,306
  2000-01 529 191 73.4 2,931 1,160 71.7 4,811
  2001-02 476 162 74.6 2,694 1,095 71.1 4,427
  2002-03 483 176 73.0 2,543 1,029 71.2 4,231
  2003-04 496 155 76.2 2,626 917 74.1 4,194
  2004-05 484 149 76.5 2,593 902 74.2 4,128
  2005-06 568 191 74.8 2,640 929 74.0 4,328
  2006-07 510 241 67.9 2,655 1,112 70.5 4,518
  2007-08 473 206 69.7 2,666 1,096 70.9 4,441
                 
Full Parole 1998-99 208 450 31.6 1,908 2,284 45.5 4,850
  1999-00 245 444 35.6 1,924 2,379 44.7 4,992
  2000-01 207 367 36.1 1,607 2,097 43.4 4,278
  2001-02 187 311 37.6 1,473 1,870 44.1 3,841
  2002-03 173 321 35.0 1,330 1,701 43.9 3,525
  2003-04 197 289 40.5 1,408 1,656 46.7 3,550
  2004-05 186 284 39.6 1,345 1,538 46.6 3,353
  2005-06 196 365 34.9 1,458 1,660 46.8 3,679
  2006-07 153 373 29.1 1,466 1,767 45.3 3,759
  2007-08 160 327 32.9 1,406 1,751 44.5 3,644

Source: National Parole Board.

Note:
The grant rate represents the percentage of pre-release reviews resulting in a grant by the National Parole Board.
Day parole is a type of conditional release granted by the National Parole Board in which offenders are permitted to participate in community-based activities in preparation for full parole or statutory release. The conditions require offenders to return nightly to an institution or half-way house unless otherwise authorized by the National Parole Board.
Not all offenders apply for day parole, and some apply more than once before being granted day parole.
Full parole is a type of conditional release granted by the National Parole Board in which the remainder of the sentence is served under supervision in the community.
The National Parole Board must review the cases of all offenders for full parole at the time prescribed by legislation, unless the offender advises the National Parole Board in writing that he/she does not wish to be considered for full parole.

Federal parole hearings involving an Aboriginal Cultural Advisor decreased for the second year

Federal parole hearings involving an Aboriginal Cultural Advisor decreased for the second year
Enlarge image

Note:
The presence of an Aboriginal Cultural Advisor is an alternative approach to the traditional parole hearing, which was introduced by the National Parole Board to ensure that conditional release hearings were sensitive to Aboriginal cultural values and traditions. This type of hearing is available to both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal offenders. 

Federal parole hearings involving an Aboriginal Cultural Advisor decreased for the second year
Year Hearings held with an Aboriginal Cultural Advisor
Aboriginal Offenders Non-Aboriginal Offenders All Offenders
Total Hearings With Cultural Advisor Total
Hearings
With Cultural Advisor Total
Hearings
With Cultural Advisor
  # # % # # % # # %
1998-99 1,145 331 28.9 5,545 44 0.8 6,690 375 5.6
1999-00 1,241 278 22.4 5,585 14 0.3 6,826 292 4.3
2000-01 1,132 330 29.2 5,261 34 0.6 6,393 364 5.7
2001-02 1,103 431 39.1 4,771 41 0.9 5,874 472 8.0
2002-03 1,175 477 40.6 5,020 51 1.0 6,195 528 8.5
2003-04 1,227 552 45.0 5,125 71 1.4 6,352 623 9.8
2004-05 1,288 614 47.7 5,091 98 1.9 6,379 712 11.2
2005-06 1,343 643 47.9 5,234 99 1.9 6,577 742 11.3
2006-07 1,300 596 45.8 5,335 89 1.7 6,635 685 10.3
2007-08 1,189 467 39.3 4,814 54 1.1 6,003 521 8.7

Source: National Parole Board.

Note:
The presence of an Aboriginal Cultural Advisor is an alternative approach to the traditional parole hearing, which was introduced by the National Parole Board to ensure that conditional release hearings were sensitive to Aboriginal cultural values and traditions. This type of hearing is available to both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal offenders. 

