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Police encounters with people in crisis / an independent review conducted by the Honourable Frank Iacobucci for Chief of Police William Blair, Toronto Police Service.

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Canadian Policing Research






Includes bibliographical references (p. 286-302).


1 online resource (349, [60] pages) : charts, maps


Cover title.
"July 2014"--Cover.


"On August 28, 2013, Chief of Police William Blair of the Toronto Police Service (TPS) requested that an independent review of the use of lethal force by the TPS be undertaken, with a particular focus on encounters between police and what is referred to in this Report as “people in crisis.” A person in crisis means a member of the public whose behaviour brings them into contact with police either because of an apparent need for urgent care within the mental health system, or because they are otherwise experiencing a mental or emotional crisis involving behaviour that is sufficiently erratic, threatening or dangerous that the police are called in order to protect the person or those around them. The term “person in crisis” includes those who are mentally ill as well as people who would be described by police as “emotionally disturbed.” The mandate was to conduct an independent review of “the policies, practices and procedures of, and the services provided by, the TPS with respect to the use of lethal force or potentially lethal force, in particular in connection with encounters with persons who are or may be emotionally disturbed, mentally disturbed or cognitively impaired.”"--includes text from Executive Summary.


Online Access


Acknowledgements -- Executive summary -- Part 1. The Independent Review -- 1. Introduction: a brief overview -- 2. Mandate, independence, scope and methodology -- 3. Context -- Part 2. Discussion, analysis and recommendations -- 4. The mental health system and the Toronto Police Service -- 5. Police culture -- 6. Selection of police officers -- 7. Training -- 8. Supervision -- 9. The mental health of police personnel -- 10. Use of force -- 11. MCIT and other models of crisis intervention -- 12. Equipment -- Part 3. The next stage -- 13. Implementation -- Part 4. Appendices -- Appendix A. List of individuals interviewed -- Appendix B. Selected bibliography -- Appendix C. List of stakeholders that made submissions -- Appendix D. Selected legislative provisions -- Appendix E. Selected Toronto Police Service procedures.

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