ARCHIVE - "Emerging Issues in Drug Enforcement" Workshop

Archived Content

Information identified as archived is provided for reference, research or record-keeping purposes. It is not subject to the Government of Canada Web Standards and has not been altered or updated since it was archived. Please contact us to request a format other than those available.

November 17-18, 2010
Fairmont The Queen Elizabeth Hotel
Montreal, Quebec

Workshop Proceedings
Report Date: January 24, 2011

Prepared by Lansdowne Technologies Inc.

Table of Contents

1 Purpose of these Proceedings

These proceedings contain a summary of the presentations and the dialogue held during the 2010 Emerging Issues in Drug Enforcement Workshop. It highlights key messages from the workshop and is intended as a reference for Public Safety Canada and the workshop participants. The perspectives presented by the speakers and as reflected in this report do not necessarily reflect the views of Public Safety Canada or the Government of Canada.

2 Workshop Overview

The 2010 Emerging Issues in Drug Enforcement Workshop was hosted by Public Safety Canada on November 17-18, 2010 at The Fairmont Queen Elizabeth Hotel in Montreal Quebec.

The purpose of the Workshop was to:

Public Safety Canada engaged members of the drug enforcement community to discuss specific emerging issues in drug enforcement. Panels were assembled on four topical themes, including:

The workshop brought together approximately 80 delegates from across Canada and from all levels of government representing law enforcement, justice, academia, and health and social service sectors.

Copies of the workshop agenda and the list of participants are provided in Appendices A and B, respectively. Speaker biographies are presented in Appendix C.

3 Welcome and Introductions

Speaker: Mr. Barry MacKillop, Director General, Law Enforcement and Border Strategies Directorate of Public Safety Canada welcomed participants to the workshop and shared the following welcoming and introductory remarks. Mr. MacKillop is responsible for the development and leadership of national strategies to include in part the National Drug Enforcement Strategy.

I'm pleased to be here to welcome you, on behalf of Public Safety Canada, to our workshop on Emerging Issues in Drug Enforcement.

My department has the lead responsibility for the Enforcement Action Plan component of Canada's National Anti-Drug Strategy. This means working closely with partners, including the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP), the Department of Justice and Health Canada, in ensuring a coordinated federal response in the area of drug enforcement. As many of you are aware, the current focus of the Enforcement Action Plan is the disruption of marijuana grow operations and the detection and dismantling of clandestine laboratories being used to produce synthetic drugs in Canada. This takes place against the backdrop of our overall objective to disrupt the criminal organizations engaged in the production, manufacture and distribution of drugs in our country and abroad.

The participants gathered in this room represent experts from across the spectrum of drug enforcement, from municipal, provincial/territorial and federal realms. We are also pleased to welcome several representatives from academia and the health and social services sectors. As everyone in this room is aware, dealing with the impacts of drugs on communities is a complex and shared responsibility that enforcement activities alone cannot tackle. However, we also recognize that dealing with the range of criminality associated with drugs takes up significant enforcement resources, and as such requires ongoing evaluation to ensure we are maximizing these resources for the greatest good.

The purpose of bringing you all here today is to take stock of current drug trends in Canada, and to provide space for dialogue on key issues related to drug enforcement. By design, we have attempted to ensure a balance of representation from agencies from a variety of levels and regions, so that as we move towards the eventual renewal of our National Anti-Drug Strategy, we remain engaged with the range of experts in the field, including many of the people in this room, who deal with the effects of drugs in communities on a daily basis.

As you will have noted on the agenda, two issues in particular will occupy our morning sessions. The issue of drug-impaired driving, which we know is affecting many communities and has not yet received the attention of drinking and driving, despite its equivalent dangers. This issue is also gaining increased attention in international forums, and Canada will have the chance to demonstrate our leadership in this area. We have also included the topic of pharmaceuticals. We know that the abuse of prescription drugs is increasingly prominent in many regions and is creating challenges for our traditional enforcement responses given the licit nature of the substances and the number of research and intelligence gaps that remain in this area.

The presentations you will see in the afternoon sessions represent topics identified through informal discussions with many of you over the past several months and will highlight a variety of local issues that have an impact on many communities across the country as well as some of the local responses. As such, much of the agenda has been set by yourselves. We are also pleased to have Dr. Jonathan Caulkins of Carnegie Mellon University at our closing session tomorrow. By applying economics theory to our understanding of the nature of drug supply markets, he is among a number of prominent voices challenging us to reshape traditional concepts of effective enforcement responses.

The sheer expanse of our country means that the drug issue faced by a community at one end of the country is not necessarily the same at the other. We also know that drug trends travel, and while some of the information you hear over the next two days may not be immediately relevant to your environment today, it may represent the wave of tomorrow. Recognizing this, we hope that your experience at this workshop will be twofold: that you will bring your experience and expertise to the fore during our discussions, and also gain knowledge and contacts in other areas to potentially help you respond to issues as they present in your community.

Thank you for taking the time out of your schedules to be here, and on behalf of Public Safety Canada and my team in the Serious & Organized Crime Division who have put this workshop together, I wish you a useful and informative two days.

4 Drug Situation in Canada

Speaker: Supt Eric Slinn, Director of the Drug Branch at the Royal Canadian Mounted Police National Headquarters in Ottawa, is responsible for branch activities including those related to the Drugs & Organized Crime Awareness Service (DOCAS). Supt Slinn provided a brief overview of the present situation of Canadian drug products, the drug landscape and related drug problems in our country.

The following summarizes key points from Supt Slinn's presentation.

In conclusion, Supt Slinn offered that to make a lasting impact in the fight for drugs, it takes a comprehensive approach to have success; a more robust intelligence-gathering method for current drug data in our country and around the world; a safer environment to protect our front line officers who are key for us; taking a holistic approach to reducing the supply and demand for drugs; and developing awareness on the impact of drugs on communities is paramount to success in the fight against drugs.

Speaker – Judy Snider, Manager of Surveillance in the Office of Drugs and Alcohol Research and Surveillance at Health Canada, shared the results of the most recent Canadian Alcohol and Drug Use Monitoring Survey (CADUMS).

The Canadian Alcohol and Drug Use Monitoring Survey (CADUMS) is a Health Canada led and sponsored survey to monitor drug and alcohol use among the Canadian population age 15 years and older including the harms related to drug consumption. Stakeholders include provinces, university-based researchers, Office of Policy and Strategic Planning and the National Surveillance Advisory Committee. The questionnaire covers the following areas:

A base sample of 10,080 Canadian respondents, 1,008 per province, is used and the target population includes all Canadians aged 15 years and older. Some of the key findings from CADUMS 2009 include:

Other current initiatives include the following:

In conclusion, the survey findings and the results of other studies are important to our community to help develop policies, programs, decisions and strategies. Our next steps include monitoring the use of emerging substances (e.g., salvia, energy drinks and alcohol, dextromethorphan use and jimson weed) among the general and student populations. Health Canada also expect the release of the results from the 2009-10 Health Behaviours of school aged children in Fall 2011; the 2010-11 YSS results in the Spring/Summer 2012; and from upcoming studies on youth on the street and maltreatment; and on psychoactive pharmaceutical drug use and abuse among federal offenders.

