Promising and Model Crime Prevention Programs Volume II

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ISBN: 978-1-100-18349-7

Table of Contents

(*) Note: Based on the most updated information, the programs identified by a star (*) are programs that are found in Canada, either because they have been successfully replicated here or because they were developed in Canada.

Introduction

In its approach to implementing crime prevention programs based on proven scientific knowledge, the National Crime Prevention Centre (NCPC) published in 2008 the first volume of Promising and Model Crime Prevention Programs.Footnote 1 As part of its ongoing effort to promote and disseminate information and knowledge on effective crime prevention programs, strategies and initiatives, the NCPC is pleased to present here the Volume II.

This compendium, a reference tool for all those concerned with reducing delinquency, violence and insecurity through prevention, contains some 20 new descriptions of innovative, promising and model prevention programs. Interestingly, in this second volume nearly half of the new descriptions pertain to programs that are found in Canada, either because they were developed in this country or because they have been successfully replicated here.

Like the first volume, the Volume II is based on findings from crime prevention literature reviews, and it does not pretend to be complete. It is not intended to replace, but rather to accompany and complement, existing program resources. This document relies, in large part, on reviews of the evidence provided in comprehensive, high-quality evaluations of crime prevention programs and initiatives from Canada and from other countries. Although not all of the primary sources cited in these and other texts are mentioned in this document, the reader is strongly encouraged to further consult other relevant resources. In addition, in the interest of providing quality, up-to-date information, all of the descriptions in this second edition have been reviewed and corrected by the program managers. This collaboration with the program managers shows the importance for the NCPC to develop relations with experts and disseminate validated and accurate information.

The purpose of these two volumes is to provide inspiration for the implementation of effective practices. More prosaically, they have been developed especially for community groups planning on applying for federal crime prevention funding, in order to guide them in the development and implementation of local crime prevention initiatives. Beyond that, those interested in learning more on the subject can consult the compendium of Implementation FactsheetsFootnote 2.

Program Selection

The programs selected for this document are in line with the NCPC's priorities. This is not, however, to be considered a comprehensive list of all promising and model programs.

The programs listed can fall anywhere along the services continuum from early prevention to reinsertion programs for offenders. Some of them target more than one issue, age group and population. They can include, but are not limited to, delinquency prevention, probation community support, community services, school-based programs, conflict resolution, family therapy, parenting skills and mentoring.

Additionally, the selected programs meet the following criteria:

The programs have been selected from various recognized sources, particularly those following.

Definitions

Programs selected for inclusion met minimum criteria to be considered innovative, promising or model programs. Again, the definitions presented below are derived from a combination of the various definitions used in the above data sources so as to reflect the situation in Canada.

Model Program:
A prevention program that meets the highest scientific standard for effectiveness (scientifically proven prevention and intervention programs), as evidenced in published evaluations; has a significant, sustained preventive or deterrent effect or reduction of problem behavior, the reduction of risk factors related to problem behavior; or the enhancement of protective factors related to problem behavior and has been replicated in different communities or settings.
Promising Program:
Prevention programs that meet scientific standards for effectiveness; but they do not meet all of the rigorous standards of Model programs. They are recognized and encouraged with the caution that they be carefully evaluated. In general, when implemented with minimal fidelity these programs demonstrate promising (perhaps inconsistent) empirical findings using a reasonable conceptual framework and a limited evaluation design (single group pre- post-test).
Innovative Program:
Prevention programs that test new approaches and theories to interventions with at-risk populations. They are based on a strong theoretical framework that links the proposed intervention to the risk factor(s), target population and desired outcomes. Innovative projects show demonstrated changes through limited research design and require causal confirmation using more appropriate experimental techniques. These programs are recognized and encouraged with the caution that they be carefully evaluated.

(Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2000; OJJDP, US, 2007; Welsh, 2007)

Key Ingredients for Success

Each program identified here rests on specific elements that are key to its success. However, there are some key elements that appear to be universal to successful crime prevention programs. These include:

Programs in Aboriginal Communities

Circle of Courage

Program Rating: Innovative program

Target population: Children and youth at-risk of delinquency

The Circle of Courage is based on contemporary research in the areas of healing and resilience, and on traditional Aboriginal principles of child education. The Circle of Courage is more considered as an approach, a philosophy of strength-based, a positive intervention model or a method that promotes youth empowerment than a fixed and rigid program.

This approach is based on the principle that risk factors for children and youth are tied to harmful living environments that breed discouragement. The aim is to modify their environment to promote courage as a key factor in meeting the needs of young people and helping them abandon their risky behaviours.

The key objectives of the Circle of Courage approach are to:

Method

Additional Information

Evaluation

Program Development Contact Information:

Reclaiming Youth International Office
P.O. Box 57
104 N. Main Street
Lennox, South Dakota 57039 USA
Telephone: 888-647-2532 (toll-free)
Fax: 605-647-5212
Web site: http://www.reclaiming.com/content/

For information on training, seminars and academic credit, please contact: seminars@reclaiming.com

For information on ordering books and resources, please contact: bookstore@reclaiming.com

References

Brendtro, Larry, Brokenleg, Martin and Steve Van Bockern. 2002. Reclaiming Youth at Risk: our Hope for the Future. Revised edition. Solution Tree, Indiana, United States.

Circle of Courage Institute. Available from:
http://www.circleofcourageinstitute.org/.

Lee Bethany and Perales Kelly. 2005. Circle of Courage: Reaching Youth in Residential Care, in Residential Treatment for Children and Youth, 22(4), 1-14.

Reclaiming Youth International. Available from:
http://www.reclaiming.com/content/about-circle-of-courage.

Project Venture

Program Rating: Promising program

Target population: American Indian youth in grades 5 to 9

Project Venture (PV) is an outdoor experiential youth development program developed by the National Indian Youth Leadership Project (NIYLP) that is aimed to prevent substance abuse by Native Indian youth. The program uses outdoor activities centered on traditional American Indian values to develop positive peer relationships and group skills.

