Stop Now And Plan (SNAP) for High-Risk Youth
Age group: Late childhood (7-11)
Number of completed Canadian outcome evaluation studies: 1
Continuum of intervention: Secondary crime prevention
The SNAP® program is a gender-sensitive cognitive behavioural multi-component family-focused model (SNAP® Boys and SNAP® Girls). There is also SNAP® for Schools. The SNAP® program employs a multi-systemic approach, combining interventions that target the child, the family, the school, and the community.
The program uses a variety of established interventions such as: skills training, training in cognitive problem solving, self-control strategies, family management skills training, and parent training.
The main goals of the SNAP® for High-Risk Youth are to:
- Intervene early and reduce repeat offending in this age group, rather than attempt to take action later in life; and
- Address aggressive and delinquent behaviours, controlling anger, and school success.
The clientele of the SNAP® for High-Risk Youth is children ages 6-12 and their parents in two schools (Kipohtakaw Education Centre and Forest Green):
- At the Kipohtakaw Education Centre: they are Aboriginal boys and demonstrate at-risk behaviours; and
- At the Forest Green school: they are boys and girls who are part of the ‘Alternate Program’ and have been coded with various disabilities and behaviours.
The core components of the SNAP® for High-Risk Youth include:
- The SNAP® Children’s Program consists of a core curriculum of 12 group sessions, with corresponding sessions for parents. These sessions are supported by a range of complementary components, such as individual befriending, parent support and school advocacy. Together, these core and additional components are intended to result in long-term outcomes such as a reduction of risky behaviours, improved parental monitoring and child management strategies, a reduction or elimination of police and/or criminal justice contact by the SNAP® participants and an overall improvement in social competence and pro social behaviour;
- Each school held two cohort groups per year, with approximately 5 participants per group. Adaptations were made to the SNAP® curriculum in order to make it more culturally-sensitive; and
- The SNAP® program has specific curriculum for boys and girls (SNAP® for Boys, and SNAP® Girls Connection) and the group sessions are separated by gender.
Some of the critical elements for the implementation of this program or initiative include the following:
- Organizational requirements: Since 1996, the Society for Safe and Caring Schools & Communities has experience with project management, education and research in developing and implementing violence prevention approaches and programs in over 300 communities and schools across Alberta. Safe and Caring Schools has extensive capacity. Adapting the SNAP® model to fit each community’s unique needs, adding cultural aspects to the program. Having First Nation employees to act as SNAP® facilitators was a key component.
- Partnerships: This project requires partnership with the Society for Safe and Caring Schools & Communities, the Kipohtakaw Education Centre in Alexander First Nation, and the Forest Green School in Stony Plain.
- Training and technical assistance: The Centre for Children Committing Offences (CCCO) provides core SNAP® Implementation Training for new affiliate sites.
- Risk assessment tools: Children should have been evaluated through the validated risk assessment tools used in the SNAP® Program: the Early Assessment Risk List for Boys (EARL-20B) and the Early Assessment Risk List for Girls (EARL-21G).
- Materials & resources: SNAP® resource materials (manuals, training DVDs and booklets) are designed to support the delivery of the SNAP® Model.
The most recognized classification systems of evidence-based crime prevention programs have classified this program or initiative as follows:
- Blueprints for Healthy Youth Development: Not applicable.
- Crime Solutions/OJJDP Model Program Guide: The SNAP® model has been rated as an Effective (more than one study).
- SAMHSA's National Registry of Evidence-based Programs and Practices: Not applicable.
- Coalition for Evidence-Based Policy: Not applicable.
Gathering Canadian Knowledge
Canadian Implementation Sites
This project was run in two schools: Kipohtakaw Education Centre in Alexander First Nation, and Forest Green School in Stony Plain. Each school held two cohort groups per year, with approximately 5 participants per group. Adaptations were made to the SNAP® curriculum in order to make it more culturally sensitive.
The SNAP® program has specific curriculum for boys and girls (SNAP® for Boys, and SNAP® Girls Connection) and the group sessions are separated by gender. In Kipohtakaw the project was run for boys only, and in Forest Green the project started with boys only but was expanded to add girls groups in 2012.
In 2009, the Society for Safe and Caring Schools & Communities (SACSC) began a pilot of the SNAP® (Stop Now and Plan) for Schools program through a collaborative arrangement with the Alberta Teachers Association, select school districts, community agencies and volunteers. This project has also been named “From Risk to Resiliency: Implementing SNAP®”.
Main Findings from Canadian Outcome Evaluation Studies
The SNAP® for High-Risk Youth was included in a multisite outcome evaluation study conducted by Chettleburgh (2010-2014). Sites includes in this evaluation were: Edmonton, Toronto and the Cree Nation (Québec).
For more information, refer to the National Crime Prevention Centre’s (2013) publication.
A social return on investment (SROI) has been conducted on the SNAP® for High-Risk Youth Program. The findings from this study have shown the following:
- The SROI indicates that over the three-year pilot, the average social value of investment in the SNAP® for High-Risk Youth is $3.37 for every dollar invested; and
- The social value created through the SNAP® program was financially valued in terms of the change experienced at the individual level by assigning financial proxies to represent this change.
Alberta Community Crime Prevention Organizations. (2015). Social Return on Investment (SROI) Case Study: SNAP® for High-Risk Youth. Recipient of Safe Communities Innovation Fund, Government of Alberta. Available from: https://open.alberta.ca/publications/safe-communities-innovation-fund-pilot-project-executive-summaries
National Crime Prevention Centre. (2013). Results from the Stop Now and Plan (SNAP®) Program. Evaluation Summary. Ottawa, ON: Public Safety Canada. Available from: http://www.publicsafety.gc.ca/cnt/rsrcs/pblctns/rslts-stp-nwpln/index-eng.aspx
For more information on this program, contact:
Society for Safe and Caring Schools & Communities
Telephone: (780) 822-1502
Record Updated On - 2021-04-29
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