Offenders granted full parole serve about 40% of their sentence prior to starting full parole

Offenders granted full parole serve about 40% of their sentence prior to starting full parole
Enlarge image

Note:
Timing of parole in the sentence refers to the percentage of the sentence served at the time the first day parole or full parole starts during the sentence. In most cases a full parole is preceded by a day parole.
These calculations are based on sentences under federal jurisdiction excluding life sentences and indeterminate sentences.
Offenders (other than those serving life or indeterminate sentences or subject to judicial determination) normally become eligible for full parole after serving 1/3 of their sentence or seven years, whichever is less. Eligibility for day parole is normally at 6 months before full parole eligibility or at 1/6 of the sentence for cases that meet the accelerated parole review criteria (see Section 125 of the Corrections and Conditional Release Act).

Offenders granted full parole serve about 40% of their sentence prior to starting full parole
Year Type of Supervision
First Day Parole First Full Parole
Women Men Total Women Men Total
  Percentage of sentence incarcerated
1998-99 26.2 32.5 32.1 39.2 40.3 40.2
1999-00 24.8 32.2 31.7 37.8 40.6 40.3
2000-01 27.4 32.1 31.7 37.6 40.0 39.8
2001-02 28.1 32.7 32.4 37.1 39.7 39.4
2002-03 27.2 32.2 31.8 37.8 39.4 39.3
2003-04 28.1 34.0 33.6 37.6 39.9 39.6
2004-05 29.4 33.8 33.4 37.2 40.0 39.8
2005-06 29.1 33.6 33.2 36.7 39.7 39.3
2006-07 27.5 33.7 33.1 37.3 39.8 39.5
2007-08 30.5 32.8 32.6 37.7 38.8 38.7

Source: National Parole Board.

Note:
Timing of parole in the sentence refers to the percentage of the sentence served at the time the first day parole or full parole starts during the sentence. In most cases a full parole is preceded by a day parole.
These calculations are based on sentences under federal jurisdiction excluding life sentences and indeterminate sentences.
Offenders (other than those serving life or indeterminate sentences or subject to judicial determination) normally become eligible for full parole after serving 1/3 of their sentence or seven years, whichever is less. Eligibility for day parole is normally at 6 months before full parole eligibility or at 1/6 of the sentence for cases that meet the accelerated parole review criteria (see Section 125 of the Corrections and Conditional Release Act).

Aboriginal offenders serve a higher proportion of their sentences before being released on parole

Aboriginal offenders serve a higher proportion of their sentences before being released on parole<
Enlarge image

Note:
Timing of parole in the sentence refers to the percentage of the sentence served at the time the first day parole or full parole starts during the sentence. In most cases a full parole is preceded by a day parole.
These calculations are based on sentences under federal jurisdiction excluding life sentences and indeterminate sentences.
Offenders (other than those serving life or indeterminate sentences or subject to judicial determination) normally become eligible for full parole after serving 1/3 of their sentence or seven years, whichever is less. Eligibility for day parole is normally at 6 months before full parole eligibility or at 1/6 of the sentence for cases that meet the accelerated parole review criteria (see Section 125 of the Corrections and Conditional Release Act).

Aboriginal offenders serve a higher proportion of their sentences before being released on parole
Year Type of Supervision
First Day Parole First Full Parole
Aboriginal Non-Aboriginal Total Aboriginal Non-Aboriginal Total
  Percentage of sentence incarcerated
1998-99 36.2 31.4 32.1 43.5 39.8 40.2
1999-00 35.9 31.0 31.7 42.7 40.1 40.3
2000-01 34.9 31.1 31.7 40.7 39.6 39.8
2001-02 37.8 31.5 32.4 43.5 38.9 39.4
2002-03 36.8 30.9 31.8 42.2 39.0 39.3
2003-04 39.7 32.4 33.6 43.3 39.1 39.6
2004-05 37.7 32.7 33.4 42.8 39.4 39.8
2005-06 37.3 32.5 33.2 42.7 38.9 39.3
2006-07 38.3 32.4 33.1 42.0 39.3 39.5
2007-08 38.9 31.7 32.6 41.8 38.4 38.7

Source: National Parole Board.