The goals of Project Venture are to:

Method

Project Venture uses four different components to prevent substance use:

Classroom-Based Activities

Outdoor Activities

Adventure Camps and Treks

Community-Oriented Service Learning

Additional Information

Evaluation

The evaluation of Project Venture used a random control-experimental group design. The study used students from two middle schools who were randomly assigned to either a control or an experimental group. In total, 262 children were placed in the experimental group and 135 youth were placed in the control group. As a baseline measure, both groups of youth were administered the National Youth Survey six and eighteen months after program completion. The evaluation found that youth in the experimental group, when compared to the control group, showed:

Program Development Contact Information:

McClellan Hall
Executive Director
National Indian Youth Leadership Project, Inc.
205 Sunde Street
Gallup, NM 87301
Telephone: 505-722-9176
Fax: 505-722-9794
E-mail: machall@niylp.org
Web site: http://www.niylp.org/

Susan Carter, Ph. D.
Evaluation Coordinator
National Indian Youth Leadership Project, Inc.
205 Sunde Street
Gallup, NM 87301
Telephone: 505-508-2232
Fax: 505-722-9794
E-mail: susanleecarter@comcast.net

References

Carter, S., J. Straits and M. Hall. 2007. Project Venture: Evaluation of a positive,
culture-based approach to substance abuse prevention with American Indian youth.
Technical Report. The National Indian Youth Leadership Project. Gallup, NM. Available from: http://www.niylp.org/index.htm.

SAMHSA's National Registry of Evidence-Based Programs and Practices. The National Registry of Evidence-based Programs and Practices. Project Venture. Available from: http://www.nrepp.samhsa.gov/ViewIntervention.aspx?id=102.

Programs for Children At-Risk Ages 6 to 11

All Children Excel (ACE)

Program Rating: Promising program

Target Population: Youth aged 6-15 who are deemed high-risk for serious delinquent behaviour and their families

All Children Excel (ACE) is an intensive and multifaceted program that attempts to prevent delinquency, substance abuse, and dropouts from school by identifying high-risk youth and providing integrated services for these youth and their families. Services used include the police, the school, and community-based organizations.

ACE has several goals including:

Method

ACE uses an approach that combines child welfare and criminal justice services with caseworkers that aims to eliminate risk factors while building up strengthening factors within the community, school, and family.

Youth who are placed in ACE must meet these two criteria:

Four different assessments must be conducted before determining whether the youth should be placed in the ACE program.

If the four assessments determine that the youth is at risk for delinquency, a case manager is then assigned to the family to establish a treatment plan. This treatment plan encompasses multiple dimensions of the child's life including the family, school, and the community. The case manager is supported by the team of personnel from corrections, criminal justice, and public health.

Additional Information

Evaluation

The evaluation used a quasi-experimental pre-test/post-test design with a nonequivalent comparison group. Both groups received at least some of the ACE program services. However, the treatment group received intensive case management that was highly adaptive to individual child and family circumstances. The control group consisted of youth who received services from the YWCA model. The YMCS program was largely based on an afterschool model, in which services are place-based and group-administered. The evaluation found that :

Program Development Contact Information:

Roy Adams
Department of Human Services
160 East Kellogg Blvd
St. Paul, MN 55101
Telephone: 651-266-4859
Fax: 651-266-4443
E-mail: roy.adams@co.ramsey.mn.us
Website: www.co.ramsey.mn.us/ph/index.htm

References

Find Youth Info. 2008. All Children Excel. Available from:
http://www.findyouthinfo.gov/programdetails.aspx?pid=590.

U.S. Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. OJJDP Model Programs Guide – All Children Excel. Available from: http://www.ojjdp.gov/mpg/mpgprogramdetails.aspx?ID=590.

Ramsey County Department of Public Health. 2007. All Children Excel: A Program Guide to Promoting Optimal Development in Child Offenders . Available from: http://www.co.ramsey.mn.us/NR/rdonlyres/82A097AE-978C-4F63-9C68-30B6829A7A2F/7089/overview_of_ACE.pdf.

Better Beginnings, Better Futures

Program Rating: Promising program

Target Population: Children aged 4-8

Better Beginnings, Better Futures is a comprehensive, community-based prevention initiative involving children aged 4 to 8 years living in disadvantaged communities. The initiative is premised upon an ecological approach that uses a combination of individual-, family-, and community-oriented strategies to decrease risk factors for delinquency and increase protective factors.

Better Beginnings, Better Futures aims to:

Method

The implementation of the Better Beginnings, Better Futures initiative is flexible and adaptable to the specific needs of the community. It involves combining a number of programs and activities relevant to the population and community where it is being delivered. The approach is ecological in that it focuses on a variety of individual, family and community level risk factors that impact a child's development. Programs which are designed to be child-focused aim to reduce school failure, promote social skills development and increase school attachment. At the family-level, programs are designed to enhance family functioning and include parent training and parent support groups. At the community level, programs provide opportunities for recreation activities and cultural expression and aim to improve neighbourhood safety, as well as the quality of life within the community.

The following are examples of the types of programs that were offered in three Better Beginnings, Better Futures demonstration sites implemented in Ontario in 1993. An average of 20 programs were offered in each of the project sites and the majority of the programs were school-based (Peters et al., 2010a):

Additional Information

Evaluation

Funded by the provincial government, Better Beginnings, Better Futures was implemented in three disadvantaged neighbourhoods in Ontario in 1993. Children living in the communities of Cornwall, Sudbury and Highfield experienced four years of prevention programming when they were between the ages of 4 and 8 years.

The Better Beginnings, Better Futures Research Coordination Unit at Queen's University has conducted a longitudinal evaluation of the initiative which has now spanned 13 years. The goal of the evaluation has been to track the long-term impact of Better Beginnings, Better Futures on social, behavioural and school functioning outcomes. The evaluation has also included a cost-benefit analysis of the initiative. The three demonstration sites (Cornwall, Sudbury and Highfield) were matched to two comparison sites, located in Ottawa and Etobicoke. Youth and families in the comparison sites did not take part in the Better Beginnings, Better Futures initiative but have participated in the ongoing longitudinal evaluation. Overall, 959 children and their families from the demonstration and comparison sites were recruited to take part in the evaluation. (Peters et al, 2000)

Data were collected yearly when the youth were in Junior Kindergarten to Grade 3 (1993-1998), and then again when they were in Grades 6 (2001-2002), 9 (2004-2005) and 12 (2007-2008). The data were gathered through parent interviews, youth interviews, teacher reports, police/Children's Aid Society databases, census statistics, the Health Canada Nutrient Intake Survey and the Education Quality and Accountability Office. Outcome analyses have shown that the Better Beginnings, Better Futures initiative has had positive long term impacts on the participating youth, their families and their communities.