5 Drug-Impaired Driving - Trends, Enforcement and Prosecution

To frame the panel discussion, Dr. Doug Beirness and Erin Beasley from the Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse shared substance abuse-related research including the results of the recently completed Roadside Survey of Alcohol and Drug Use among drivers in BC as well as the findings of the Drug-Involved Motor Vehicle Fatalities Study. Following this, Sgt Rob Martin from York Regional Police provided a comprehensive overview of the Drug Evaluation and Classification (DEC) Program and associated issues. In closing, the challenges of prosecuting drug impaired driving were explored by Alberta Crown prosecutor Robert Palser.

5.1 Roadside Survey of Alcohol and Drug Use and Drug-Involved Motor Vehicle Fatalities Study

In 1982, 62% of drivers killed in crashes had been drinking. Public outrage and government concern prompted a wide range of awareness, legislative and enforcement initiatives to reduce the number of deaths and injuries caused by alcohol-impaired driving. Over time, the public became less tolerant of impaired driving, behaviour changed, and the death toll was reduced. Over the past several years, the use of drugs by drivers has become an emerging issue in the impaired driving forum. Drugs present a significant challenge to road safety. Not only are there numerous substances to deal with, drugs are more difficult to detect and measure than alcohol. The effects of drugs are not all the same and can affect driving in a variety of ways. There is a great deal to learn about the behaviour and the most effective ways to deal with it.

Over the past several years, researchers at the Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse (CCSA) have been investigating the issue of drugs and driving. In 2008, and again in 2010, CCSA conducted a Roadside Survey of Alcohol and Drug Use to gather a current, reliable and valid estimate of the prevalence of alcohol and drug use by drivers to better understand the extent of the behaviour. The survey contributes to our understanding of the extent and patterns of driving after alcohol and/or drug use.

The most recent survey was conducted in June 2010 from Wednesday to Saturday nights between 9pm and 3am. Interviews with drivers were conducted at four sites per night that are set up in parking lots along major roadways in five communities in British Columbia. A police officer directed traffic into the survey site and a crew of 4 or 5 interviewers asked drivers a series of brief questions and requested a voluntary breath sample to test for alcohol and an oral fluid sample to test for the presence of drugs. A total of 2,840 vehicles were stopped in the 2010 survey; 86% of drivers provided a breath sample and 71% an oral fluid sample Drivers with a BAC in excess of 50 mg% were provided with a free taxi home.

The results revealed that:

In conclusion, drugs and alcohol are common among night time drivers and there are community differences. Cannabis and cocaine are the most prevalent substances found and the pattern for drugs and driving appears to differ from that of alcohol and driving by age, time of day, and day of the week.

Next, the results of the Drug-Involved Motor Vehicle Fatalities Study were presented. The purpose of the study was to examine the extent to which drugs are involved in driver fatalities, to examine the characteristics of drivers who test positive for drugs/alcohol, and to look at the circumstances and events surrounding fatal crashes involving drugs/alcohol.

The study looked at data on fatally injured drivers collected from coroners/medical examiners matched with data from the National Collision Database. Substances were classified into seven categories used by the Drug Evaluation and Classification Program. The most frequently found drugs were: depressants, cannabis, stimulants, and narcotics.

Key themes emerging from the data include:

The presenters offered the following conclusions to the comparison of drug and alcohol involved motor vehicle driver fatalities:

Given the results of the two studies presented, the presenters highlighted the following key messages:

The need for action is now;

Key next steps in addressing these issues:

5.2 Drug Evaluation and Classification (DEC) Program

On July 2, 2008, new legislation regarding drug-impaired driving came into force in Canada under the Tackling Violent Crime Act (Bill C-2). The new provisions enable police to conduct mandatory roadside testing and for evaluating suspected drug-impaired drivers, and to impose stiffer penalties on drivers who are found to be impaired. Physical co-ordination testing (Standardized Field Sobriety Tests or SFST) provides a reliable and relatively quick method of screening drivers for impairment at roadside. Drivers who are reasonably believed to be impaired by drugs can then be subject to Drug Recognition Evaluation (DRE) testing. The International Association of Chiefs of Police DRE Section governs the DRE programs applied in Canada and the U.S., to certify officers to conduct the testing.

In Canada, over 550 officers are presently certified, with the first national course being held at the Ontario Police College in January 2003. The SFST provides officers with knowledge, skills and ability to form reasonable grounds of impairment by drugs or alcohol through a series of three tests: the horizontal gaze nystagmus (HGN), walk and turn test (WAT), and one leg stand test (OLS). The Drug Evaluation and Classification program provides officers with the knowledge, skills and ability to form an opinion of impairment by drugs. Officers must complete rigorous training with 80 hours in classroom, a passing mark of 80%, field certification with a minimum of 12 evaluations (6 being hands-on), and a final knowledge exam prior to submitting a resume and progress log. Recertification is required every two years.

The DRE is a 12 step evaluation process to see if the subject is impaired. It is based on a complete set of observable signs and symptoms that are known to be reliable indicators of drug impairment. These steps include:

  1. Breath Alcohol Test
  2. Interview of the Arresting Officer
  3. Preliminary Examination and First Pulse
  4. Eye Examination
  5. Divided Attention Psychophysical Tests
  6. Vital Signs and Second Pulse
  7. Dark Room Examinations
  8. Examination for Muscle Tone
  9. Check for Injection Sites and Third Pulse
  10. Subject's Statements and Other Observations
  11. Analysis and Opinions of the Evaluator
  12. Toxicological Examination

This process determines if the impairment is drug or medically related. If it is drug related, the DRE determines which category or categories of drugs likely causing the impairment.

Some of the issues that have surfaced since its inception include:

5.3 Prosecuting Drug-Impaired Driving: Challenges

Impaired driving offences are the leading cause of criminal death in Canada. While alcohol-impaired offences claim over 1200 lives each year the most recent studies show that the impairment by drug problem is almost certainly equal to the alcohol problem in extent and cost. 3-4 deaths per day (1,239 per year) attributed to drug-impaired driving is a national tragedy that must be addressed. Despite this terrible toll our approach to prosecuting drug-impaired drivers remains highly problematic. The DRE program was introduced in 2008 to address these shortcomings but has encountered serious difficulties. Currently, 6 major cases have failed to gain acceptance with the Courts and we have had only a single reported success.

An analysis of these cases shows three points of failure. First, the training and testimonial competence of DRE trained officers must be exceptionally high. Several files have faltered due to the poor practice or articulation of officers. Second, the nature of the charges demands a high level of skill and knowledge from prosecuting attorneys. Failure to fully understand and advance the legislation before the court has been another major point of failure. Lastly, the judiciary needs to hear from exceptional scientists to establish the necessity and reliability of this novel scientific protocol. Unfortunately these three components have not yet coalesced and we stand at a cross roads. If there are continued losses the judicial system will cease to prosecute these cases and we will have lost an invaluable tool in our war on this societal scourge.

Moving forward, there is a critical need to focus on both education and communication. Policing agencies must recognize that DRE enforcement is special. DREs must be their finest officers, with high expectations and commensurate credit so as to encourage and reward the heavy investment of time and effort required to be a successful DRE. Police agencies must also exercise a high degree of vigilance in review of these files to ensure that only the best are advanced to the Crown. For their part, Justice ministries must devote resources to establish DRE Crown specialists who can take the time to gain a full understanding of these very complex trials and articulate the material to the Court. Finally, the RCMP Laboratory system must continue to support the DRE with excellent scientific testimony (there is currently only a single expert nationally). All three pillars need to be working together to address drug-impaired driving.