Note:
Timing of parole in the sentence refers to the percentage of the sentence served at the time the first day parole or full parole starts during the sentence. In most cases a full parole is preceded by a day parole.
These calculations are based on sentences under federal jurisdiction excluding life sentences and indeterminate sentences.
Offenders (other than those serving life or indeterminate sentences or subject to judicial determination) normally become eligible for full parole after serving 1/3 of their sentence or seven years, whichever is less. Eligibility for day parole is normally at 6 months before full parole eligibility or at 1/6 of the sentence for cases that meet the accelerated parole review criteria (see Section 125 of the Corrections and Conditional Release Act).

Women serve a lower proportion of their sentences than men before being released on parole

Women serve a lower proportion of their sentences than men before being released on parole
Enlarge image

Note:
Timing of parole in the sentence refers to the percentage of the sentence served at the time the first day parole or full parole starts during the sentence. In most cases a full parole is preceded by a day parole.
These calculations are based on sentences under federal jurisdiction excluding life sentences and indeterminate sentences.
Offenders (other than those serving life or indeterminate sentences or subject to judicial determination) normally become eligible for full parole after serving 1/3 of their sentence or seven years, whichever is less. Eligibility for day parole is normally at 6 months before full parole eligibility or at 1/6 of the sentence for cases that meet the accelerated parole review criteria (see Section 125 of the Corrections and Conditional Release Act).

Women serve a lower proportion of their sentences than men before being released on parole
Year Type of Release
First Day Parole First Full Parole
Women Men Total Women Men Total
  Percentage of sentence served
1998-99 26.2 32.5 32.1 39.2 40.3 40.2
1999-00 24.8 32.2 31.7 37.8 40.6 40.3
2000-01 27.4 32.1 31.7 37.6 40.0 39.8
2001-02 28.1 32.7 32.4 37.1 39.7 39.4
2002-03 27.2 32.2 31.8 37.8 39.4 39.3
2003-04 28.1 34.0 33.6 37.6 39.9 39.6
2004-05 29.4 33.8 33.4 37.2 40.0 39.8
2005-06 29.1 33.6 33.2 36.7 39.7 39.3
2006-07 27.5 33.7 33.1 37.3 39.8 39.5
2007-08 30.5 32.8 32.6 37.7 38.8 38.7

Source: National Parole Board.

Note:
Timing of parole in the sentence refers to the percentage of the sentence served at the time the first day parole or full parole starts during the sentence. In most cases a full parole is preceded by a day parole.
These calculations are based on sentences under federal jurisdiction excluding life sentences and indeterminate sentences.
Offenders (other than those serving life or indeterminate sentences or subject to judicial determination) normally become eligible for full parole after serving 1/3 of their sentence or seven years, whichever is less. Eligibility for day parole is normally at 6 months before full parole eligibility or at 1/6 of the sentence for cases that meet the accelerated parole review criteria (see Section 125 of the Corrections and Conditional Release Act).

A large majority of federal day paroles are successfully completed

A large majority of federal day paroles are successfully completed
Enlarge image

Note:
*Revocation for Breach of Conditions includes revocation with outstanding charges.
A day parole is considered successful if it was completed without a return to prison for a breach of conditions or for a new offence.

A large majority of federal day paroles are successfully completed
Federal Day Parole
Outcomes
2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08
# % # % # % # % # %
Successful Completion
Regular 1,791 83.5 1,875 82.7 1,740 81.4 1,785 81.8 1,701 82.9
Accelerated 716 82.8 673 80.5 743 82.1 762 82.1 810 84.6
Total 2,507 83.3 2,548 82.1 2,483 81.6 2,547 81.9 2,511 83.5
Revocation for Breach of Conditions*
Regular 269 12.5 295 13.0 313 14.7 278 12.7 282 13.7
Accelerated 95 11.0 102 12.2 84 9.3 100 10.8 109 11.4
Total 364 12.1 397 12.8 397 13.1 378 12.2 391 13.0
Revocation with Non-Violent Offence
Regular 68 3.2 79 3.5 68 3.2 98 4.5 59 2.9
Accelerated 52 6.0 57 6.8 73 8.1 66 7.1 37 3.9
Total 120 4.0 136 4.4 141 4.6 164 5.3 96 3.2
Revocation with Violent Offence**
Regular 18 0.8 18 0.8 16 0.8 22 1.0 10 0.5
Accelerated 2 0.2 4 0.5 5 0.6 0 0.0 1 0.1
Total 20 0.7 22 0.7 21 0.7 22 0.7 11 0.4
Total
Regular 2,146 71.3 2,267 73.1 2,137 70.2 2,183 70.2 2,052 68.2
Accelerated 865 28.7 836 26.9 905 29.8 928 29.8 957 31.8
Total 3,011 100.0 3,103 100.0 3,042 100.0 3,111 100.0 3,009 100.0