The following is a sample of the evaluation findings to date:

As reported in The Better Beginnings, Better Futures Ecological, Community-Based Early Childhood Prevention Project: Findings from Grade 3 to Grade 9 (Peters et al, 2010a), data collected from 678 youth and their families when the youth were in Grade 9 showed that:

As reported in Investing in Our Futures: Highlights of Better Beginnings, Better Futures Research Findings at Grade 12 (Peters, et al., 2010b), quantitative data collected from 626 youth and their families when the youth were in Grade 12 showed that:

According to Peters, et al. (2010b), cost-benefit analysis of the Better Beginnings, Better Futures initiative showed that by the time the youth reached Grade 12, the government has benefitted $2.50 for every $1 invested:

Program Development Contact Information:

Ray DeV. Peters, Research Director
Better Beginnings, Better Futures Research Coordination Unit
Queen's University
98 Barrie Street
Kingston, ON K7L 3N6
Telephone: (613) 533-6672
Fax: (613) 533-6732
E-mail: ray.peters@queensu.ca or bbbf@queensu.ca
Web site: http://bbbf.queensu.ca

References

Peters, Ray DeV., et al. (2010a). “The Better Beginnings, Better Futures Projects: Findings from Grade 3 to Grade 9”. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development. 75(3), 1-174.

Peters, Ray DeV., et al. (2010b). Investing in Our Future: Highlights of Better Beginnings, Better Futures Research Findings at Grade 12. Kingston, ON: Better Beginnings, Better Futures Research Coordination Unit, Queen's University.

Peters, Ray DeV., et al. (2000). Developing Capacity and Competence in the Better Beginnings, Better Futures Communities: Short-Term Findings Report. Kingston, Ontario: Better Beginnings, Better Futures Research Coordination Unit Technical Report. Available from: http://bbbf.queensu.ca/pdfs/r_stfr.pdf.

Coping Power Program

Program Rating: Promising program

Target Population: Aggressive youth in transition to middle school, particularly youth in grades 4 to 6

The Coping Power Program is a multicomponent intervention program that targets youth who are in the process of transitioning to middle school. The program targets cognitive distortions among aggressive children that lead to difficulties in interpreting social situations and effective problem-solving when faced with difficult situations.

The goals of the Coping Power Program are to:

Method

The Coping Power Program is implemented over the course of 15 months and contains two components: a child component and a parent component. The intervention begins during the second half of one school year and runs until the end of the second year.

Additional Information

Evaluation

Three main evaluation studies of the Coping Power Program have been conducted. Each of the studies evaluated the effectiveness of the program on school-aged aggressive children. The studies had teachers evaluate the aggressiveness of children in their classrooms. The children with the highest scores were randomly assigned to control or experimental groups. The results of the evaluations indicated that:

Program Development Contact Information:

Shane Jones
Project Coordinator
Coping Power Program
P.O. Box 870348
The University of Alabama
Tuscaloosa, Al 35487
Telephone: 205-348-3535
Fax: 205-348-3526
E-mail: jones178@bama.ua.edu

References

Coping Power Program. 2006. Coping Power. Available from: http://www.copingpower.com/Default.aspx.

Find Youth Info. 2008. Coping Power Program. Available from: http://www.findyouthinfo.gov/programdetails.aspx?pid=317.

Lochman, J.E., et al. 2009. Dissemination of the Coping Power Program: Importance of Intensity of Counselor Training. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology (77) 397-409.

Peterson, M.A., Hamilton, E. B., & Russell A.D. 2009. Starting Well, facilitating the middle school transition. Journal of Applied School Psychology, 25(2), 183-196.

Van de Wiel, N.M.H., et al. 2007. The effectiveness of an experimental treatment when compared with care as usual depends on the type of care as usual. Behavior Modification, (31), 298-312.

U.S. Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. OJJDP Model Programs Guide – Coping Power Program. Available from: http://www.ojjdp.gov/mpg/mpgProgramDetails.aspx?ID=317

Parenting With Love and Limits®

Program Rating: Promising program

Target Population: Parenting with Love and Limits® is designed for youth between 10 and 18 with extreme emotional or behavioral problems (running away, extreme disrespect, chronic truancy, depression, drug or alcohol abuse, etc.)

Parenting with Love and Limits® (PLL) is the first evidence-based program of its kind to combine a 6-week parent education and group therapy program with 4 or more individual "coaching" (family therapy) sessions for adolescents and their parents. The program focuses on teaching parents and adolescents interactive skills and helps to integrate these skills into everyday situations and interactions.

PLL has several goals including to:

Method

The PLL curriculum is composed of six group sessions and at least four individual family therapy sessions. The number of individual therapy sessions depends on the specific needs of each family.

The group sessions are held once a week and last for two hours. Group sessions can accommodate up to six families or up to 15 individuals. During these sessions, parents and youth meet together for the first hour and during the second hour, parents and youth meet separately with a PLL certified facilitator.

Family therapy sessions provide an opportunity for parents and adolescent to meet with a program facilitator and practice the skills they learned in the group sessions. Families are required to participate in at least four of these sessions in order to graduate, however, for high-risk adolescents, it may be necessary to have up to 20 family therapy sessions. These sessions typically last one to two hours.

The 6 group sessions cover the following topics:

The family therapy sessions help to apply the lessons from the group therapy sessions into real-life situations. These sessions cover:

Additional Information

Evaluation

The PLL program has undergone two main evaluation studies. The first study used a pre-test/post-test design to evaluate family relationships and teen behaviour before and after program completion. This evaluation used a pre-test/post-test design and included a sample of 93 adolescents. The second evaluation used a randomized control/experimental group design and 38 adolescents and their parents participated in this study.