If they do then we will have developed the first novel enforcement tool in Canada since the addition of impaired driving to the Criminal Code. If we fail, it will be the end of the DRE Program. While the danger is real and the pressure on, we can work together to ensure that the DRE is accepted as a reliable, scientific and accurate mechanism for the detection of drug-impaired drivers.

5.4 Facilitated Panel Discussion

The following mind map captures the highlights from the facilitated panel discussion.

Panel 1: Drug-Impaired Driving - Plenary Discussion
Click to enlarge image

6 Panel: Local Drug Issues

The second panel focused on emerging local drug issues in Canada and provided the perspectives of three jurisdictions from across the country. The panel began with a presentation by Sgt Tom Hanson from the Calgary Police Service who spoke about marijuana grow operations in southern Alberta. He was followed by Insp Bernard Lamothe from the Service de police de la ville de Montréal, who discussed access to medicinal marijuana and their enforcement response to "Compassion Clubs". The panel was concluded by D/S/Sgt Joe Goodwin from the Ontario Provincial Police and D/Sgt Todd Stevenson of the Niagara Regional Police Service who shared their experience with gang migration and drug trafficking along Ontario's 400-series highways.

6.1 Marijuana Grow Operations in Southern Alberta

Historically in Alberta, marijuana grow operations (MGOs) were investigated by uniformed street personnel and drug units as time and opportunity permitted. These investigations did not consider safety requirements as early grow operations were relatively unsophisticated and where often crimes of opportunity or for personal use. Times changed, requiring a more sophisticated approach, which led to the creation of the Drug Undercover Street Team (DUST) – primarily responsible for MGO investigations from the early/mid '90s. The team had the expertise, although the identification and addressing of safety risks was inconsistent.

The DUST was superseded by the Southern Alberta Marijuana Investigative Team (SAMIT) in 1996, an integrated team between the RCMP and Calgary Police Service. Key positive elements of SAMIT include:

Some of the challenges identified with SAMIT include:

In June 2009, SAMIT was absorbed into Alberta Law Enforcement Response Teams (ALERT) and renamed the Combined Forces Special Enforcement Unit (CFSEU)/Green Team South (GTS).

The CFSEU/GTS is composed into two teams: an investigative team and an eradication team. Their capabilities include search warrant drafting, exhibit handling, and MGO knowledge and expertise. Key initiatives of the team include the City of Calgary Unsafe Properties Initiative (UPI) that was established to address the growing problem of abandoned and unsafe properties, and civil forfeitures; as well as the engagement of the City of Calgary Bylaw Services to analyze sewage discharge and impose fines based on composition and quantity of illegal substances present.

Emerging trends observed the CFSEU/GTS in the area of MGO include:

6.2 "Compassion Clubs" and Access to Medicinal Marijuana

The Marijuana Medical Access Regulations (MMAR) came into effect on July 30, 2001 and provided authorization to possess marijuana for medical purposes to people affected by a disease or pathological symptoms related to conditions listed in the MMAR with a doctor's declaration. For authorized individuals, marijuana could be obtained through personal production, through the designation of a person for production or through purchase from the Government of Canada. Difficulties encountered in enforcing the regulation include limited access to information on licenses from Health Canada, a lack of inspectors at Health Canada, and the confusion with the application of the MMAR by members of police forces.

With the approval of the MMAR came the phenomenon of the "Compassion Clubs". These "clubs" are defined as non-profit organizations that sell marijuana to people with health problems and have received a prior authorization to possess marihuana for medical purposes issued by a doctor (the minority). These organizations use a store front where people can go to buy marijuana and its' derivatives for allegedly medical purposes. These illegal "clubs" vary in size, organizational sophistication and by services/products provided. In June 2010, there were 16 active clubs in Canada including 5 in the province of Quebec, becoming a top priority for the City of Montreal Police Service, Quebec City Police Service and Quebec Provincial Crown Prosecutors.

The Canadian Association of Chiefs of Police (CAPC) Drug Abuse Committee requested a formal report on any misuse and non-compliance issues of the MMAR. An analysis was undertaken of 190 cases. It was identified that the number of Designated Person Production License (DPPL) being granted is increasing and we currently have only 1 Health Canada MMAR inspector assigned per 398 licensees, which is a concern to both health and safety. Certificates can only be issued by Health Canada and the sale, production, and possession of marijuana beyond the framework established by the MMAR are illegal.

In response to the growing concern for "Compassion Clubs" in Quebec, the "Compassion Clubs" Project was initiated. The Project needed to take a stance on Compassion Clubs to send the message that this type of activity is unacceptable/illegal. Its objectives were to:

Key guidelines for the project included targeting drug traffickers, the prosecution of violators, and a sense of security for citizens. In June 2010, a sweep was conducted of 5 clubs in Montreal, Lachine and Quebec. The results included:

The following activities have been identified as next steps:

From the Quebec experience, lessons learned and good practices identified include:

6.3 Gang Migration and Drug Trafficking Along the 400-Series Highways

The gang problem is becoming more widespread, including the phenomenon of rural migration from urban centres. Gang members from urban centres may set up in a hotel room in a smaller community (such as Belleville, Cobourg, Ajax, Sudbury, Thunder Bay), and make contact with a local to get the word out and network. Locals are given drugs in exchange for a tour, and brutal tactics are used to take over the community's drug trade. Gangs that are considered "weaker" in the Greater Toronto Area are often able to establish immediate credibility in smaller communities, and once their operations are in place, they can operate them on-site or from a distance.

Rural areas have become a target for a number of reasons, including:

Key challenges facing law enforcement on this issue of gang migration are numerous and include:

In closing, thoughts on elements of a solution to this phenomenon include:

6.4 Facilitated Panel Discussion

Following the formal presentations on local drug issues, Sgt Tom Hanson, Insp Bernard Lamothe, D/S/Sgt Joe Goodwin and D/Sgt Todd Stevenson responded to questions from workshop participants.

The following messages and themes were highlighted during the facilitated session:

7 Panel: Illicit Use of Pharmaceuticals

The third panel looked at the illicit use of pharmaceuticals. First, Dr. Benedikt Fischer of Simon Fraser University presented an overview and the implications for control of non-medical prescription opioid use. Secondly, Ms. Jennifer Onyschuk of Criminal Intelligence Service Canada shared their insights on organized crime involvement in the illicit pharmaceutical trade. Third, D/Sgt Rick Hawley of the Ontario Provincial Police presented the current state of oxycodone use in Ontario. Fourth, Dr. Rocco Gerace, Registrar at the College of Surgeons and Physicians of Ontario, discussed the opioid public health crisis in Ontario. To conclude the panel, Chief Myles Burke of the Cape Breton Regional Police Service described the integrated response to pharmaceuticals in his community.

7.1 Non-Medical Prescription Opioid Use: An Overview and Implications for Control

Prescription opioid analgesics (POAs) include the brand-name drugs Codeine, Demerol, Dilaudid, Fentanyl, Morphine, and Oxycontin. These drugs are increasingly prevalent in Canada with a large population of users as there has been based on the increased use of these drugs to effectively treat chronic pain. Important progress in recent years through improved POA drugs and pain care practice.

Studies have shown that non medical prescription opioid use is more prevalent in young segments of the population. In addition, 5% of the U.S. population consumes 60% of the world's morphine. In Canada, there is a wide range of estimates in the number of people who use prescription opioids non-medically as these estimates are influenced by how you ask the question. As well, heroin has largely disappeared in the last few years from street/illicit markets and been replaced to a substantial degree by prescription opioids; hence, there are emerging indications of high rates of POA-related misuse in street user populations.