Source: National Parole Board.

Note:
*Revocation for Breach of Conditions includes revocation with outstanding charges.
**Violent offences include murder and Schedule I offences (listed in the Corrections and Conditional Release Act) such as assaults, sexual offences, arson, abduction, robbery and some weapon offences.
Day parole is a type of conditional release in which offenders are permitted to participate in community-based activities in preparation for full parole or statutory release. The conditions require offenders to return nightly to an institution or half-way house unless otherwise authorized by the National Parole Board.
Eligibility for day parole release normally occurs 6 months prior to full parole. Eligibility for accelerated parole review cases occurs after the offender serves 6 months or 1/6 of the sentence, whichever is greater.

The majority of federal full paroles are successfully completed

The majority of federal full paroles are successfully completed
Enlarge image

Note:
*Revocation for Breach of Conditions includes revocation with outstanding charges.
A full parole is considered successful if it was completed without a return to prison for a breach of conditions or for a new offence.
These data do not include offenders serving life or indeterminate sentences as these offenders, by definition, remain under supervision for life.

The majority of federal full paroles are successfully completed
Federal Full Parole
Outcomes*
2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08
# % # % # % # % # %
Successful Completion
Regular 490 79.3 436 75.7 437 77.5 390 75.0 413 78.4
Accelerated 557 68.2 614 70.9 548 66.2 582 68.6 577 69.4
Total 1,047 73.0 1,050 72.8 985 70.8 972 71.0 990 72.9
Revocation for Breach of Conditions**
Regular 83 13.4 91 15.8 90 16.0 82 15.8 86 16.3
Accelerated 178 21.8 163 18.8 172 20.8 173 20.4 176 21.2
Total 261 18.2 254 17.6 262 18.8 255 18.6 262 19.3
Revocation with Non-Violent Offence
Regular 34 5.5 35 6.1 27 4.8 42 8.1 22 4.2
Accelerated 76 9.3 82 9.5 101 12.2 91 10.7 72 8.7
Total 110 7.7 117 8.1 128 9.2 133 9.7 94 6.9
Revocation with Violent Offence***
Regular 11 1.8 14 2.4 10 1.8 6 1.2 6 1.1
Accelerated 6 0.7 7 0.8 7 0.9 3 0.4 6 0.7
Total 17 1.2 21 1.5 17 1.2 9 0.7 12 0.9
Total
Regular 618 43.1 576 39.9 564 40.5 520 38.0 527 38.8
Accelerated 817 56.9 866 60.1 828 59.5 849 62.0 831 61.2
Total 1,435 100.0 1,442 100.0 1,392 100.0 1,369 100.0 1,358 100.0

Source: National Parole Board.

Note:
*Excludes offenders serving indeterminate sentences because they do not have a warrant expiry date and can only successfully complete full parole by dying.
**Revocation for Breach of Conditions includes revocation with outstanding charges.
***Violent offences include murder and Schedule I offences (listed in the Corrections and Conditional Release Act) such as assaults, sexual offences, arson, abduction, robbery and some weapon offences.
Full parole is a type of conditional release granted by the National Parole Board in which a portion of the sentence is served under supervision in the community. Offenders (other than those serving life or indeterminate sentences or subject to judicial determination) normally become eligible for full parole after serving 1/3 of their sentence or seven years, whichever is less.

The majority of statutory releases are successfully completed

The majority of statutory releases are successfully completed
Enlarge image

Note:
*Revocation for Breach of Conditions includes revocation with outstanding charges.
A statutory release is considered successful if it was completed without a return to prison for a breach of conditions or for a new offence.
Statutory release refers to a conditional release that is subject to supervision after the offender has served two-thirds of the sentence.