The first evaluation study found that:

The second evaluation study found that:

Program Development Contact Information:

Scott P. Sells, Ph.D.
Savannah Family Institute, Inc.
P.O. Box 30381
Savannah, GA 31410-0381
Telephone: 1-912-224-3999
Fax: 1-866-839-4884
E-mail: spsells@gopll.com
Web site: www.gopll.com

References

Find Youth Info. 2008. Parenting With Love and Limits®. Available from: http://www.findyouthinfo.gov/programdetails.aspx?pid=463.

Healthy Communities Institute. 2009. Parenting With Love and Limits®. Available from: http://www.whatcomcounts.org/whatcom/modules.php?op=modload&name=PromisePractice&file=promisePractice&pid=945.

Parenting with Love and Limits® (PLL). Measures to Monitor PLL Adherence. Available from: http://www.gopll.com/.

Promising Practices Network. 2009. Parenting with Love and Limits®. Available from: http://www.promisingpractices.net/program.asp?programid=218.

SAMHSA's National Registry of Evidence-Based Programs and Practices. The National Registry of Evidence-based Programs and Practices. Parenting With Love and Limits®. Available from: http://www.nrepp.samhsa.gov/ViewIntervention.aspx?id=45.

Smith, T. et al. 2006.“Reducing Adolescent Substance Abuse and Delinquency: Pilot Research of a Family-Oriented Psycho-Education Curriculum.” Journal of Child and Adolescent Substance Abuse 15(4), 105-115.

U.S. Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. OJJDP Model Programs Guide – Parenting With Love and Limits. Available from: http://www.ojjdp.gov/mpg/mpgProgramDetails.aspx?ID=463.

Say it Straight

Program Rating: Promising program

Target Population: Youth in schools (3rd-12th graders), communities, homeless shelters, prisons, addictions treatment centres, and other settings.

Say it Straight (SIS) creates opportunities for people to discover their internal resources, connect to their deepest wishes, and develop the skills needed to express and implement them in appropriate ways. Because the training is co-created by participants, it gives them a sense of ownership, and transcends culture, age and gender. It has been successfully implemented in schools, with parents and community, as well as in probation, detention and treatment settings. Addressing individual, family and community risk and protective factors, SIS aims for the development of self-sustaining prevention communities.

The goals of SIS are:

Method

Additional Information

Evaluation

The effectiveness of SIS Training has been tested since 1982 using behavioral and self-report measures with follow-up for periods of as much as 19 months after training (see www.sayitstraight.org for references to published results).

Program Development Contact Information:

Say it Straight Foundation,
David Golden, Ph.D., President and CEO
701 Horseback Hollow, Austin TX 78732
Telephone: 512-983-4459
Fax: 509-278-7009
Email: davideg@sayitstraight.org
Web site: www.sayitstraight.org

References

Find Youth Info. 2008. Say it Straight. Available from: http://www.findyouthinfo.gov/programdetails.aspx?pid=418

Say it Straight. Curriculum. 2008. Available from: http://www.sayitstraight.org/joomla/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=31&Itemid=54

U.S. Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. OJJDP Model Programs Guide – Say it Straight. Available from: http://www.ojjdp.gov/mpg/mpgProgramDetails.aspx?ID=418

Second Step®

Program Rating: Promising program

Target Population: Youth aged 4-14

Second Step is a school-based violence prevention program that aims to reduce aggressive behaviour in children of three different age groups: preschool/kindergarten, elementary school, and middle school. Throughout this program, children increase their social competency skills through lessons that teach them to reduce anger, effectively solve problems, to set goals for themselves, and to make wise decisions.

The goals of Second Step are to:

Method

Second Step contains curriculums for each of the three grade levels. Each curriculum contains 15 to 22 lessons, which are taught once or twice a week for approximately 20-40 minutes. Lessons use group discussions, role-playing, modeling, and coaching to teach impulse and aggression control in children.

Each curriculum is organized into three main units: Empathy Training, Impulse Control and Problem Solving, and Anger Management.

The lessons taught in each curriculum are adapted for the specific age group being targeted.

Additional Information

Evaluation

Program Development Contact Information:

Committee for Children
568 First Avenue South, Suite 600
Seattle, WA 98104-2804
Toll Free: 1-800-634-4449
E-mail: info@cfchildren.org
Web site: www.cfchildren.org/

References

Find Youth Info. 2008. Second Step ®:A Violence Prevention Curriculum. Available from:
http://www.findyouthinfo.gov/programdetails.aspx?pid=422.

National Centre for Mental Health Promotion and Youth Violence Prevention. Second Step: A Violence Prevention Curriculum. Available from: http://www.promoteprevent.org/publications/ebi-factsheets/second-step-violence-prevention-curriculum.

Taub, J. 2002. “Evaluation of the Second Step Violence Prevention Program at a Rural Elementary School.” School Psychology Review, 31(2), 186-200.

U.S. Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. OJJDP Model Programs Guide – Second Step: A Violence Prevention Curriculum . Available from: http://www.ojjdp.gov/mpg/mpgProgramDetails.aspx?ID=422.

Steps to Respect®

Program Rating: Promising program

Target Population: Youth aged 8-12

Steps to Respect® is a comprehensive, school-based bullying prevention program that targets youth in grades 3 to 6. The program was developed by the Committee for Children, which focuses on the development of programs centered on social and emotional learning. The program aims to increase staff and student knowledge about bullying through education.

The Steps to Respect® program has several main goals including:

Method

Steps to Respect® is composed of three components: a school wide program guide, staff training, and classroom lessons.

Additional Information

Evaluation

Three main evaluations of the Steps to Respect® program have been conducted. The first evaluation randomly assigned Grade 3-6 children from six schools to experimental or control groups. This study used a pre and post-test survey to evaluate the effectiveness of the Steps to Respect® Program in reducing playground bullying. This evaluation found:

The second evaluation used an experimental trial with six schools. In total, 549 children were placed in the treatment group, while 577 were part of the control group. The evaluation found that:

The third evaluation is a longitudinal extension of the first Steps to Respect® study. The results of this evaluation showed that youth in the experimental group:

Program Development Contact Information:

Committee for Children
568 First Avenue South, Suite 600
Seattle, WA 98104
Telephone: 1-800-634-4449
Fax: 206-343-1445
E-mail: info@cfchildren.org
Web site: http://www.cfchildren.org/programs/str/overview/

References

Child Trends. 2003. Steps to Respect Bullying Prevention Program. Available from: http://www.childtrends.org/lifecourse/programs/StepsToRespect.htm.