In Canada, there is no centralized agency to collect relevant POA morbidity or mortality data, and so national indicators are difficult to establish. There are however significant variations between provinces in terms of the different kinds of drugs being medically prescribed by province. For example, oxycodone is a popular choice in Ontario, whereas hydromorphone is a more common choice in Nova Scotia.

Production and consumption of oxycodone in the world has risen dramatically since 1999. Pain analgesics have become more accessible and available in a number of countries, including Canada where a significant increase in deaths related to their use has been observed in Ontario, in part due to long-acting oxycodone and the problem with overdose. There's been a singular focus on Oxycontin, which is a big problem but it is not the only problem as other POAs bear similarly large potential for non-medical use and harms.

Key themes when it comes to non-medical prescription opioid use include:

Other key intervention tools:

POA Diversion:

In conclusion, the following points were highlighted:

7.2 Organized Crime Involvement in the Illicit Pharmaceutical Trade

Criminal Intelligence Service Canada (CISC) is a strategically-focused organization that facilitates the timely production and exchange of criminal information and intelligence within the Canadian law enforcement community. CISC supports the effort to reduce the threat caused by organized crime through the delivery of strategic intelligence products and services and by providing leadership and expertise to its member agencies.

The November 2009 CISC Strategic Intelligence Brief on Organized Crime Involvement in the Illicit Distribution of Pharmaceutical Opiates presented key findings in the illicit use of prescription drugs. Highlights from these findings include:

In conclusion, the level of organized crime involvement in this criminal activity is small.

7.3 Oxycodone in Ontario

Oxycodone is a highly addictive opiate similar to heroin. Oxycontin is a time-release form of Oxycodone that delivers up to 12 hours of pain relief and allows larger doses (up to 100mg) to be ingested at once without fear of overdose if taken as prescribed. Just one Oxycontin pill can have the same amount of oxycodone as 16 Percocet pills (which contain acetaminophen that causes nausea in large doses). Oxycontin comes in 10, 20, 40 and 80 mg dosage and is available in Ontario by prescription. The misuse of this drug can cause overdose, addiction and infection.

Over the last several years, law enforcement has seen a substantial increase in the amount of prescription drugs being seized. Sources of the drugs include over prescribing, double doctoring, robbery from pharmacies or homes, and theft from homes. An important consideration is the street price of Oxycontin, ranging from $60 to $80 in the Ottawa area up to $500 in remote northern reserves such as Weagamow and Big Trout Lake.

Oxycodone abuse has become a major problem in Ontario for both law enforcement and health officials. In 2008, Ontario doctors prescribed $54M of Oxycontin under the provincial drug program, triple that from 2004 and these figures do not account for drugs prescribed to patients who have private drug plans. All OPP drug units report problems with Oxycodone. While Oxycodone seizure statistics vary by region, it appears to be relatively equally distributed throughout the province. Most units indicate they are rarely executing a warrant where prescription medication is not involved.

The potential for profit from the street sale of Oxycodone makes it highly lucrative for individual criminals and organized crime groups. Intelligence information and OPP occurrences show that numbers/size relative to other commodities do not accurately reflect the amount of Oxycodone available on the streets. Information collected from confidential sources indicates that the use of Oxycodone and the number of persons involved in illicit distribution is rising.

The ease of obtaining drug makes it attractive commodity: it is readily available at any pharmacy; and it is very addictive in nature and creates repeat customers and consistent demand. Increased use of Oxycodone is associated with other street crimes in an affected community with a correlation between property crimes and drug trade and an increase in the number of pharmacy robberies.

In 2009, Project Dover, an initiative by the OPP Drug Enforcement Unit (DEU) resulted in charges to 21 individuals with drug-related offences and the seizure of $35,000 in Oxycontin. Deaths related to oxycodone in 2008 (latest figures available) double the figures from 2004.

To conclude, the panellist highlighted the unique challenges to law enforcement in investigating the criminal distribution of a drug that can be legally possessed. Unlike cocaine, mere possession is not enough to prosecute. The problems persist in Ontario with a growing number of dealers and street sources and the limited drug resources can not keep up with this growing drug scene. This poses a serious threat to Ontario communities through increases in associated secondary crimes. There is a real need to put additional emphasis on frontline resources. Part of the solution is to establish collective and collaborative efforts and increase the education and awareness of the detrimental effects of this drug to the public and the most vulnerable demographic.

7.4 The Opioid Public Health Crisis in Ontario

"Ontario needs system-wide solutions to address serious problems with opioid prescribing." College of Physicians and Surgeons of Ontario Registrar, Dr. Rocco Gerace.

On September 8, 2010, the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Ontario released its report Avoiding Abuse, Achieving a Balance: Tackling the Opioid Public Health Crisis. The report contains 31 recommendations covering a broad range of issues directed to government, regulatory authorities, academic institutions, community organizations and others. The Opioid Project engaged a broad range of partners across various disciplines to share perspectives and discuss the issues at a Forum that took place on May 4, 2009. This diverse group included representatives from various health professions (physicians, pharmacists, dentists and nurses); patients; police forces; the coroner's office, medical regulators from across Canada; First Nations; government; the pharmaceutical sector; and others.

Four working groups were established, as follows:

  1. Technology: Prescription Tracking Working Group
    • Monitoring
    • Expansion of the Ontario Drug Benefit (ODB) Database to monitor all opioid-based prescriptions
    • Comprehensive Drug Information System (DIS) for all drugs and all patients
    • HCPs to have real time access
    • Embed educational tools
  2. Education Working Group
    • Enhanced education for HCPs - Inter-professional training
    • Academic institutions
    • Enhanced CPD availability
    • Educators and Regulators - develop competencies based on the Guideline
    • Education
      1. Public
      2. Youth
      3. Judiciary & Crown
  3. Access to Health Resources
    • Government should prioritize - address the spectrum of issues related to opioids
    • Comprehensive pain management strategy
    • Regulatory framework for specialized pain clinics
    • Use all modalities for pain care
    • Commit to adequate addiction treatment
    • Address funding issues
  4. Address Diversion
    • Along with Drug Information System, Government to implement a Drug Monitoring System
    • Need clarity around reporting permissiveness - doctors are reluctant to report because they don't understand the privacy legislation
    • Mandatory reporting of double doctoring
    • RHPA to require reporting from Colleges to police services
    • Police services - obligation to report members to Health Colleges
    • Resources to train and to fund enforcement

Key recommendations from the report include:

7.5 Local Response to Illicit Pharmaceuticals

In addition to being known for its beautiful scenery, within the last decade Cape Breton had become known as the "Oxycontin Capital". With a surge of sudden deaths (8 in 20 attributed directly to Oxy abuse), a dramatic increase in Oxy prescriptions in higher dosage, double the admittance to detox, and the identification of a health and crime connection, the Cape Breton Regional Police established a community partnership on drug abuse. In essence, they developed a team approach to address the harmful impact of drug abuse in a community in crisis. As this was a complex problem, a team approach was required. The strategy was to affect supply and demand – reduce availability and focus on prevention.