The majority of statutory releases are successfully completed
Statutory Release Outcomes 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08
# % # % # % # % # %
Successful Completion 3,122 57.9 3,141 58.0 3,244 58.5 3,266 58.4 3,348 58.8
Revocation for Breach of Conditions* 1,598 29.7 1,613 29.8 1,652 29.8 1,648 29.5 1,739 30.6
Revocation with
Non-Violent Offence
522 9.7 529 9.8 519 9.4 540 9.7 496 8.7
Revocation with Violent Offence** 147 2.7 137 2.5 131 2.4 136 2.4 110 1.9
Total 5,389 100.0 5,420 100.0 5,546 100.0 5,590 100.0 5,693 100.0

Source: National Parole Board.

Note:
*Revocation for Breach of Conditions includes revocation with outstanding charges.

**Violent offences include murder and Schedule I offences (listed in the Corrections and Conditional Release Act) such as assaults, sexual offences, arson, abduction, robbery and some weapon offences. 

Over the past decade, the rate of violent conviction for offenders while under supervision has declined

Over the past decade, the rate of violent conviction for offenders while under supervision has declined
Enlarge image

Note:
*Supervised offenders include offenders who are on parole, statutory release, those temporarily detained in federal institutions, and those who are unlawfully at large.
**Violent offences include murder and Schedule I offences (listed in the Corrections and Conditional Release Act) such as assaults, sexual offences, arson, abduction, robbery and some weapon offences.
The dotted line between 2006-07 and 2007-08 is intended to signify that due to delays in the court process, these numbers under represent the actual number of convictions, as verdicts may not have been reached by year-end.  

Over the past decade, the rate of violent conviction for offenders while under supervision has declined
Year # of Offenders Convicted for Violent Offences Rate per 1,000 Supervised Offenders*
Day Parole Full Parole Statutory Release Total Day Parole Full Parole Statutory Release
1998-99 36 38 138 212 24 9 55
1999-00 58 47 160 265 37 10 57
2000-01 35 40 167 242 25 9 60
2001-02 33 33 149 215 25 8 52
2002-03 23 27 148 198 18 7 51
2003-04 20 21 149 190 15 5 50
2004-05 22 28 137 187 18 7 46
2005-06 21 21 131 173 15 5 43
2006-07 22 11 137 170 16 3 43
2007-08** 13 15 110 138 10 4 35

Source: National Parole Board.

Note:
*Supervised offenders include offenders who are on parole, statutory release, those temporarily detained in federal institutions, and those who are unlawfully at large.
**Due to delays in the court processes, the numbers under-represent the actual number of convictions, as verdicts may not have been reached by year-end.
Violent offences include murder and Schedule I offences (listed in the Corrections and Conditional Release Act) such as assaults, sexual offences, arson, abduction, robbery and some weapon offences.
Day and full parole include those offenders serving determinate and indeterminate sentences.

Over 23% of offenders serving determinate sentences were not reviewed for parole

Over 23% of offenders serving determinate sentences were not reviewed for parole
Enlarge image

Note:
*Data include only those offenders who commenced their determinate sentence during the fiscal year indicated (April 1 to March 31 of the following year) and had completed their sentence by March 31, 2008.

Over 23% of offenders serving determinate sentences were not reviewed for parole
  Year That Determinate Sentence Commenced
1997-98 1998-99 1999-00 2000-01 2001-02
  # % # % # % # % # %
Reviewed by Board 3,107 80.1 3,146 78.8 2,853 77.2 2,670 75.0 2,374 69.9
Parole Granted 2,237 57.7 2,264 56.7 2,053 55.5 1,860 52.3 1,640 48.3
Parole Denied 870 22.4 882 22.1 800 21.6 810 22.8 734 21.6
Not Reviewed by Board* 773 19.9 846 21.2 843 22.8 889 25.0 1,024 30.1
Total Sentences 3,880 100.0 3,992 100.0 3,696 100.0 3,559 100.0 3,398 100.0

Source: National Parole Board.