Find Youth Info. 2008. Steps to Respect ®. Available from: http://www.findyouthinfo.gov/programdetails.aspx?pid=698.

Frey, K. et al. 2005. “Reducing Playground Bullying and Supporting Beliefs: An Experimental Trial of the Steps to Respect Program.” Developmental Psychology 41(3), 479-491.

Frey, K. et al. 2009. “Observed Reductions in School Bullying, Nonbullying Aggression, and Destructive Bystander Behavior: A Longitudinal Evaluation.” Journal of Educational Psychology 101(2), 466-481.

Hirschstein, M. et al. 2007. “Walking the Talk in Bullying Prevention: Teacher Implementation Variables Related to Initial Impact of the Steps to Respect Program.” School Psychology Review 36(1), 3-21.

U.S. Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. OJJDP Model Programs Guide – Steps to Respect Bullying Prevention Program. Available from: http://www.ojjdp.gov/mpg/mpgProgramDetails.aspx?ID=698

Strengthening Families Program

Program Rating: Model program

Target Population: At-risk children from 3-5, 6-11 and 12-16 years of age and their families

The Strengthening Families Program (SFP) is geared towards at-risk children from 6 to 12 years of age and their families. With a science-based curriculum, the program focuses on acquiring recognized pro-social skills.

The main objectives of the SFP are to:

Method

Additional Information

Evaluation

Program Development Contact Information:

For questions about the program and evaluation, please contact:

Karol Kumpfer, Ph.D.
Psychologist, Program Developer and Professor
University of Utah
Department of Health Promotion and Education
1901 E South Campus Dr. Room 2142
Salt Lake City, Utah 84112
Telephone: 801-582-1562
Fax:801-581-5872
E-mail: kkumpfer@xmission.com
Web site: http://www.strengtheningfamiliesprogram.org/index.html

For questions about training and material, please contact:

Henry Whiteside
Lutra Group SP
5215 Pioneer Fork Road,
Salt Lake City, Utah 84108-1678
Telephone: 801-583-4601
Fax: 801-583-7979
E-mail: hwhiteside@lutragroup.com

References

National Institute on Drug Abuse.2003. Preventing Drug Use among Children and Adolescents: A Research-Based Guide for Parents, Educators, and Community Leaders. Second Edition. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health. Available from: http://www.strengtheningfamiliesprogram.org/docs/RedBook.pdf.

Strengthening Families Program Publication. nd.Detailed Description of Strengthening Families Program. Available from: http://www.strengtheningfamiliesprogram.org/docs/detailed_info.html.

Strengthening America's Families. Effective Family Programs for Prevention of Delinquency. Funded by the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.Strengthening Families Program. Available from: http://www.strengtheningfamilies.org/.

The “l'Allié” Program

Program rating: Promising program

Target population: Elementary school students aged 8-12 with behavioural problems and their parents

The l'Allié program is a multimodal intervention program intended for young people who exhibit behavioural problems at school and at home and are considered to be at risk of school and social maladjustment.

The main goals are to:

More specifically, the objective of the l'Allié program is to prevent the appearance and the aggravation of behavioural problems in school-age children.

Method

Additional Information

Evaluation

Evaluation of impact

Evaluation of implementation

Program Development Contact Information:

Nadia Desbiens
Professor-researcher
Projet l'Allié, Faculté des sciences de l'éducation
School Environment Research Group
University of Montreal
Marie-Victorin Building
P.O. Box 6128, succ. Centre-ville
Montréal, Québec, Canada, H3C 3J7
Telephone: 514-343-7436
E-mail: nadia.desbiens@umontreal.ca
E-mail: General information: info@projet-allie.ca
E-mail: Training: formation@projet-allie.ca
Web site: www.projet-allie.ca

References

Desbiens, N., Bowen, F., Pascal, S. and J. Janosz. 2009. Le programme l'Allié: une alliance autour de l'élève de deuxième et troisième cycle du primaire manifestant des difficultés de comportement de type externalisé. Revue de psychoéducation (38), 169-187.

Desbiens, N. and S. Pascal. 2006. Réussite scolaire et sociale des élèves présentant des difficultés de comportement au primaire : Rapport d'évaluation des impacts «volet parent» du programme multimodal Allié. [Academic and social success of students with behavioural problems in elementary grades: Evaluation report of “parent component” impacts in the multimodal Allié program.] Université de Montréal, Groupe de recherche sur les environnements scolaires.

La trousse pédagogique du programme l'Allié – information publication

The “Fluppy” Program

Program Rating: Innovative program

Target Population: Preschool-age children (5-6 years) and primary-age children (6-12 years)

The Fluppy program was developed in the 1990s in Montreal. Overall, this program pursues the main objectives of the oldest prevention program: the Preventive Treatment Program (Montreal Longitudinal Experimental Study).

Fluppy is a school-based program prevention, and its implementation is supported by the health care sector. Fluppy focuses on various target groups: children in preschool and Grade 1, children in grades 2 and 3, and children in grades4to6. To ensure the best results in older children, they should preferably have been exposed to prevention programs in earlier years.

The main goals of the Fluppy program are to:

Method

Fluppy combines universal prevention interventions (for all students in the class) and interventions targeting young people who are assessed as being at risk through risk assessments tools. The program is tailored to the appropriate age group.

The Fluppy program in preschool and Grade 1:

Fluppy program in Grades 2 and 3:

Fluppy program in Grades 4, 5 and 6:

Additional Information

Evaluation

Program Development Contact Information:

Centre de Psycho-Éducation du Québec
3050 boulevard Édouard-Montpetit, Suite A-110
Montréal, Québec, Canada, H3T 1J7
Telephone: 514-343-6981
Fax: 514-343-6974
E-mail: gripcpeq@grip.umontreal.cagripcpeq@grip.umontreal.ca
Web site: http://www.centrepsed.qc.ca/

References

Capuano, F., Gasgon-Giard, C. and P. Verlaan. 1996. Programme de promotion de la compétence
sociale et du rendement scolaire au deuxième cycle du primaire; volet habiletés sociales. [Program for promoting social skills and academic performance in second cycle of elementary school; social skill section]. Montréal: Centre de Psycho-Éducation du Québec.