The initiative has seen many successes, including:

Today, however, Oxy appears to have been replaced by Hydromorphone, which is 8 times stronger than morphine and 3 times stronger than heroin. Cape Breton has had 9 drug-related deaths to date in 2010, down from 2007 to 2009. As well, criminals are becoming more creative and crime is fuelled by drug abuse. The Cape Breton Regional Police continue to use an integrated approach between the RCMP, HRP, Mental Health Services and the community to tackle these issues.

Moving forward, important next steps for Cape Breton include improvements to the prescription monitoring program and moving towards a national approach, real-time tracking with ME's office and the work undertaken by the CACP National Drug Committee.

7.6 Facilitated Panel Discussion

The following mind map highlights the salient points of the facilitated discussions on the illicit use of pharmaceuticals.

Plenary Discussion on Illicit Use of Pharmaceuticals
Click to enlarge image

8 Panel: Enforcement Responses

To lead off the panel discussion on enforcement responses, Deputy Chief Cst John Ducker from the Victoria Police Department presented Victoria's integrated approach to policing substance users. Cpl Martin Girard from RCMP- K Division presented on the approach used to deal with Aboriginal gangs in Hobbema, Alberta. The panel was concluded by a thought-provoking presentation by Dr. Jonathan P. Caulkins of Carnegie Mellon University on reconsidering enforcement responses to drug supply markets.

8.1 An Integrated Approach to Policing Substance Users

The Victoria Integrated Community Outreach Team (VICOT) is a multi-agency team representing social service agencies, mental health and addiction services, housing services and law enforcement. It provides intensive case management for individuals with a history of mental health and/or addiction difficulties who are homeless.

The VICOT was established in response to a number of issues related to homelessness and drug use and the growing cost of 911 calls, homeless centres, jails and clean ups. Planning for the outreach team started as a joint project between the B.C. ministries of Social Development and Public Safety and Solicitor General, and the Victoria Police Department to address common clients in an integrated way. Following the Mayor's Task Force on Homelessness in 2007, this team received additional support with staffing and resources from the Vancouver Island Health Authority (VIHA) and Our Place Society. As part of ongoing efforts, there is currently a willingness of the Chief Administrative Judge for southern Vancouver Island to expand on VICOT success and establish the Victoria Integrated Court to specifically address the unique problems of this client group within the justice system rather than the arrest and process approach of the past.

Key principles of the VICOT include: collaboration, integration, comprehensive, service delivery model, staff-to-client ratio of one to ten, and daily review of each consumers status. Its goals are to:

The program has had much success although it faces various challenges, including:

8.2 Community Response to Aboriginal Gangs in Hobbema Alberta

The community of Maskwacis/Hobbema, Alberta is home to upwards of 13 gangs. Over the years, the community has experienced an increase in gang and family violence and an alarming rate of youth participation in gangs. A gang is defined in the Criminal Code of Canada, Section 467.1(1) as:

Three or more persons, formerly or informally organized, engaged in a pattern of criminal behavior creating an atmosphere of fear and intimidation within any community, who may have a common name or identifying sign or symbol which may constitute a criminal organization.

The Community Response Unit (CRU) of Maskwacis RCMP has been working to address the gang issue through enforcement, education and community initiatives. A number of education and community initiatives have been implemented with success including:

More specifically, in response to rising incidents of family violence in the Maskwacis community, the CRU created the MFVU in collaboration with 6 partners to provide a comprehensive integrated team response to families and children at risk of domestic violence.

Since the implementation of these initiatives, the community has experienced the following:

8.3 Reconsidering Enforcement Responses to Drug Supply Markets

The role of drug enforcement is to enforce the law – an end in itself, and to reduce damage done by drug distribution and use – a means to an end. More pragmatically, the roles of enforcement include the reduction of drug use and the reduction of social cost per unit of use.

The former involves deterring use by punishing users, making drugs physically unavailable and making life miserable for producers, which drive the price up and in turn, suppresses initiation and use. The relative importance of each of these two roles will vary depending on the cycle of the drug epidemic.

A "drug epidemic" is characterized by a contagious, viral or word of mouth spread. The review of a number of charts that depict the demand cycle of 11 drugs over several years reveal four stages of the epidemic: pre-epidemic, explosive growth, transitional, and endemic. One can therefore argue that the ability to suppress drug use varies by stage of the epidemic.

In the pre-epidemic or small market stage, prohibition is effective (examples include PCP, GHB, Rohypnol, LSD, Ketamine). In explosive growth, drug use spreads by word of mouth, which produces exponential growth and the distribution network is challenged to keep up with demand. An effective strategy in this stage is destroying throughput capacity at choke points. In the endemic stage, the price of drugs continues to drop despite increased enforcement and we observe risks and prices modelling (e.g. controlling cocaine). In the endemic stage, enforcement needs to reduce drug use in other ways, such as coerced abstinence of those under community supervision (HOPE, 24/7), and look to reduce social cost per unit of use through various options, including:

A number of approaches can be considered to target drug market problems, such as:

Classic examples of enhanced sanctions that fail to produce the desired results include:

There are many issues with measuring our success in drug enforcement. Two rules of performance measurement come to mind:

The lesson of these statements is that while it is extremely challenging to develop measures for tracking progress in reducing drug markets, imperfect measures of the right objective are better than "objective, quantifiable" markers that lead you in the wrong direction.

Some tentative measures for consideration include:

In conclusion, law enforcement's role should evolve over the course of a drug epidemic. Today, most drug markets are in endemic stage and therefore, we should be considering placing less emphasis on suppressing use and more emphasis on managing problems created by drug markets, as well as employing the concept of "two-tiered toughness."

8.4 Facilitated Panel Discussion

Following the formal presentations associated with the panel on enforcement responses, Deputy Chief Cst John Ducker, Cpl Martin Girard and Jonathan P. Caulkins, participated in a final facilitated panel discussion.

The following key messages and themes were highlighted during the facilitated session:

enforcement strategies requires a sound understanding of the complexities of the drug problem, the economics of the drug trade and the most effective way use of law enforcement and other stakeholder resources and expertise.

9 Conclusion

The 2010 Emerging Issues in Drug Enforcement Workshop highlighted a number of key issues affecting jurisdictions across Canada and was intended to spark further dialogue, research and partnering amongst stakeholders to further enhance local, regional, provincial and national drug enforcement strategies.

The results of this workshop will inform future discussion in the context of the possible renewal of Canada's National Anti-Drug Strategy.