Note:
*These are determinate sentences where the offender either waived all parole reviews, withdrew all parole applications, or postponed until statutory release.
Data include only those offenders who commenced their determinate sentence during the fiscal year indicated (April 1 to March 31 of the following year) and had completed their sentence by March 31, 2008.

The number of offenders granted temporary absences has decreased since 1998-1999

The number of offenders granted temporary absences has decreased since 1998-1999
Enlarge image

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:
A temporary absence is permission given to an eligible offender to be away from the normal place of confinement for medical, administrative, community service, family contact, personal development for rehabilitative purposes, or compassionate reasons, including parental responsibilities.
A work release is a structure program of release of specified duration for work or community service outside the penitentiary, under the supervision of a staff member or other authorized person or organization.
These numbers depict the number of offenders who received at least one temporary absence permit (excluding those for medical purposes) or at least one work release. An offender may be granted more than one temporary absence permit or work release over a period of time.

The number of offenders granted temporary absences has decreased since 1998-1999
  Temporary Absences Work
Releases
Year Escorted Unescorted
  # of Offenders # of Permits # of Offenders # of Permits # of Offenders # of Releases
1998-99 3,540 36,624 1,210 6,738 926 2,700
1999-00 3,501 40,592 1,161 7,357 822 2,139
2000-01 3,135 34,154 1,066 6,561 644 1,722
2001-02 2,873 29,997 824 5,127 589 1,331
2002-03 2,712 34,088 713 4,870 577 1,306
2003-04 2,688 38,046 708 4,088 475 1,017
2004-05 2,518 35,248 518 3,578 319 743
2005-06 2,568 37,072 500 3,042 351 985
2006-07 2,522 39,553 497 4,144 331 713
2007-08 2,463 41,240 453 3,749 252 504

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:
A temporary absence is permission given to an eligible offender to be away from the normal place of confinement for medical, administrative, community service, family contact, personal development for rehabilitative purposes, or compassionate reasons, including parental responsibilities.
A work release is a structure program of release of specified duration for work or community service outside the penitentiary, under the supervision of a staff member or other authorized person or organization.
The data depict the number of offenders who received at least one temporary absence permit (excluding those for medical purposes) or at least one work release. Because an offender may be granted more than one temporary absence permit or work release over a period of time, the total number of permits and work releases received during that time period is also provided.

Section E

Statistics on Special
Applications of Criminal Justice

The number of detention reviews has fluctuated over the past five years

The number of detention reviews has fluctuated over the past five years
Enlarge image

Note:
According to the Corrections and Conditional Release Act, an offender entitled to statutory release after serving two-thirds of the sentence may be held in custody until warrant expiry if it is established that the offender is likely to commit, before the expiry of sentence, an offence causing death or serious harm, a serious drug offence or a sex offence involving a child.

The number of detention reviews has fluctuated over the past five years
Outcome of Initial Detention Reviews
Year Detained Statutory Release Total Total
  Abor. Non - Abor. Total % Abor. Non -Abor. Total % Abor. Non - Abor.  
1993-94 76 198 274 89.3 8 25 33 10.7 84 223 307
1994-95 96 314 410 92.3 8 26 34 7.7 104 340 444
1995-96 143 341 484 91.3 13 33 46 8.7 156 374 530
1996-97 106 325 431 93.3 10 21 31 6.7 116 346 462
1997-98 78 234 312 93.1 9 14 23 6.9 87 248 335
1998-99 80 154 234 91.4 3 19 22 8.6 83 173 256
1999-00 80 128 208 93.7 3 11 14 6.3 83 139 222
2000-01 68 147 215 93.9 6 8 14 6.1 74 155 229
2001-02 72 185 257 94.5 2 13 15 5.5 74 198 272
2002-03 81 164 245 86.3 14 25 39 13.7 95 189 284
2003-04 69 210 279 92.1 8 16 24 7.9 77 226 303
2004-05 69 156 225 91.1 6 16 22 8.9 75 172 247
2005-06 73 160 233 89.3 11 17 28 10.7 84 177 261
2006-07 66 156 222 88.8 4 24 28 11.2 70 180 250
2007-08 85 163 248 93.2 6 12 18 6.8 91 175 266
Total 1,242 3,035 4,277 91.6 111 280 391 8.4 1,353 3,315 4,668

Source: National Parole Board.