Gascon-Giard, C. 1998. Fluppy: Programme de promotion des comportements sociaux en 2e et 3e année. [Fluppy: Program for promoting social behaviour in Grades 2 and 3] Montréal: Centre de Psycho-Éducation du Québec.

Programs for Youth At-Risk Ages 12 to 17

Aggression Replacement Training®

Program Rating: Promising program

Target Population: Chronically aggressive and violent adolescents aged 12-17

Aggression Replacement Training® (ART®) is a 10 week cognitive behavioral intervention, multi-component, that was designed to target adolescents who display chronically aggressive and violent behaviour. The program is centered on skill building, group discussions, and reinforcement techniques. ART® may be implemented within schools, juvenile delinquency programs, and mental health settings with youth from all socioeconomic backgrounds.

The main goals of ART® are to:

Method

Additional Information

Evaluation

Several evaluations of the ART® program have been conducted. The first evaluation conducted studied 60 youth who were incarcerated in a New York State Division for Youth facility. Youth were placed in one of three groups: an experimental group, a quasi-experimental group, and a control group. ART® has also been evaluated as a community-based reintegration program for youth. This study also used three randomized study groups. The last evaluation studied the effectiveness of ART® on a group of 1229 youth, who were randomly assigned to control and experimental groups. The evaluations found that:

Program Development Contact Information:

Barry Glick, Ph.D.
G & G Consultants, LLC
106 Acorn Drive – Suite A
Scotia, NY 12302 - 4702
Telephone: 518-229-7933 (mobile phone)
E-mail: artgang01@gmail.com
Web site: http://g-gconsultants.org

References

Find Youth Info. 2008. Aggression Replacement Training® (ART®). Available from: http://www.findyouthinfo.gov/programdetails.aspx?pid=292.

Glick, Barry and John C. Gibbs. 2010. ART Aggression Replacement Training Revised Edition - A comprehensive Intervention for Aggressive Youth. Revised and Expanded Edition. Research Press: Champaign, IL.

Glick, Barry. 2009. Cognitive Behavioral Interventions for At-Risk Youth Vol. 2. Civic Research Institute: Kingston, NJ

Glick, Barry. 2006. Cognitive Behavioral Interventions for At-Risk Youth Vol. 1. Civic Research Institute: Kingston, NJ

National Centre for Mental Health Promotion and Youth Violence Prevention. Aggression Replacement Training® (ART®). Available from: http://www.promoteprevent.org/publications/ebi-factsheets/aggression-replacement-training%C2%AE-art%C2%AE.

Pathways to Education Program

Program Rating: Promising program

Target Population: High school youth from economically disadvantaged communities

Pathways to Education Program is a community-based program designed to reduce poverty and its effects by lowering the dropout rate among from economically disadvantaged communities and increasing their participation in post-secondary programs. The Pathways to Education Program provides support to young people so they stay in school and continue their education.

The program was first established in 2001 and implemented at Regent Park in Toronto by the Regent Park Community Health Centre. The program was a success and is currently in place in ten other sites (three in Toronto, one in Kitchener, one in Ottawa, one in Hamilton, one in Kingston, one in Montreal, one in Winnipeg and one in Halifax).

The main objectives of the Pathways to Education Program are to help disadvantaged youth:

Overall, the program also strives to:

Method

The program is structured around four key supports: academic, social, financial and counseling. The program takes a holistic community approach, ensuring that the four supports are delivered to youth in a comprehensive style, not in isolation. This approach improves young people's chances of completing high school and accessing postsecondary education.

The four supports are briefly described as follows:

The Pathways to Education Program also builds relationships with parents to ensure that they play an active role in their child's education, especially when language and cultural barriers are a problem.

Additional Information

Evaluation

The current situation of youth in Regent Park was compared with the situation in September2001, the date of the program was implemented in the community. The results show that the program has:

According to a cost-benefit analysis conducted by the Boston Consulting Group, the Pathways to Education Program was less costly and more profitable than most other programs for disadvantaged students. Ultimately, this translates into savings in health care, correctional services and welfare. The study found:

The study also notes a drop of 75% in teenage pregnancy rates and a significant reduction in violent crime and property crime reports in Regent Park and adjacent neighborhoods, during the same time period. Although these changes cannot be directly attributed to the Program, it is also understood that crime and teenage pregnancy rates decrease with successful poverty reduction.

Program Development Contact Information:

Dianne Bascombe
Vice President, Programs
Pathways to Education Canada
6 Adelaide St. East, Suite 800
Toronto Ontario, Canada, M5C 1H6
Telephone: 416-646-0123 – ext. 301
E-mail: dbascombe@pathwayscanada.ca
Web site: http://www.pathwaystoeducation.ca/home.html

References

Pathways to Education Canada. Annual Report 2007-2008. Available from: http://www.pathwaystoeducation.ca/home.html.

Pathways to Education Canada. Fact Sheet. Available from: http://www.pathwaystoeducation.ca/home.html.

Pathways to Education Canada. How the Replication of the Pathways to Education Program Works? Available from: http://www.pathwaystoeducation.ca/home.html.

Reconnecting Youth

Program Rating: Promising program

Target Population: Adolescents aged 14-19 who demonstrate risk factors co-occurring with potential school dropout, such as drug use, anger/aggression, depression, and suicidal behaviours.

RY is a science-based prevention program for reducing high school drop-out, drug involvement, violence, depression & suicide-risk behaviours. The RY skills training intervention is school-based, targeting youth who exhibit multiple behavioural problems that place them at-risk for dropping out of school. The program is centered on the theory that youth who are at risk of becoming school dropouts often have co-occurring drug use, anger problems, depression, or suicidal behaviours. The program involves peer groups, school teachers/staff, and parents in the goals of increasing school performance and decreasing the co-occurring risk problems that result in school dropout.

Reconnecting Youth aims to:

RY has produced proven outcomes. As a result, youth participating in RY showed the following:

Reductions in Suicidal Behaviours and Emotional Distress

Increases in School Achievement

Reductions in Drug Involvement

Increases in Personal and Social Support Assets

Method

At-risk students are recruited into (not required to attend) the RY program by the RY Leader through a personal invitation, having been identified using the following criteria:

The RY Class
The RY class is comprised of 10-12 students and meets daily, or on a block schedule, for an entire semester. There are 75 lessons in the curriculum. The class is part of the high-school curriculum, and students receive credit for participation. The class is led by a teacher who excels in working with high-risk youth and has completed RY training to ensure fidelity of program implementation. The focus of the class is on skills training within the context of adult and peer support.

The Curriculum
The RY Class is delivered in five modules:

  1. Getting Started
  2. Self-Esteem Enhancement
  3. Decision Making
  4. Personal Control
  5. Interpersonal Communication

The Getting Started module lasts for approximately 10 days, during which students evaluate their behaviour, develop program goals, and begin working towards achieving those goals. The remaining four modules concentrate on life-skills training (Self-Esteem Enhancement, Decision Making, Personal Control, and Interpersonal Communication). Each of these modules lasts for approximately one month.

The curriculum is enhanced by the promotion of school bonding, parental involvement, and school crisis response planning.

Additional Information

Evaluation

When compared to a control group (students meeting the same criterion of potential school dropouts – i.e., behind in credits for grade level, high absenteeism, previous dropout, etc. – and who completed the same questionnaires on the same timeline as RY students over the course of 2+ semesters), RY students showed significant improvements:

These findings support the RY theoretical model. The findings further suggest that the program works because of the RY Leader and peer group support and skills training. RY Leader support is critical to the success of the program. Skills training is taught in the context of carefully nurtured peer group support, as the greater the amount of social support and skills training, the greater the achievement of program goals.

Program Development Contact Information:

Reconnecting Youth™ Inc.
PO Box 20343
Seattle, WA 98102
Telephone: 425-861-1177
Fax: 888-352-2819
E-mail: merridy@reconnectingyouth.com
Web site: www.reconnectingyouth.com/

References

Reconnecting Youth Inc. Reconnecting Youth. Available from: http://www.reconnectingyouth.com/RY/.

SAMHSA's National Registry of Evidence-Based Programs and Practices. The National Registry of Evidence-based Programs and Practices. Reconnecting Youth. Available from: http://nrepp.samhsa.gov/ViewIntervention.aspx?id=96.

The Fourth R

Program Rating: Promising program

Target Population: Youth in grades 8 to 12

The Fourth R is a school-based program that integrates students, teachers, parents, and the community into a comprehensive violence prevention program. The program targets all adolescents in its implementation to avoid labelling particular youth as at-risk.

The goals of Fourth R are to:

Method

The Fourth R curriculum contains 21 in-class lessons that are divided into three different units. These lessons meet the Ontario Ministry of Education's standards for health education for Grades 8 and 9 as well as Grade 9-12 English. The Grade 7 program will be released in September, 2010.

The three units are: Violence/Bullying, Unsafe Sexual Behaviour, and Substance Use.

The units for English address the topics of violence / bullying, at-risk sexual behaviour, gangs, substance use and abuse, and impacts of media violence. The Grade 9 and Grade 12 English programs are book club based, with seven lessons that incorporate ways to develop character education critical literacy skills, and critical thinking skills. The Grade 10 English program is a 30-lesson Short Story Unit, and the Grade 11 English program is 24- lesson Non-Fiction literature Unit. These units are designed with innovative teaching strategies and contained all the required activities and rubrics for implementation. All the English material is designed to support a variety of reading levels in the texts, combined with the variety of exercises and follow-up activities, allow the teacher to differentiate the instruction and the performance expectations for each student.

There are three other key components other than the in-class lessons. Fourth R incorporates the school, the parents and the community into the program implementation.

Additional Information

Evaluation

The local Fourth R Project has completed its five-year randomized control trial (RCT; 2004-2009) to determine whether the curriculum taught in Grade 9 Health classes would reduce physical dating violence relative to standard Health classes two and half years later. It has found that:

Program Development Contact Information:

CAMH Centre for Prevention Science
100-100 Collip Circle
London, Ontario, Canada, N6G 4X8
Telephone: 519-858-5154
Fax: 519-858-5149
E-mail: thefourthr@uwo.ca
Web Site: http://www.preventionsciencecluster.org/

References

Canadian Prevention Science Cluster. The Fourth Initiative as a Cluster Prototype. Available from: http://youthrelationships.org/about_fourth_r.html.

Saskatchewan Department of Education. The Fourth R: A Relationship Based Violence and Risk Reduction Program for Secondary Schools. Available from: http://www.education.gov.sk.ca/adx/aspx/adxGetMedia.aspx?DocID=2890,88,Documents&MediaID=6490&Filename=Fourth+R.pdf.

Programs for Addressing Youth Gang Involvement

Breaking the Cycle

Program Rating: Innovative program

Target Population: Youth at-risk of gang participation aged from 15 to 26

As well, youth participating in this program must be:

The Breaking the Cycle Youth Gang Exit and Ambassador Leadership Program (“the BTC”) is operated by the CTI Canadian Training Institute. The BTC is a comprehensive strategy that targets youth gangs and addresses risk factors for youth at risk of joining gangs and for gang-involved youth.

The main objectives of the BTC are to:

Method

The key elements of this program are as follows:

Additional Information

Evaluation

Program Development Contact Information:

Canadian Training Institute
John Sawdon, Executive Director
50 Euston Ave
Toronto, Ontario, Canada, M4J 3N3
Telephone: 416-778-7056
Fax: 416-778-8103
E-mail: jsawdon@cantraining.org
Web site: www.cantraining.org

Breaking the Cycle, Ambassador Leadership Project

Gary Newman, Project Director
Rexdale Site
1790 Albion Road, Suite 101
Rexdale, Ontario, Canada, M9V 4J8
Telephone: 416-745-1829/742-7588
Fax: 416-742-4240 E-mail: gnewman@cantraining.org

Scarborough Site
2250 Midland Avenue
Scarborough, Ontario, M1P 4R9
Telephone; 416-293-1287
Fax: 416-293-5819

References

Evans, Donald G. and John Sawdon. nd.The Development of a Gang Exit Strategy: The Youth Ambassador's Leadership and Employment Project. Available from: http://www.cantraining.org/BTC/docs/Sawdon%20Evans%20CT%20Article.pdf.

Hall, Steve and John Sawdon. 2004. Report to Human Resources Skills Development Canada on the Breaking the Cycle Youth Gang Exit and Youth Ambassador Leadership Employment Preparation Project; for July 1, 2003, to June 30, 2004. CTI Canadian Training Institute / Institut Canadien de Formation Inc.

Public Safety Canada. 2009. The Breaking the Cycle Youth Gang Exit and Ambassador Leadership Program. National Crime Prevention Centre, Ottawa. Available from: http://www.publicsafety.gc.ca/cnt/rsrcs/pblctns/brkng-ccl/index-eng.aspx.

Chicago Ceasefire

Program Rating: Promising program

Target Population: High-risk youth aged 16-25

Chicago CeaseFire is an initiative of the Chicago Project for Violence Prevention. Chicago CeaseFire is a violence prevention program that works with community, city, state, and federal partners to reduce violent crime in Chicago. The program is specifically directed at reducing the number of shootings and killings in Chicago.

The two primary goals of Chicago CeaseFire are to:

To be selected for this program, youth are assessed against a list of criteria for inclusion. Youth must meet at least four of these criteria. Generally, the program focuses on youth who are between the ages of 16 to 25 and who have a history of arrest. Additionally, these youth tended to be members of a gang, have been in prison, have been a victim of a shooting, and have been involved in the sale of drugs on the street.

Method

Five core components make up Chicago Ceasefire. These components are: community mobilization, youth outreach, public education, faith-based leader involvement, and criminal justice participation.

Additional Information

Evaluation

The evaluation of Chicago CeaseFire by the U.S. Department of Justice included three types of methodologies to assess the impact of the program on shootings and killings: time-series analysis, hot-spot mapping, and network analysis.

A time-series analysis was used to compare preprogram and postprogram data across seven CeaseFire program sites with comparison areas that were not being served by CeaseFire during the same time period. The seven sites were Auburn Gresham, Englewood, Logan Square, Rogers Park, Southwest, West Garfield Park, and West Humboldt Park. The overall average postprogram period was 59.3 months, ranging from 33 to 79 months. The results of the evaluation were mixed, but positive:

Program Development Contact Information:

CeaseFire
1603 W. Taylor St., MC 923
Chicago, IL 60612
Telephone: 312-996-8775
Fax: 312-355-0207
E-mail: info@ceasefirechicago.org
Website: http://ceasefirechicago.org/

References

Chicago Project For Violence Prevention. Ceasefire: The Campaign to STOP the Shooting. Available from: http://ceasefirechicago.org/.

Find Youth Info. Chicago Ceasefire. Available from: http://www.findyouthinfo.gov/programdetails.aspx?pid=835.

Skogan, Wesley G. et al. 2008. Evaluation of CeaseFire – Chicago. Washington, D.C.: National Institute of Justice, Office of Justice Programs. Available from: http://www.northwestern.edu/ipr/publications/ceasefire_papers/executivesummary.pdf.

Weed and Seed

Program Rating: Innovative program

Target Population: Neighbourhoods with high levels of crime, specifically gang activity, violent crimes, and drug related crimes.

Weed and Seed is a community-based prevention strategy that combines law enforcement with community mobilization and crime prevention. The strategy aims to build relations among community members while “weeding out” criminals who are involved with drug abuse and violent crimes in the neighbourhood. Meanwhile, Weed and Seed encourages prevention, treatment, and intervention to prevent the return of crime to the area.

Weed and Seed has several goals including:

Method

Weed and Seed uses two main approaches: the “weeding out” of criminals from the neighbourhood and the “seeding” of services in the area including treatment programs, prevention initiatives, and restoration programs.

There are four basic components in the Weed and Seed strategy: law enforcement; community policing; prevention, intervention and treatment; and neighbourhood restoration.

Additional Information

Before implementing Weed and Seed, several steps must be taken to prepare. The six basic planning stages involved in developing the Weed and Seed strategy are:

Steps to Official Recognition:

  1. Organize and convene a Steering Committee. The Steering Committee meets and identifies the designated neighborhood, conducts a needs assessment for the designated neighborhood, identifies existing resources and gaps where new resources are needed, develops implementation activities, and develops the implementation schedule.
  2. Request an application for official recognition.
  3. Communities that develop a Weed and Seed strategy in coordination with their U.S. Attorney's Office may submit an application for official recognition to CCDO.

Evaluation

A national evaluation of the Weed and Seed strategy was conducted for eight sites across the United States. The effectiveness of weeding and seeding activities varied across the eight sites. The results of the evaluation found that:

Program Development Contact Information:

Weed and Seed Date Center
Jim Zepp, Director, Training and Technical Assistance Center
777 North Capitol St., NE
Suite 801
Washington, DC 20002
Telephone: 202-842-9330
Fax: 202-842-9329
Web site: http://www.weedandseed.info/
E-mail: jzepp@jrsa.org

Community Capacity Development Office (CCDO)
U.S. Department of Justice
810 Seventh Street, NW
Washington, DC 20531
Telephone: 202-616-1152
Fax: 202-616-1159
E-mail: askccdo@usdoj.gov
Web site: http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/ccdo/welcome_flash.html

References

U.S. Department of Justice. Community Capacity Development Office. Weed and Seed. Available from: http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/ccdo/welcome_flash.html.

U.S. Department of Justice. Community Capacity Development Office. Weed and Seed Data Center. Available from: http://www.weedandseed.info/.

U.S. Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. 1999. OJJDP Model Programs Guide – National Evaluation of Weed and Seed. Available from: http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/175685.pdf.


Footnotes

  1. 1 For more information about this publication, see http://www.publicsafety.gc.ca/cnt/rsrcs/pblctns/prmsng-mdl-vlm1/index-eng.aspx.
  2. 2 National Crime Prevention Centre.Implementation Factsheets of Promising and Model Crime Prevention Programs. Public Safety Canada: Ottawa. The Implementation Factsheets are available on the CD entitled Promising and Model Crime Prevention Programs - 2nd edition.
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