Appendix A – Agenda

"Emerging Issues in Drug Enforcement" Workshop
Fairmont The Queen Elizabeth Hotel - Montreal, Quebec
November 17-18, 2010

Agenda: Thursday, November 18, 2010

Panel: Illicit Use of Pharmaceuticals

9:00 – 9:45
Dr. Benedikt Fischer, Simon Fraser University
Non- Medical Prescription Opioid Use: An Overview and Implications for Control
9:45 – 10:00
Jennifer Onyschuk, Criminal Intelligence Service Canada Organized Crime Involvement in the Illicit Pharmaceutical Trade
10:00 – 10:15
10:15 – 11:00
D/Sgt Rick Hawley, Ontario Provincial Police
Oxycodone in Ontario
11:00 – 11:30
Dr. Rocco Gerace, Registrar, College of Surgeons and Physicians of Ontario The Opioid Public Health Crisis in Ontario
11:30 – 11:45
Chief Myles Burke, Cape Breton Regional Police Service
Local Response to Illicit Pharmaceuticals
11:45- 12:15
Facilitated Discussion
12:15 – 1:15

Panel: Enforcement Responses

1:15 – 1:45
Deputy Chief Cst John Ducker, Victoria Police Department An Integrated Approach to Policing Substance Users
1:45 – 2:15
Cpl Martin Girard, RCMP K Division
Aboriginal Gangs in Hobbema, Alberta
2:15 – 2:30
2:30 – 3:30
Jonathan P. Caulkins, Carnegie Mellon University
Reconsidering Enforcement Responses to Drug Supply Markets
3:30 – 4:30
Facilitated Discussion
Closing Remarks

Agenda: Thursday, November 18, 2010

Panel: Illicit Use of Pharmaceuticals

9:00 – 9:45
Dr. Benedikt Fischer, Simon Fraser University
Non- Medical Prescription Opioid Use: An Overview and Implications for Control
9:45 – 10:00
Jennifer Onyschuk, Criminal Intelligence Service Canada Organized Crime Involvement in the Illicit Pharmaceutical Trade
10:00 – 10:15
10:15 – 11:00
D/Sgt Rick Hawley, Ontario Provincial Police
Oxycodone in Ontario
11:00 – 11:30
Dr. Rocco Gerace, Registrar, College of Surgeons and Physicians of Ontario The Opioid Public Health Crisis in Ontario
11:30 – 11:45
Chief Myles Burke, Cape Breton Regional Police Service
Local Response to Illicit Pharmaceuticals
11:45- 12:15
Facilitated Discussion
12:15 – 1:15

Panel: Enforcement Responses

1:15 – 1:45
Deputy Chief Cst John Ducker, Victoria Police Department An Integrated Approach to Policing Substance Users
1:45 – 2:15
Cpl Martin Girard, RCMP K Division
Aboriginal Gangs in Hobbema, Alberta
2:15 – 2:30
2:30 – 3:30
Jonathan P. Caulkins, Carnegie Mellon University
Reconsidering Enforcement Responses to Drug Supply Markets
3:30 – 4:30
Facilitated Discussion
Closing Remarks

Appendix B – List of Participants

Name Agency
AMBROSE, Craig Waterloo Regional Police Service
ARRATOON, Cheryl Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse
ARSENAULT, Denis Health Canada
BEASLEY, Erin Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse
BEBBINGTON, Howard Justice Canada
BEIRNESS, Doug Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse
BLANCHET, Steve Service de police de la ville de Québec
BLEAU, François Service de police de la ville de Montréal
BRUNELLE, Jacques Criminal Intelligence Service Canada
BUCKLEY, Norm McMaster University
BURKE, Myles Cape Breton Regional Police Service
CAULKINS, Jonathan Carnegie Mellon University
CHARLTON, Vaughn Public Safety Canada
COLLIN, François Service de police de la ville de Québec
COLLIN, Pierre Service de police de la ville de Québec
CUZZOLINO, Daniel U.S. Office of National Drug Control Policy
DEL BEN, Megan Niagara Public Health
DITOMMASSO, Mario Toronto Police Service
DUCKER, John Victoria Police Department
FISCHER, Benedikt Simon Fraser University
FOURNIER, Luc RCMP – C Division
FRIGON, Sylvie Financial Transactions and Reports Analysis Centre of Canada
GARDINER, Tony Waterloo Regional Police Service
GERACE, Rocco College of Physicians and Surgeons of Ontario
GIRARD, Martin RCMP – K Division
GODDARD, D.R. (Dave) RCMP – E Division
GOGUEN, Taunya Public Safety Canada
GOODWIN, Joe Ontario Provincial Police
HANSON, Tom Calgary Police Service
HAWLEY, Rick Ontario Provincial Police
HICKS, Mark RCMP – G Division
HIEBERT, John RCMP – F Division
IANNANTUONI, Tony Service de police de la ville de Montréal
JESSO, Marlene Royal Newfoundland Constabulary
KENNEDY, Barb Health Canada
LADOUCEUR, Theresa Foreign Affairs and International Trade
LAMOTHE, Bernard Service de police de la ville de Montréal
LANE, David RCMP – H Division
LEFEBVRE, Garry Cornwall Community Police Service
LEVAY, Vanessa Niagara Public Health
LOO, Paul Canada Border Services Agency
MACKILLOP, Barry Public Safety Canada
MARION, Jonathan Sûreté du Québec
MARTIN, Rob York Regional Police
MCINTOSH, Cameron Public Safety Canada
MCLEOD, Heather National Parole Board of Canada
O'CONNOR, Pat Canada Revenue Agency
ONYSCHUK, Jennifer Criminal Intelligence Service Canada
PALSER, Robert Alberta Justice
PATTERSON, Dave RCMP – C Division
PHANEUF, François École nationale de police du Québec
PITCAIRN, Laura Public Prosecution Service of Canada
PORATH-WALLER, Amy Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse
POULIN, Catherine Public Works and Government Services Canada
PRESTON, Greg Edmonton Police Service
RAGANOLD, Tom Public Prosecution Service of Canada
ROBINSON, Paul RCMP – V Division
SAINT-DENIS, Paul Justice Canada
SNIDER, Judy Health Canada
SOBOTKA, Karl Toronto Police Service
STEELE, Debra Canada Border Services Agency
STEVENSON, Todd Niagara Regional Police Service
TELUS, Joe RCMP – A Division
THOMSON, Terry Niagara Regional Police Service
VILLAMERE, Edmond York Regional Police
VILLENEUVE, Karyne Public Safety Canada

Appendix C – Speaker Biographies

"Emerging Issues in Drug Enforcement" Workshop
November 17-18, 2010
Fairmont The Queen Elizabeth Hotel
Bersimis-Péribonka Room
Montreal, Québec

Barry MacKillop is the Director General of Law Enforcement and Border Strategies Directorate (LEBS) within the Department of Public Safety Canada. He is responsible for the development and leadership of national strategies focusing on enhanced efforts to address border security, organized crime, illicit drugs, child sexual exploitation, human trafficking and efforts to support the Minister of Public Safety's role in national police leadership.

Superintendent Eric Slinn's more than 20-year career with the RCMP has now brought him to the Drug Branch at National Headquarters in Ottawa. Promoted to Director of the Branch last June, he plans and directs the Branch's activities, including those of the Drugs & Organized Crime Awareness Service (DOCAS). Prior to this position, Supt Slinn acted at Headquarters' Officer in Charge of Organized Crime Operational Support. Supt Slinn began his policing career in Windsor, Nova Scotia in 1987, before being transferred to Halifax Drug Section in 1993. In 1999, he began a three-year project targeting the Hells Angels Motorcycle Club, drafting the first organized crime wiretap in Atlantic Canada which effectively resulted in the closing of the Angels' Halifax Chapter. Supt Slinn holds a Bachelor of Social Work from the University of British Columbia, and a Certificate in Police Leadership (Supervisory Skills) from Dalhousie University.

Judy Snider is the Manager of Surveillance in the Office of Drugs and Alcohol Research and Surveillance within Health Canada's Controlled Substances and Tobacco Directorate. She is an epidemiologist and has worked in the private, public and academic sectors. She joined Health Canada in 1996 and has developed surveillance programs in cancer screening, infectious diseases and, most recently, tobacco control. Currently she is responsible for the a number of population surveillance activities including the Canadian Alcohol and Drug Use Monitoring Survey, the drug and alcohol components for other surveys such as the Youth Smoking Survey, the Health Behaviours of School-aged Children and the Canadian Community Health Survey. She is also responsible for the provision of analytical support to Health Canada's Drug Analysis Service and the Office of Controlled Substances. Results from this work provides information relating to the supply of controlled substances in Canada. Other areas of responsibilities include collaborations on high risk population surveillance projects with university based researchers. She also represents Canada on a number of international committees and at various meetings.