Note:
According to the Corrections and Conditional Release Act, an offender entitled to statutory release after serving two-thirds of the sentence may be held in custody until warrant expiry if it is established that the offender is likely to commit, before the expiry of sentence, an offence causing death or serious harm, a serious drug offence or a sex offence involving a child.

83% of judicial review hearings result in earlier parole eligibility

83% of judicial review hearings result in earlier parole eligibility
Enlarge image

Note:
*Of the 125 offenders who have been released on parole, 15 offenders have been returned to custody, 11 offenders are deceased, one is unlawfully at large and three offenders have been deported.
Judicial review is an application by an offender convicted of murder to the Court for a reduction in the time required to be served before being eligible for parole. Offenders can apply when they have served at least 15 years of their sentence. Judicial review procedures apply to offenders convicted of first degree murder, who are required to serve 25 years prior to being eligible for parole, and to offenders who have been sentenced to life imprisonment for second degree murder, with parole eligibility set at 15 years or more. 

83% of judicial review hearings result in earlier parole eligibility
Province/Territory
of Judicial Review
Parole Ineligibility Reduced by Court Reduction Denied
by Court
Total
1st degree
murder
2nd degree
murder
1st degree
murder
2nd degree
murder
1st degree
murder
2nd degree
murder
Northwest Territories 0 0 0 0 0 0
Nunavut 0 0 0 0 0 0
Yukon 0 0 0 0 0 0
Newfoundland & Labrador 0 0 0 0 0 0
Prince Edward Island 0 0 0 0 0 0
Nova Scotia 0 1 1 0 1 1
New Brunswick 1 0 0 0 1 0
Quebec 57 15 3 2 60 17
Ontario 20 0 10 1 30 1
Manitoba 6 2 1 0 7 2
Saskatchewan 6 0 2 0 8 0
Alberta 16 0 5 0 21 0
British Columbia 16 1 3 0 19 1
Sub-total 122 19 25 3 147 22
Total 141 28 169

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:
These numbers represent total decisions as of April 13, 2008.
Judicial reviews are conducted in the province where the conviction took place.

The number of dangerous offender designations increased in 2007-08

The number of dangerous offender designations increased in 2007-08
Enlarge image

Note:
*The number of Dangerous Offenders designated per year does not include overturned decisions.
Offenders who have died since receiving designations are no longer classified as "active"; however, they are still represented in the above graph, which depicts the total number of offenders '"designated".
Dangerous Offender legislation came into effect in Canada on October 15, 1977, replacing the Habitual Offender and Dangerous Sexual Offender provisions that were abolished. A Dangerous Offender (DO) is an individual given an indeterminate sentence on the basis of a particularly violent crime or pattern of serious violent offences where it is judged that the offender's behaviour is unlikely to be inhibited by normal standards of behavioural restraint (see section 752 of the Criminal Code of Canada). Until August 1997, a determinate sentence was possible for those designated as DOs. In addition to the DOs, there remain within federal jurisdiction 39 Dangerous Sexual Offenders and 9 Habitual Offenders.

The number of dangerous offender designations increased in 2007-08
Province or Territory of
Designation
All Designations (# designated since 1978) Active Dangerous Offenders
# of Indeterminate Offenders # of Determinate Offenders Total
Newfoundland & Labrador 11 9 0 9
Nova Scotia 15 14 0 14
Prince Edward Island 0 0 0 0
New Brunswick 7 6 0 6
Quebec 49 46 1 47
Ontario  188 159 1 160
Manitoba 10 9 0 9
Saskatchewan 37 30 2 32
Alberta 35 28 0 28
British Columbia 97 81 2 83
Yukon 1 1 0 1
Northwest Territories 5 5 0 5
Nunavut 0 0 0 0
Total 455 388 6 394

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:
Numbers presented are as of April 13, 2008.
The number of Dangerous Offenders declared per year does not include overturned decisions.
Offenders who have died since receiving designations are no longer classified as "active"; however, they are still represented in the total number of offenders "designated".

Most long term supervision orders are for a 10-year period

Most long term supervision orders are for a 10-year period
Enlarge image

Note:
Long Term Supervision Order (LTSO) legislation, which came into effect in Canada on August 1, 1997, allows the court to impose a sentence of two years or more for the predicate offence and order that the offender be supervised in the community for a further period not exceeding 10 years.
Fifteen offenders under these provisions have died, nine offenders have completed their long term supervision period and one has been declared a Dangerous Offender. 

Most long term supervision orders are for a 10-year period
Province or Territory of Length of Supervision Order
(years)
Current Status
Order 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 10 Total Incarcerated DP, FP
or SR*
LTSO period LTSO** interrupted Total
Newfoundland
& Labrador
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 5 0 1 3 1 5
Nova Scotia 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 9 12 3 1 6 2 12
Prince Edward Island 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 2 0 0 0 0 0
New Brunswick 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 5 7 3 1 3 0 7
Quebec 0 1 0 30 6 16 4 93 150 70 5 58 11 144
Ontario  0 0 1 7 3 12 8 103 134 41 8 68 10 127
Manitoba 0 0 0 1 1 2 1 18 23 9 3 7 3 22
Saskatchewan 1 0 1 7 5 0 6 22 42 25 5 9 3 42
Alberta 0 0 0 7 1 0 0 32 40 10 6 18 1 35
British
Columbia
0 0 0 7 2 3 3 71 86 38 8 37 0 83
Yukon 0 0 0 1 0 2 0 3 6 3 0 2 1 6
Northwest Territories 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 2 3 2 0 1 0 3
Nunavut 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 3 2 0 1 0 3
Total 1 1 2 67 18 35 24 365 513 206 38 213 32 489

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:
*This category includes offenders whose current status is either supervised on day parole (DP), full parole (FP) or statutory release (SR).
**This category includes offenders convicted of a new offence while on the supervision portion of an LTSO. When this occurs, the LTSO supervision period is interrupted until the offender has served the new sentence to its warrant expiry date. At that time, the LTSO supervision period resumes where it left off.
These numbers are as of April 13, 2008.
Fifteen offenders under these provisions have died, nine offenders have completed their long term supervision period and one has been declared a Dangerous Offender.

The number of pardon applications processed has increased

The number of pardon applications processed has increased
Enlarge image

Note:
*Source: Royal Canadian Mounted Police Criminal Records Division, 2001.
Pardons allow people who were convicted of a criminal offence but have completed their sentence and demonstrated that they are law-abiding citizens to have their criminal record sealed. A person convicted of a summary offence may apply for a pardon three years after the completion of the sentence, and a person convicted of an indictable offence may apply after five years.

The number of pardon applications processed has increased
Type of Decision 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08
Granted 8,761 17,800 3,951 7,076 14,514
Issued 6,832 4,745 4,402 7,672 10,332
Denied 265 375 196 103 175
Total Granted/Issued/Denied 15,858 22,920 8,549 14,851 25,021
Percentage Granted/Issued 98.3 98.4 97.7 99.3 99.3
           
Revocations* 534 225 79 133 34
Cessations 780 332 377 2,264 547
Total Revocations/Cessations 1,314 557 456 2,397 581
           
Cumulative Granted/Issued** 306,985 329,530 337,883 352,631 377,477
Cumulative Revocations/Cessations** 10,594 11,151 11,607 14,004 14,585

Source: National Parole Board.

Note:
*Revocations fluctuate due to resource re-allocation to deal with backlogs.
**Cumulative data reflects pardon activity since 1970, when the pardon process was established under the Criminal Records Act.
Pardons are issued for summary offences, upon application, following a three-year conviction-free period after the completion of the sentence. In cases of indictable offences, pardons are granted at the discretion of the National Parole Board (NPB) following a five-year period of good conduct after the completion of the sentence. The cessation of a pardon automatically occurs following a subsequent conviction for an indictable offence or hybrid offence, with some exceptions, including impaired driving, driving with more than 80 mg of alcohol in the blood or fail to provide a breath sample. Revocations are at the discretion of the NPB following a subsequent summary conviction, or for lack of good conduct. The Board may also render a decision of cessation when it is convinced by new information that the person was not eligible for a pardon at the time it was awarded.

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