Doug Beirness received his Ph.D. in Psychology specializing in alcohol studies and an M.A.Sc. in Addiction Studies from the University of Waterloo. He currently serves as Senior Research and Policy Analyst and Advisor with the Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse (CCSA). During his career, Dr. Beirness has participated in a variety of experimental and epidemiological studies and has published numerous articles in the areas of drug and alcohol-impaired driving, the Drug Evaluation and Classification Program, alcohol ignition interlock programs, young drivers, the development of high-risk lifestyles, and the perception of intoxication and impairment.

Erin Beasley received her Masters degree in Psychology from Carleton University and is a Research and Policy Analyst at the Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse (CCSA). For the last several years, she has been working as part of team leading the research on drug impaired driving. She has worked on the Drug Recognition Expert (DRE) Program project and has extensive knowledge about the training and the program itself. She is part of a team with the unique expertise to conduct roadside surveys in Canada and was the supervisor of the 2008 and 2010 Roadside Surveys in BC. She is the co-author of various papers relating to the accuracy and reliability of the DRE program, the roadside surveys and fatally injured drivers in Canada.

Sergeant Robert Martin is a twenty one year member of the York Regional Police having previous service with the Halton Regional Police Service. Sgt Martin has a Master's degree from the University of Guelph, College of Economics and Management. He has recently completed a four year secondment to the Royal Canadian Mounted Police as a training facilitator for the Drug Evaluation and Classification Program and held the position of Ontario Coordinator for the Drug Evaluation and Classification Program for six years. Sgt Martin is the International Representative on the International Association of Chiefs of Police, DRE section Technical Advisory Panel.

Sgt Martin testified before the Human Rights and Legal issues Committee of the Canadian Senate as a subject matter expert on the Drug Evaluation and Classification program portion of Bill C-2. He has also been declared an expert in the Drug Evaluation and Classification program protocols and in the interpretation of a Drug Influence Evaluation in the Ontario Courts of Justice and the Provincial Courts of Newfoundland and Labrador.

Robert Palser joined the prosecution service from Fraser Milner Casgrain LLP in 2002. Working in the General Prosecution Branch Robert prosecuted all manner of Criminal Code offences but quickly gained an expertise in the area of impaired driving law. In 2004-2007 he became the head of the Serious and Violent Crimes Motor Vehicle portfolio in the Edmonton Office. During that time he prosecuted every type of motor vehicle offence and enjoyed great success in a number of nationally precedential cases. Robert has also pioneered projects to enhance Justice's approach to areas such as systemic Auto Theft, Education, Prosecution communication and disclosure, and the DRE program. Robert was the first Crown Prosecutor in Alberta to be designated a Qualified Breath Technician and is a trained Collision Analyst and Drug Recognition Evaluator and has served as the RCMP Criminal Crash Investigation Team for Alberta since 2003. In 2007 Robert became the ECPO's first Education Coordinator and in 2008 was appointed as Alberta Justice's first Traffic Safety Coordinator as part of the Appeals, Education and Prosecution Policy Branch. In this role Robert represents Alberta Justice at the provincial and federal level and actively consults on changes to the Traffic Safety Act, Criminal Code of Canada and other legislation through such groups as SCOPE and The Federal, Provincial and Territorial Working Group on Impaired Driving. In addition to Policy work the Traffic Safety Coordinator is responsible for unifying education and the coordination of legal efforts in the area of traffic safety. In 2010 the Traffic Safety Coordinator launched a first of its kind eLearning program in Alberta. Robert currently instructs Crown Prosecutors and Police in the areas of impaired driving, charter law, criminal evidence and testimonial competence. He has been a presenter for the Legal Education Society of Alberta, The Canadian Bar Association, the Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse, and at the Provincial Judges Conference in the area of Impaired Driving. Robert continues to prosecute key legal cases and most recently has worked on the Constitutional Defence of Bill C-2. In 2008 Robert received an Alberta Justice Individual Award of Excellence for his work in the Policy Branch. .

Sgt Tom Hanson is a twenty year member of the Calgary Police Service. He worked in uniform until 1996 when he entered the world of covert surveillance for 7 years. He was then promoted to detective in the spring of 2004 and worked in general investigations for two years and then with the Calgary Criminal Intelligence Unit until 2009 when he transferred to Alberta Law Enforcement Response Teams Ltd (ALERT), Combined Forces Special Enforcement Unit (CFSEU)/Green Team South. Sgt Hanson is married 23 years with two sons aged 22 and 19 and his hobbies are his two classic vehicles: a '66 Mustang GT and a '66 Chev C10 truck (a work in progress).

Insp Bernard Lamothe is a twenty-two-year member of the Montreal Police Service. For the past 3½ years, he has been heading the Organized Crime Division, which is made up of the Products of Crime, Underground Economy and Gangs units with a total of 127 police and civilian employees. In addition, he co-ordinates 4 regional drug sections with the commanding officers (50 criminal investigators).

Insp. Lamothe has over 10 years of drugs experience working as an investigator, supervisor, commanding officer and inspector. He is a member of the Canadian Association of Chiefs of Police (CACP) and attends meetings of the Drug Abuse Committee.

D/S/Sgt Joe Goodwin has been with the Ontario Provincial Police for 16 years. His current position is as Detective Staff Sergeant, Operations Manager with the OPP Organized Crime Enforcement Bureau, Provincial Weapons Enforcement Unit (PWEU) Guns and Gangs. In 2001, he was assigned to the Toronto Airport Special Squad Intelligence JFO Investigating World Trade centre Attack. In 2002, he joined the Provincial Anti-Terrorism Section (PATS) - Intelligence Bureau and was promoted in 2008 to Acting Manager - A/S/Sgt – PATS. He was promoted to his current position in 2010.

Dr. Benedikt Fischer obtained his doctorate in Criminology at the University of Toronto (1998). He is currently Professor in the Faculty of Health Sciences and the School of Criminology, Simon Fraser University, Vancouver, where he also holds a Research Chair in Applied Public Health funded jointly by CIHR and the Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC) as well as a Michael Smith Foundation for Health Research Senior Scholar Award. He furthermore directs the Centre for Applied Research in Mental Health and Addictions (CARMHA) at SFU and is appointed as a Senior Scientist at the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health in Toronto, a research hospital affiliated with the University of Toronto. Dr. Fischer is a member of the Institute Advisory Board of the CIHR Institute for Neurosciences, Mental Health and Addiction (INHMA), as well as a member of the Science Advisory Board of the Mental Health Commission of Canada. Dr. Fischer's main areas of research include psychoactive substance use - including prescription drug misuse - mental health and other co-morbidities, vulnerable populations, urban & public health, crime & criminal justice, with a strong focus on policy and practice.

Jennifer Onyschuk has been a Civilian Member of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) for five and a half years. Jennifer has been a Strategic Intelligence Analyst with Criminal Intelligence Service Canada (CISC) Central Bureau for just over two years and currently holds the prescription drug, cannabis, and vehicle & heavy equipment theft criminal markets. Prior to her position with CISC, Jennifer worked in RCMP Headquarters in National Security Criminal Investigations as a Criminal Intelligence Analyst and in the Federal and International Operations Directorate as a Research Analyst.

Jennifer graduated from the University of Ottawa with a Baccalaureate in Social Sciences with Honours in Criminology and a Concentration in Psychology.

Sgt Jacques Brunelle has been a member of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) for 24 years. Prior to being a National Intelligence Officer with Criminal Intelligence Service Canada (CISC) he was posted to National Security in Threat Assessment, Investigations, and Operations over a 12 year span. Also during this time, he was in charge of the intelligence portion of the RCMP's Air Marshal Program for several years. Sgt Brunelle has also participated in Jetway airport interdictions and exchanges with Ottawa Police Service Major Crime and General Assignment sections. Previously he was posted Customs & Excise, Court Liaison, and Traffic Enforcement.

Detective Sergeant Rick Hawley has been with the OPP for 18 years. He transferred to the Drug Enforcement Section in 1998 as investigator and undercover operator. He was then promoted to Detective Sergeant – Unit Commander Mount Forest Drug Enforcement Unit. He proposed, planned and developed the OPP's first Clandestine Laboratory Investigative Response Team (C.L.I.R.T.) as well as designed and implemented the two OPP Clan Lab Response Vehicle including the acquisition of the safety equipment required to conduct a clan lab investigation. Detective Sergeant Hawley has attended in excess of 35 chemical Clandestine Drug Labs and hundreds of marihuana grow operations as an Investigator and Site Safety Supervisor and Officer in Charge. His current operational responsibilities includes a 35 member Clan Lab Investigative Response Team, 38 member covert Rural Operations Team and the OPP annual Provincial Eradication Program.

Dr. Rocco Gerace was appointed Registrar of the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Ontario in May 2002. Dr. Gerace carries out the Registrar's statutory duties and oversees the College's statutory obligations designated in the Regulated Health Professions Act. He also directs the administrative and financial operations of the College, and the implementation and monitoring of policies set by the Council.

Dr. Gerace graduated from the University of Western Ontario in 1972. He is a fellow of the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada in Emergency Medicine, and a diplomat of the American Board of Emergency Medicine. Dr. Gerace is also certified in Medical Toxicology from the American Board of Emergency Medicine.

Prior to his appointment as Registrar, Dr. Gerace was an attending staff physician in the Department of Emergency Medicine at the London Health Sciences Centre and a Professor in the Department of Medicine, Division of Emergency Medicine at the University of Western Ontario. He was also a consulting staff member at the Poison Information Centre at the Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto.

Dr. Gerace is also a Past-President of the Medical Council of Canada.

Chief Myles Burke is in his 29th year in policing and has been the Chief of the Cape Breton Regional Police Service since 2009. He has extensive experience in all areas of policing from foot patrol, community policing, drug section to homicide investigations. Chief Myles has previously worked in the New Glasgow Police Department and the Calgary Police Service. He is a graduate of the Bachelor of Arts in Community Studies program from the University College of Cape Breton, and a graduate of the FBI National Academy and FBI LEEDS Program, both in Quantico, Virginia.

He is a recipient of the Police Exemplary Service Medal, Nova Scotia Long Service Medal and the recipient of the Member of the Order of Merit for Police Services for Canada. He is the Nova Scotia National Board Member on the Canada Association of Chiefs of Police and sits on the CACP National Drug Committee. He also has many years of volunteerism in a variety of organizations like the Cape Breton YMCA, Talbot House, YMCA Canada, and the United Way of Cape Breton.

Deputy Chief John Ducker is a 31 year member of the Victoria PD. He has served in most administrative and operational sections within the Department. As a senior officer, John has been the in charge of the Targeted Policing Division, Intelligence, Gang and Surveillance Unit, 911 and Records Unit. In 2002 he oversaw the amalgamation of the Esquimalt and Victoria Police Departments and was the first OIC of the newly formed "West Division" after that amalgamation in 2003.

In 2006 he worked with government officials and social service providers to establish the Victoria Integrated Community Outreach Team, providing long term support for homeless people with addictions and mental illnesses. In 2007 he was appointed to the Mayor's Task Force on Homelessness, Mental Illness and Addictions and currently co-chairs the Prevention Committee for the Greater Victoria Coalition to End Homelessness. John also helped local justice officials establish the Victoria Integrated Court in an effort to tackle the city's most chronic street offenders. He was promoted to Deputy Chief in charge of Operations in 2009 by Chief Jamie Graham. John was appointed as a Member of the Order of Merit, by the Governor-General, in 2010 in large part for his advocacy for "socially relevent policing". John holds a BA (Hons) in Political Science, a Diploma in Public Sector Management and an Associate of Arts Degree in Criminology.

Cpl Martin Girard has been with the RCMP for over13 years. He was previously posted to McLennan and Banff Detachments in Alberta before transferring to Hobbema Detachment in June 2006 with the newly created Community Response Unit (CRU). The mandate of the CRU was to combat the Aboriginal Gang issues in Hobbema. In 2008, he was promoted to the rank of Corporal, as a watch commander in Hobbema. In April 2010, he was selected to be the new OPS NCO of the CRU team. He is currently supervising 7 Constables: 4 GIS investigators, 3 Community Policing members as well as the Domestic Violence Unit, one Administration Assistant and one Criminal Intelligence Analyst.

Jonathan P. Caulkins, Ph.D., is H. Guyford Stever Professor of Operations Research and Public Policy at Carnegie Mellon University's Heinz College and Qatar campus. Dr. Caulkins specializes in systems analysis of problems pertaining to drugs, crime, terror, violence, and prevention – work that won the David Kershaw Award from the Association of Public Policy Analysis and Management, a Robert Wood Johnson Health Investigator Award, and the INFORMS President's Award. Other interests include reputation and brand management, software quality, optimal control, black markets, airline operations, and personnel performance evaluation. He has taught his quantitative decision making course on four continents to students from 49 countries at every level from undergraduate through Ph.D. and exec ed.

Dr. Caulkins has published 8 books and monographs and over 100 journal articles various outlets. At RAND he has been a consultant, visiting scientist, co-director of RAND's Drug Policy Research Center (1994 – 1996), and founding director of RAND's Pittsburgh office (1999-2001).

Dr. Caulkins received a B.S., and M.S. in Systems Science from Washington University, an S.M. in Electrical Engineering and Computer Science and Ph.D., in Operations Research both from M.I.T.

Carnegie Mellon University in Qatar & Heinz College
5000 Forbes Ave.
Pittsburgh, PA
(412) 268-9590

Chris Davis – Team Leader and Facilitator

Mr. Chris Davis is a Partner and Senior Consultant with Lansdowne Technologies Inc. He is an experienced facilitator and security and emergency management professional with over twenty-three (23) years experience in the police, security, and emergency management fields. Throughout his professional career, he has worked with public and private sector clients as well as with international partners on various major projects and initiatives.

Lise Clément - Facilitator

Lise Clement is an entrepreneurial and dynamic facilitator with experience bringing together key stakeholders from all levels of government, private sector and non-government organizations nationally and internationally to resolve complex issues, build consensus, engage leadership, develop sound and practical strategic plans, and transform vision to concrete action. Lise has been engaged with the emergency responder community at the local, provincial, national and international level on a number of key issues and projects for several years. She is an MBA graduate from the Telfer School of Management.

Date modified: