Summit on the Economics of Policing - Summit Report
- Executive Summary
- Framing the Summit
- Pillar 1: Efficiencies within Police Services
- Pillar II: New Models of Community Safety
- Pillar III: Efficiencies within the Justice System
- Closing Session
- Appendix A: List of Participants
- Appendix B: Agenda
On January 16-17, 2013, the Minister of Public Safety, on behalf of all Federal, Provincial and Territorial (FPT) Ministers Responsible for Justice and Public Safety, hosted the Summit on the Economics of Policing in Ottawa, Canada. This report provides a record of the proceedings, highlights key insights and observations, and outlines the proposed framework for policing in Canada.
During a time of fiscal restraint and enhanced public expectations, governments and police services must find more efficient and effective methods to sustain current levels of policing services to ensure public safety. FPT Ministers of Justice and Public Safety recognized this challenge and agreed to seek common solutions. At their meeting in Charlottetown in January 2012, Ministers agreed to convene the Summit on the Economics of Policing to explore these issues more fully. At their October 31, 2012 meeting, Ministers further called for the development of a framework for policing in Canada. The Summit responded to these commitments.
The Summit brought together representatives from federal, provincial and municipal governments, national police associations (the Canadian Association of Police Boards, the Canadian Association of Chiefs of Police and the Canadian Police Association), police leaders (including First Nations police services), frontline police officers, academics and speakers from across Canada, the United States, the United Kingdom and New Zealand. The participant list is available at Appendix A.
The Minister of Public Safety and the Attorney General of British Columbia opened the two-day Summit, which included six panel discussions led by prominent domestic and international speakers, and three keynote speakers. Given the breadth of the issue, the sessions were organized around three pillars:
- Pillar 1: Efficiencies within Police Services
- Pillar 2: New Models of Community Safety
- Pillar 3: Efficiencies within the Justice System
Panel presentations explored each of the pillars in greater detail. For each panel, a moderator set the context and then invited speakers to provide their insights and perspectives. This was followed by brief audience table discussions and an open question period. The panels explored a number of key themes, including: the evolution of policing; the right balance between civilianization, privatization and tiered policing; collective bargaining and arbitration in policing; research, policing and crime reduction; and streamlining the justice system to reduce the costs of policing. The full Summit agenda can be found at Appendix B.
FPT Ministers agreed that the Summit on the Economics of Policing was a key step on a longer journey toward increased efficiency and effectiveness of policing in Canada, and that it laid the foundation for future collaborative work. In line with that goal, the Associate Deputy Minister of Public Safety and the Presidents of the Canadian Police Association, the Canadian Association of Chiefs of Police and the Canadian Association of Police Boards, closed the Summit by proposing a general framework for a shared forward agenda, highlighting possible action items, and laying out a process for consultation and engagement.
Consultations with key stakeholders at all levels will take place through the spring and summer of 2013 to build on the Summit's outcomes and collaboratively develop a strategy for FPT Ministers' consideration in Fall 2013. This strategy will strengthen Canada's policing advantage in order to ensure that policing in Canada remains sustainable now and in the future.
Purpose of this Report
This report records the proceedings and outcomes of the Summit on the Economics of Policing: Strengthening Canada's Policing Advantage that took place on January 16-17, 2013, in Ottawa, Canada. The report includes summaries of keynote addresses and panel presentations, highlights key insights and observations, and outlines the proposed framework that arose from the Summit discussions. It is intended as a reference document for Summit participants, as well as for future policy discussions.
The views expressed herein are those of the participants at the Summit and do not necessarily reflect those of the Government of Canada.
Purpose of the Summit
The Minister of Public Safety hosted the Summit on the Economics of Policing: Strengthening Canada's Policing Advantage on behalf of the FPT Ministers Responsible for Justice and Public Safety. The purpose of the Summit was to increase awareness of the challenges and opportunities facing policing, provide practical information on improving efficiency and effectiveness, and strengthen the foundation for innovation and reform in Canadian policing.
Due to the breadth of the issue, the Summit agenda was organized around the following three pillars:
- Pillar 1: Efficiencies within Police Services
- Pillar 2: New Models of Community Safety
- Pillar 3: Efficiencies within the Justice System
The intention was to build on and maintain the momentum of work currently underway by governments, police associations, police services, and other policing stakeholders to strengthen policing efficiency and effectiveness. The Canadian Association of Chiefs of Police, the Canadian Police Association, the Canadian Association of Police Boards and other stakeholders were important partners in this undertaking.
The Summit was an unprecedented event that was attended by approximately 250 individuals from across Canada and around the world, including: Ministers, government officials, police leaders and frontline police offers, representatives of policing associations, academics and private sector stakeholders. The list of participants is available at Appendix A and the Summit agenda can be found at Appendix B.
Many factors are driving the steadily rising costs of policing, including increases in police officers' salaries, higher costs for equipment and fuel and the emergence of new challenges (for example, assisting individuals dealing with mental health issues) and new types of crime. In addition, greater levels of complexity within the criminal justice system are now requiring more time and resources than in the past to accomplish the same tasks. As a result, spending on policing has increased steadily, reaching more than $12 billion annually in 2010. At the same time, the volume and severity of reported crime has declined, leading to increasing calls to demonstrate value in policing services. Addressing the economics of policing is about sustaining policing response while improving policing efficiency and effectiveness. It is about keeping people safe and getting at the root causes of crime through innovation and reform, while controlling costs and responding to public calls for smarter government spending.
Framing the Summit
Ministers' Welcoming Address
The Honourable Vic Toews, Minister of Public Safety, Government of Canada
The Honourable Vic Toews welcomed participants to the Summit. Minister Toews spoke to the events leading up to the Summit, setting the context and sharing his hopes for positive outcomes for policing in Canada.
Minister Toews stated that the economics of policing relates to the evolution and sustainability of policing in a time of greater fiscal constraint and enhanced public expectations. All levels of government are finding it increasingly difficult to pay for police services. Spending on policing surpassed $12 billion annually in 2010, while the volume and severity of reported crime have been on the decline. Among the many factors driving up policing costs are the emergence of new policing priorities and new types of crime, such as financial crime, cyber-crime, the globalization of organized crime and an increased focus on terrorism. In addition, increased complexity within the criminal justice system is putting more demands on police resources. With salaries and benefits making up 80 to 90 per cent of costs, looking for efficiencies in the way police work is done, and by whom, will be an important factor in any solution.
In January 2012, Federal, Provincial and Territorial Ministers of Justice and Public Safety met to discuss shared concerns about steadily rising police costs in a time of fiscal restraint. Recognizing that this is a complex issue that warrants a national dialogue, the Ministers agreed to convene this Summit on the economics of policing.
At both the national and provincial levels, several reviews are currently underway to better understand and find efficiencies in the police and justice systems. Strategies that will translate into more effective and innovative policing include making better use of staff, making appropriate use of the private sector, developing partnerships in the community, seeking cost-recovery for certain services, and leveraging technology. It will be critical to learn from best practices, evidence-based research and new models in order to strengthen Canada's approach to policing and crime prevention. The entire policing community must be engaged in turning this challenge into an opportunity to create ever more efficient and effective police services, and better serve Canadians. While Public Safety Canada has played a leadership role in the organization of this Summit, buy-in from all levels of government and stakeholders, including the Canadian public, will be critical. This will require enhancing partnerships and integration, and encouraging innovation and reform to improve services and accountability to Canadians.
Minister Toews shared three goals that will lead to the creation of a new and sustained vision for policing in Canada. First, success can only be achieved if all of the players involved - all levels of government, all police services and police boards – are moving forward together in the execution of a shared agenda. Second, the issue must be tackled from all angles, including identifying innovative cost containment measures, supporting cultural reform and improving organizational management. Third, real and lasting change will require sustained commitment over the long term.
He underscored that police services face two options — they can do nothing and eventually be forced to cut drastically, as we have seen in some countries; or they can be proactive, get ahead of the curve, and have greater flexibility in designing and implementing both incremental and meaningful structural reforms.
In closing, Minister Toews thanked participants for their commitment to policing and for their service to their communities. He emphasized that the Summit panelists and guest speakers are all seasoned experts in their respective fields, and made special mention of key stakeholders that have contributed to the dialogue on this issue across the country, including the Canadian Police Association, the Canadian Association of Chiefs of Police, the Canadian Association of Police Boards, the Federation of Canadian Municipalities, the Canadian Police College and the Police Sector Council.
The Honourable Shirley Bond, Attorney General and Minister of Justice, Government of British Columbia
The Honourable Shirley Bond also welcomed participants to the Summit. Minister Bond spoke about the need for reform in British Columbia's (BC) justice system and provided an overview of key initiatives currently underway in the province to create a timely, transparent justice system that works for British Columbians.
Minister Bond said the condition and future of British Columbia's justice system has been at the centre of public discussion for several years. The province is faced with rising costs and court delays in spite of the fact that crime rates in Canada are at a historic low. With no increase in workload, it is unclear why cost pressures on the justice system endure. British Columbians expect the justice system to manage its costs while keeping their communities safe from crime. The Minister believes taxpayers in BC, and likely right across the country, have zero tolerance for jurisdictions simply pointing fingers at one another. They do not care where the funds come from or whose responsibility governments think it is – they just want the services, and they expect governments and key stakeholders to sort it out.
Today's challenges, declared the Minister, demand forward-looking ideas and innovative solutions. It will be critical to think outside the box and move to strategic and coordinated efforts across the justice system. Reforms in BC are focusing on creating a new model of transparent governance and reducing court delays through the use of evidence-based approaches. For example, BC's Immediate Roadside Prohibition program, which allows police officers to issue immediate administrative sanctions to impaired drivers, has shown spectacular results and has significantly reduced pressures on courts. A proposed new approach to traffic tickets will also be key to BC's reform strategy - amendments to the Motor Vehicle Act will help move certain traffic offenses, including speeding, texting while driving and disobeying a traffic signal, to an administrative process, thereby freeing up officer and court resources for higher priorities while enhancing road safety. Improvements have also been found in the coordination of information between partner agencies and the ways in which files are managed through the successful Prime-BC Record Management System project, which connects every police department in BC through the availability of real-time crime data and allows for the tracking and analyzing of crime across the province.
In conclusion, the Minister stated that she is confident that the timing is right for reform and that there is opportunity for positive change in several areas. The key is to concentrate on core services and innovative ways of achieving policing goals through a sustainable policing model in Canada. This Summit represents a great opportunity to put together a plan on how to address issues and challenges moving forward.
Pillar 1: Efficiencies within Police Services
Panel 1: Evolution of Policing
To set the context, Dalhousie University Professor Paul McKenna introduced the three panelists and outlined the objective of the panel session, which was to develop a shared understanding of how operational policing in Canada has evolved and to discuss expectations for policing in the future.
The panelists provided an overview of the historical trajectory of policing in various jurisdictions and discussed the challenges, lessons learned and opportunities facing policing in Canada and the world. Following the presentations, participants were given an opportunity to briefly discuss possible questions for the panelists. Key messages that emerged from the panel discussions and the open question period are presented below.
Alok Mukherjee, President of the Canadian Association of Police Boards and Chair of the Toronto Police Services Board
Alok Mukherjee offered some reflections on the history of police governance and provided an overview of the evolution of the Toronto Police Service and its Board.
Dr. Mukherjee provided an overview of the evolution of police governance and discussed evolving public expectations of police. He noted that the need for policing today has grown and is becoming more diversified. As an example, he noted that the public expect police to deal with public drunkenness, even though it is not a police responsibility. Dr. Mukherjee highlighted the challenges police boards face today as they struggle to contain costs while responding to heightened public expectations. Growing public expectation and demand for service, legislative changes, transfer of responsibility by different orders of government and increased security in our post-9/11 world are several factors amongst others that are changing the nature and mission of policing, raising questions about the continuing relevance of the current model of governing and financing local policing, and causing many to question whether the model is sustainable. Dr. Mukherjee spoke to the need to develop the next generation of police leaders so they are prepared to grapple with these and new challenges. In addition, he highlighted the need for a national repository of knowledge on police issues so that Canada can maintain, develop, analyze and continue to enhance its best practices in public safety.
In closing, Dr. Mukherjee emphasized that the issue of sustainability of public policing will require a focused, concentrated and ongoing effort by all parties – local police services, police boards, provincial and national police organizations, and the three orders of government – to move towards a new vision of policing and public safety that will: meet the needs of communities, be effective in preventing and reducing crime in the modern era, and be affordable and sustainable in the long term.
Jim Chu, President of the Canadian Association of Chiefs of Police and Chief Constable of the Vancouver Police Department
Jim Chu provided a brief look back at Canadian policing history and shared some personal observations on the future.
Chief Chu provided an overview of the evolution of policing, from the rapid response policing model of the 1960's, to the community policing era of the 1970's and 1980's, and spoke to police services as they are today. He touched on the evolution of various aspects of policing, including the selection process; training requirements; equipment; technology and tools; and compensation. He provided an overview of the selection process for police today as an example of these changes, noting that police services have never been as professional as they are now. Officers today are subject to a rigorous selection process and undergo significant training in a number of areas to ensure they are properly prepared for a wide range of situations involving anything from domestic abuse to mental illness and marginalized people. Police today are also increasingly engaging with the public on crime prevention in new and innovative ways. As a result, there is more oversight and accountability in policing than ever before. Chief Chu noted that civilian oversight and independent investigation has been very helpful in maintaining public confidence in police.
In closing, Chief Chu shared some thoughts on the future of policing, noting it will require more public engagement, more external oversight and more focused resource management.
Sara Thornton, Chief Constable of the Thames Valley Police Service, UK and Vice-President of the Association of Chief Police Officers
Sara Thornton provided an international perspective to the issue by speaking about how changes in the nature of crime have affected community safety models and policing in the United Kingdom (UK), and commenting on some broader policing developments.
Chief Constable Thornton discussed the evolution of British policing, outlining developments in political reform and public expectations. She highlighted the fact that public confidence in police as measured by the British Crime Survey has gone up to 80% in 2012, from 67% in 2006. She noted that the UK results are the product of focused leadership, efforts to drive down crime and the expanded use of performance measurement.
Chief Constable Thornton shared some personal reflections and insights on the ongoing changes in policing in the UK. First, she highlighted the importance of seeking organizational alignment behind a new vision, early and frequently. She noted that change begins to take place when the language of an organization starts to change. Second, she emphasized the importance of understanding local politics and finding ways of dealing effectively with political players. Finally, she noted that leadership resilience is absolutely critical and emphasized the importance of maintaining optimism even when things are looking rough. Police services have a lot of power, influence and tremendous responsibility, and it is up to them to use their power and influence in a way that benefits the whole community.
Open Question Period
Following the panel presentations, a number of comments and questions were raised relating to the data presented on police spending across Canada, the development of new measurements for productivity and the reduction of police workforces. The panelists shared a number of illustrative examples to respond to these questions. The following points were made:
- The US Department of Justice's way of reworking reward systems around outcomes, not outputs, (i.e., number of problems solved or partnerships established instead of number of tickets issued) was presented as an example of new measurements for productivity.
- In response to a question on facilitating the reduction of a police workforce, it was noted that the internal culture in an organization either helps to facilitate change, or thwarts it. Facilitating change in policing is about broadening the perspective of who is considered to be a part of the police family to include volunteers and community partners.
Keynote Address: National and International Perspectives
Measuring the Effectiveness of Policing
Bob Paulson, Commissioner of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP), presented various statistics and spoke to the steps the RCMP is taking to improve its efficiency and effectiveness. He also outlined some of the challenges the organization is facing moving forward and discussed his vision for the future of the RCMP.
Commissioner Paulson spoke to the challenges of measuring the effectiveness of policing and discussed the public perception of safety and security in Canada. He explained that variations in reporting crime have been a fundamental limitation of using police-reported data to understand trends and make comparisons among jurisdictions. Police services must develop more consistent and reliable measures for productivity, efficiency and effectiveness.
The Commissioner provided an overview of policing expenditures as a percentage of overall government expenditures, and presented a comparative analysis of international trends in policing costs per citizen. He noted there are tremendous stories of advancement and innovation in police service delivery with regard to crime reduction and prevention, but that not enough has been done. Rather than continually refining longstanding strategies, there is a need to fundamentally rethink how things are done. Police services must embrace structures and systems that advance innovation.
American Policing in the New Economy: Leveraging what's left
Jim Bueermann, President of the Police Foundation in Washington, DC, outlined the changes to police services that are happening throughout the United States (US) in response to the significant budget cuts arising from the economic downturn.
Mr. Bueermann indicated that American communities are very dedicated to having local control of their police departments and that, as a result, there is no national coherence to most aspects of policing. Funding sources for police departments are local, and as local resources are decreasing, so has funding for police services. Communities are increasingly less tolerant and sometimes even extremely critical of police officer compensation. Elected leaders are engaging the public on discussions on cost reduction strategies. Faced with dramatic budget constraints, law enforcement leaders now need to articulate to their communities what the new public safety model will look like.
Traditional mental health models and paradigms are being challenged throughout the US in response to budgetary pressures. Mr. Bueermann spoke to the realities of policing in the new economy, including reductions in workforce and service delivery, outsourcing, the regionalization of specialized units (e.g. SWAT, narcotics) where possible, and in some areas, the elimination of these units altogether. Improvements are also being sought in the efficiencies of the policing business through accident and injury reduction and cost avoidance strategies.
Mr. Bueermann emphasized that policing in the new economy will need to focus on "smart policing strategies", including evidence-based policing, hot spots policing, intelligence-led policing and predictive policing. He noted that leveraging police resources in the new economy will increasingly involve an emphasis on police as the "connectors", interweaving scarce community resources and partnerships in the co-production of community safety. The ability and willingness to transcend administrative and bureaucratic boundaries will be critical to leveraging important community resources.
In conclusion, Mr. Bueermann reflected that this fiscal environment can be seen as an opportunity or a threat, and that thinking differently about policing will require research on evidence-based strategies, the creation of partnerships with all relevant community stakeholders, the leveraging of technology and volunteers, a strong focus on outcomes and a need to get ahead of mental health violence.
Panel 2: Finding the Right Balance: Civilianization, privatization and tiered policing
Benoit Dupont, Professor at the University of Montreal and Canadian Research Chair for Security and Technology, set the context for the panel discussions by speaking to the growth of the security sector. He noted that resilience is the capacity of systems to withstand, recover and adapt to external shocks, and warned that if policing does not adapt to the challenges of the 21st century, it runs the risk of being replaced by other ways of delivering security.
Panelists noted that communities across Canada are grappling with the challenges of balancing municipal budgets in a time of fiscal constraint. As policing is one of the largest expenses for most municipalities, it will be imperative to start thinking differently about how to achieve the community safety outcomes that the public expects. The increased civilianization of police services, private security and tiered policing are some of the approaches being considered to help achieve these public safety outcomes. The presenters spoke about the benefits and challenges of these approaches. Following the presentations, participants were given an opportunity for a brief table discussion and to then ask questions. Key messages that emerged from the panel discussions and the open question period are presented below.
Curt Griffiths, Coordinator, Police Services Program, Simon Fraser University
Curt Griffiths shared his extensive knowledge on best practices in the area of civilianization, private and tiered policing based on his research.
Dr. Griffiths spoke to the current state of police research in Canada. He indicated that there is no substantive body of evidence-based research, and very little connection between researchers, practitioners and policy-makers. Research is done in silos and there is no formal mechanism to share and disseminate new research to government and police decision makers.
Funding decisions are being made for Canadian police services with limited access to supporting information or evidence-based data. As a result, decisions with significant consequences for policing services often turn on politics and personalities. Making policy decisions in an information vacuum can have very significant, negative outcomes for communities. Dr. Griffiths warned that without information and research, it is impossible to take an evidence-based approach to policing or to understand the consequences of the approaches and strategies that are being adopted. He highlighted community constable programs that have been put in place in the US and the UK to help increase police visibility, and emphasized the importance of evaluating these programs, identifying the lessons learned and highlighting the effectiveness and value added of such programs. He argued that the same is required in Canada. Although certain positions in policing have been civilianized or police services have contracted out to private companies, we do not have the data that demonstrates the long-term benefits, financial or otherwise to these changes. Dr. Griffiths points to the importance of these types of studies as a necessity in order for governments and police services to make responsible operational decisions.
Policing has many nuanced benefits for the community that are often difficult to measure and quantify. Dr. Griffiths noted the pressing need to establish a national research capacity to improve the knowledge base on community safety, policing practice, policy and strategy, to foster and disseminate research findings and to make information on evidence-based practices widely available.
Mike Cunningham, Chief Constable, Staffordshire Police, UK
Mike Cunningham provided an overview of the on-going public sector reforms and policing transformation in the UK, and highlighted some lessons learned from the UK experience.
Chief Constable Cunningham spoke to the public expenditure crisis in the UK. He noted that the public sector squeeze is hitting health, education and local authorities, and it has generated a great sense of urgency around public sector reform. Chief Constable Cunningham stressed that policing transformation must be considered within the broader context of public service reform.
Like in Canada, as costs are being dramatically cut in the UK, public expectations to maintain or improve policing service and performance are rising. In rethinking the delivery of police services, the private sector was engaged to review key policing processes such as handling calls for service, custody and criminal offences. Chief Constable Cunningham indicated that the private sector brought real expertise and accelerated the pace of policing transformation. As he shared some key insights from the UK experience, he emphasized the importance of being clear on what is required, and of using the private sector to build police capacity and not reliance. He highlighted the need to identify innovative ways of paying for services, and suggested that police services contemplate new models for private sector engagement beyond consultancy and outsourcing. He proposed finding different ways of looking at joint ventures going forward by providing a case study on the Multi-Agency Safeguarding Hub as an example of successful public sector collaboration.
Chief Constable Cunningham shared a number of lessons learned from the UK policing transformation experience. First, he emphasised the importance of harnessing the sense of urgency created by a public crisis to push through much-needed public sector changes. Second, to get ahead of the curve, he underscored the importance of "thinking the unthinkable" in terms of partnership delivery models. Lastly, Chief Constable Cunningham suggested focusing transformation and reform around innovation, not cost reduction.
Mark Lalonde, Director, CKR Global
Mark Lalonde shared his knowledge of policing and private security approaches in Canada and elsewhere, focusing on the capacity of the private sector to contribute to policing, crime prevention and public safety.
Mr. Lalonde addressed policing as an activity, not a profession, noting that there are a number of actors other than police officers involved in this activity today, including community groups and the private sector. He noted a number of security activities in which the private sector is currently involved, including undertaking threat assessments, collecting intelligence and patrolling public spaces, which can support and improve police work. Mr. Lalonde shared some thoughts on the challenges of implementing private security solutions, including the difficulties in deploying these solutions to rural areas. He provided an overview of international approaches to private security training, noting that regulation is a provincial responsibility and emphasizing the need for stronger standards to strengthen the effectiveness and credibility of private security.
Mr. Lalonde spoke to the fact that the private sector is currently operating independently from police services and outside of public sector discussions on crime prevention and public safety. He noted that the private security sector is growing rapidly, is here to stay and is always looking for ways to support public police. He also emphasized the need to integrate the private security industry into the larger public sector discussion around community safety and crime prevention.
Open Question Period
Following the panel presentations, a number of comments and questions were raised relating to public expectations for policing, public perceptions of security and crime and the development of a central repository of knowledge on policing best practices. The following points were made:
- Speakers were in agreement that a central repository of knowledge would need a much wider focus than just policing; a focus on community safety would be much more comprehensive.
- At-risk and high-risk groups often consume a lot of policing time and energy. This dimension must be considered in future discussions on finding efficiencies in policing.
- The challenges of encouraging police organizations to incentivize risk-taking in the police force were noted. Aversion to risk has been embedded as part of the culture of policing, especially with regard to delivering precision in public safety and where there is a judicial outcome. Panelists encouraged participants to challenge traditional paradigms on the delivery of security outcomes.
Panel 3: Collective Bargaining and Arbitration in Policing
The objective of this panel discussion was to outline the dynamics, requirements and process of collective bargaining and arbitration. Moderator Ed Aust set the context for the panel presentations by describing in general terms how the parties represent their constituencies while presenting their positions in negotiation and arbitration. Following the presentations, participants were given an opportunity for a brief table discussion and to ask questions. Key messages that emerged from the panel discussions and the open question period are presented below.
Tom Stamatakis, President, Canadian Police Association
Tom Stamatakis spoke about collective bargaining and arbitration from the perspective of a frontline police officer, and shared his thoughts on the importance of negotiations.
Mr. Stamatakis presented a brief overview of the Canadian Police Association (CPA), which represents approximately 54,000 front-line officers from across Canada. CPA membership includes police personnel serving in over 160 organizations, including aboriginal police organizations. He spoke about the range of governance models and collective bargaining dynamics of this membership, noting that this is a reflection of the fact economies are functioning in different ways across the country, and municipalities are experiencing different kinds of challenges. For example, some provinces have centralized bargaining while others do not.
Mr. Stamatakis noted that much of the current public discussion on the costs of policing is based on the premise that police salaries are too high. He pointed out that market conditions ultimately influence the outcome of the collective bargaining process, and that these have changed significantly over the past few years. Mr. Stamatakis stressed the point that despite the perceived high cost of salaries, police officers today are "actually a really good deal" and they are a lot more cost-effective than some of the alternatives. Today's police officers are more professional and specialized than ever before. They must be well-trained and well-equipped to deal with a variety of issues, from mental illness and domestic abuse to protest management. There is also more accountability and public scrutiny than ever before. Mr. Stamatakis explained that this accountability increases risks, raises expectations for better training and higher standards and ultimately drives costs. Changes are being made towards finding efficiencies in police services, yet it is important to recognize the realities of policing in the 21st century.
Fred Kaustinen, Executive Director, Ontario Association of Police Boards
Fred Kaustinen described the collective bargaining system, discussed results to date and shared some thoughts on finding efficiencies in the system moving forward.
Protecting Canadians from harm is a key government service. Mr. Kaustinen noted that Canada's police services and frontline officers do outstanding work, and acknowledged that Canadians pay a premium price for those services. He presented some options to consider towards finding efficiencies in police services. First, he suggested considering outsourcing certain policing activities to other municipal departments or the private sector. In addition, he suggested considering transforming labour-heavy policing activities that put significant pressure on operating costs to technology-driven activities that could rely on capital funding. Some of the examples cited by Mr. Kaustinen included replacing front-line officers with technology solutions for traffic enforcement and smart car technologies for sobriety.
Mr. Kaustinen suggested that police forces should be more fully integrated with other community providers. In a tiered approach to policing, civilian partners work alongside trained police officers in a coordinated way to help tackle crime and keep communities safe. Policing functions that do not require specialized training could be downloaded to these civilian partners. Mr. Kaustinen presented some thoughts on criteria for informed decision-making on which current policing functions should remain a core part of police responsibilities and which could be outsourced and taken on by civilian partners. He recommended identifying which community safety outcomes the public expects police to deliver, analyzing the level of risk associated with each of these outcomes, and discussing the benefits of continuing to have those outcomes delivered by police.
Open Question Period
Following the panel presentations, participants raised a number of comments and questions relating to the integrated community safety model, success criteria for pilot projects, and how to do things differently moving forward. The following key messages emerged:
- The panelists clarified that the integrated community safety model is a vehicle to align community safety tasks with the most appropriate and most cost-effective service providers. One panelist noted that there is an opportunity to make some fundamental changes in the way things are done and this model may be a way to better address the root causes of some of today's societal problems.
- Several success criteria were highlighted for pilot projects, including: the importance of political will and appropriate legislation, ensure sufficient seed money to financially incent new ways of doing business and establishing strong local partnerships.
- Participants recognized that discussions on finding efficiencies in police services should not focus solely on police wages and benefits, but rather focus on looking at how officers are deployed, doing things differently and creating collaborative partnerships to address common challenges in an effective way.
Keynote Address: The Future of Policing
Joseph Schafer, Professor and Chair of the Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice at Southern Illinois University, introduced the concepts of futurist thinking and futures research, spoke to their application in the context of law enforcement and discussed how this thinking might inform the Summit discussions.
The future brings both challenges and opportunities. Good leadership demands consideration of what lies ahead and what course should be taken in order to make better decisions today. The objective of futures research in the context of policing is to consider possible, probable and preferable futures to more accurately anticipate the evolution of law enforcement and better prepare for it. Focusing on timeframes of five years and beyond, this is a proactive approach that seeks to identify a preferable future and then actively take steps to move towards it.
Dr. Schafer spoke about the work of the Society of Police Futurists International (PFI), a US based organization of law enforcement practitioners, educators, researchers, private security specialists, technology experts and other professionals dedicated to improving criminal and social justice through the professionalization of policing. He also discussed the work of the Futures Working Group, a collaboration between PFI and the Federal Bureau of Investigation, to develop and encourage others to develop forecasts and strategies to maximize the effectiveness of local, state, federal, and international law enforcement bodies as they strive to maintain peace and security in the 21st century.
Dr. Schafer spoke to the acceleration of change and presented possible future trends and technologies, including in robotics, artificial intelligence, facial recognition technology, Massive Open Online Courses and digital currencies, encouraging Summit participants to consider how these might have an impact on future operational environments. In closing, he prompted participants to start thinking about what policing should look like in the future, what core services should be offered, and how to approach leadership development and succession planning in order to best prepare for that preferred future.
Pillar II: New Models of Community Safety
Panel 4: Research, Policing and Crime Reduction
The objective of this panel discussion was to showcase how police and researchers can work closer together to implement policing reforms. Curtis Clarke, Executive Director of the Alberta Justice and Solicitor General Staff College, set the context for the panel by helping to situate the importance of policing research to police work and crime reduction. Following the presentations, participants were given an opportunity for a brief table discussion and to ask questions. Key messages that emerged from the panel discussions and the open question period are presented below.
Edward Maguire, Professor, Department of Justice, Law & Society, American University
Edward Maguire described the evolution of policing and crime reduction research in the US, and discussed current work to better link research and operational policing initiatives.
Dr. Maguire highlighted Lawrence W. Sherman's report on evidence-based crime prevention in the US, which concluded that federally-funded programs to reduce, prevent and control crime were largely ineffective and there was very little evidence to suggest that the government was investing its funds effectively. Dr. Maguire discussed the benefits of taking an evidence-based approach to policing in Canada and argued that decisions to implement police programs and practices should be based on scientific evidence of what works best. He noted that this policing model is gaining popularity around the world, and that many countries are developing scientific knowledge on effective crime prevention programs, policies and practices.
Relying on scientific evidence to determine what works in policing, what policies and practices are effective, and which ones might do harm is critical in order to be effective and to use public funds more efficiently, judiciously and to avoid unintended consequences or "cures that harm". Dr. Maguire pointed to the US Office of Justice Programs' website at www.crimesolutions.gov for information on programs and practices in criminal justice, juvenile justice and crime victim services that have been proven to be effective through sound research methodology and that have produced consistently positive results.
Stuart Kirby, Lecturer, Lancaster University, UK
Stuart Kirby spoke to the spiraling cost of municipal policing, noting it is a matter of considerable concern for police leaders across the world.
Dr. Kirby described various policing models, including intelligence-led policing, community policing and problem-oriented policing, and spoke to the strengths and weaknesses of each. For example, he noted that the "zero tolerance" approach is associated with a decrease in crime, but an increase in complaints. Dr. Kirby emphasized critical aspects of these policing models, including understanding the overall mission, identifying and prioritizing policing problems and understanding why they occur, tackling problems using an evidence-based approach and monitoring implementation. He discussed how to put research results into practice, noting that successful pilots are often done with good, energetic people, and that this key to success should not be overlooked when transferring principles from one successful pilot to another jurisdiction.
Graham Farrell, Senior Research Fellow, Simon Fraser University
Graham Farrell discussed the implications of the falling crime rate and provided his views on how government, police and researchers can work together moving forward.
Dr. Farrell presented data on provincial, national and international crime rates showing significant declines in crime across most industrialized countries for all crime types, including breaking-and entering, homicide, theft, assault, sexual victimization, vehicle theft, and robbery. Dr. Farrell reviewed various hypotheses on why crime rates have dropped, arguing that changes in security appears central in some instances, for example he linked the drop in auto theft to advances in car security (e.g., electronic immobilisers, central locking, alarms, GPS, etc.).
Dr. Farrell proposed addressing crime as a form of pollution, where the polluter is responsible for the crime opportunity and must internalize the cost of it. In the case of car manufacturers, he highlighted the Car Theft Index as one way of incentivising manufacturers to take preventative measures. He proposed that government and police crime prevention strategies should emphasize designing-out crime.
Open Question Period
Following the panel presentations, a number of questions were raised by participants relating to the existing knowledge base on best policing practices and effective prevention programs, as well as the role of government in facilitating multi-agency collaboration. In response, panelists emphasized that a broad community of researchers runs parallel to the policing profession, and this community has the ability to assist police in answering key questions to help improve effectiveness and find efficiencies in their work. It is critically important for these two communities to start working closer together on the complex issues being faced today.
Panel 5: New Models of Community Safety
The purpose of this panel session was to build awareness of the diversity of new models of community safety being applied in Canada and elsewhere. Dale McFee, Deputy Minister of Corrections and Policing in the Saskatchewan Ministry of Justice, set the context for the panel discussions by situating the need for new, innovative and holistic approaches to crime prevention. He provided a number of examples of new approaches to community policing and crime prevention, and suggested we reconsider the way we think about these models, which he refers to as a franchises, as they can allow us all to work from the same page while respecting the individual needs of communities. Deputy Minister McFee noted that there are a lot of great models that are showing immediate results to the lives of people in crisis. Following the presentations, participants were given an opportunity for a brief table discussion and to ask questions. Key messages that emerged from the panel discussions and the open question period are presented below.
Karyn McCluskey, Director, Scottish Violence Reduction Unit, Strathclyde Police Service
Karyn McCluskey outlined Scotland's community safety and policing strategy, as well as the activities of the Scottish Violence Reduction Unit.
Ms. McCluskey noted that over the past eight years, the Scottish Violence Reduction Unit (VRU) and its partners have been working together to reduce violence in Scotland through a public health approach. One of the VRU's key programs is the Community Initiative to Reduce Violence, a multi-agency initiative set up in 2008 to tackle gang violence in Glasgow's East End. The initiative has produced significant reductions in gang-related violence through a focused-deterrence strategy which brings together partners from government, justice, community safety services, health, education, social services, housing, alcohol and drug services, and encourages them to focus existing resources on high-risk street gang members who do not traditionally engage effectively with government services. Ms. McCluskey highlighted the engagement of all relevant players in the community in a collaborative approach to finding solutions to societal problems as a critical key to success.
Ms. McCluskey spoke to the challenges of a multi-sector approach and discussed some of the local interventions that worked in the Scottish context. She shared some of the lessons learned, including the importance of taking a societal approach to change and of leveraging community assets to co-create a desired future with local residents. She spoke of being open and transparent with the community about the goals of an initiative, and of being clear about its outcomes. She emphasized the importance of learning quickly from mistakes and building on them. Ms. McCluskey shared what she felt were the three most important words in achieving change: "resilience, resilience, and resilience". She conceded that it takes a long time to accomplish meaningful change and encouraged everyone to work towards this goal as if they live in the early days of a better nation.
Viv Rickard, Deputy Commissioner, New Zealand Police, Wellington
Viv Rickard provided an overview of New Zealand's new policing strategy, which focuses on crime prevention, victims and community safety. He also spoke to the challenges of implementing and maintaining a national policing strategy.
Deputy Commissioner Rickard discussed how the New Zealand Police (NZP) is putting prevention at the forefront of everything they do to reduce offending and victimization in order to make New Zealand a safer place to live. New Zealand's new policing strategy represents a balanced approach that uses intelligence, enforcement and alternative ways of solving cases to ultimately reduce crime and the number of cases referred to the justice system. The new operating strategy means a number of changes to the way police work with victims to ensure they receive better services. It also involves changes in the way the police workforce is deployed so that it is more flexible and better placed to respond to what is happening in communities. In addition, the strategy aims to strengthen responsiveness to the Maori, New Zealand's indigenous population, by addressing their over-representation in the criminal justice system and as victims.
Deputy Commissioner Rickard mentioned several innovations in the new strategy, including implementing the NZP reform programme "Policing Excellence" which aims to reduce crime by 13% and prosecutions by 19%. Policing Excellence comprises five projects that seek to realise benefits from officer time in order to reinvest time savings into prevention activities. More than just reducing statistics, the aim is to change the 'mindset' of how police leaders and officers think about policing priorities.
Jean-Michel Blais, Chief, Halifax Regional Police Service, Nova Scotia
Jean-Michel Blais discussed the evolution of crime prevention, policing and community safety in Halifax, and presented the new integrated crime prevention approach for Halifax Regional Municipality.
Chief Blais spoke about the integrated policing model for the Halifax Regional Municipality, which brings together the Halifax Regional Police and the Halifax District RCMP. Since 2003, the Halifax Regional Police provides policing services to the urban areas: Halifax, Bedford and Dartmouth, while Halifax District RCMP provides police services to the suburban areas of what use to be known as Halifax County. Halifax District RCMP and Halifax Regional Police use a joint management strategy and develop shared priorities to optimize the use of police resources. Integrated policing units, including the criminal investigation division, traffic services and the courts section, provide an enhanced level of service for all citizens. Halifax has a history of cooperative policing with the RCMP and this strategy reflects a shared regional vision for public safety and crime prevention.
Chief Blais discussed the benefits and challenges of community programs in place in the municipality, including initiatives on domestic violence, gang violence, vehicle theft and gun control. All of these initiatives are carried out in collaboration with the community and other members of the public and private sector, e.g., partnering with local businesses and universities to advertise and promote public safety.
Open Question Period
Following the panel presentations, a number of questions were raised by participants relating to the role of politicians in collaboration, and ways of addressing issues related to alcoholism. A number of key points were made, including:
- Politicians can enhance collaboration. Community safety involves a lot more than just policing, and politicians hold the key to driving those forces together to collectively look at areas that would benefit from horizontal approaches.
- More priority must be given to crime victims. There must be a focus on crime prevention and treating victims in a respectful and positive way.
- In response to a question on how to face the challenge of alcoholism in Northern Canada, several examples were provided on how the issue is being addressed in Scotland. These examples included organizing a "dry-athlon" and increasing the price of alcohol. Panelists urged participants to listen to what their communities have to say and then to follow up by addressing the issues they raise. It was noted that sometimes that requires doing something unpopular.
Pillar III: Efficiencies within the Justice System
Keynote Address: Smarter Police Reform – Changing the Odds for Success
Sir Denis O'Connor, former Chief of Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Constabulary, spoke to the efforts in the UK to improve police and justice efficiencies, and touched on key success factors for reform in times of austerity.
Sir Denis O'Connor talked about the financial crisis of 2008 that forced the international community to confront the concept of value for money in policing. All sectors are being confronted with the need to succeed with less, and in times when less support from traditional partners may be available. Good reform during periods of austerity requires a great strategy. It requires solutions that are smarter than those in growth. Essentially, the police sector needs to get better as it gets smaller.
The approach in the UK for the last decade has been for central government to intervene more and more in local policing in an attempt to make it more accountable. The government's paper on reform in 2010 highlighted centralization, disconnection and the level of criminality as key themes underpinning the need for reform. The term "revolution" has been used to describe the ongoing change in policing in England and Wales.
Smarter reform can be achieved with three key ingredients: (1) good diagnostics, including costs (e.g., value for money profiles have been developed for all 43 police forces in England and Wales) and "end to end" mapping processes, (e.g., the UK's process mapping for a burglary offences identified 1,000+ steps on the criminal justice system which could benefit from significant streamlining); (2) policies to overcome obstacles (e.g., comparison of costs as part of performance in policing); and (3) the implementation of specifically mandated actions (i.e., actions with political support).
Like Canada, the UK has very alert, technically enabled citizens who follow reform and cuts in policing closely. Sir Denis noted that any reform strategy should be worked through and then effectively communicated to the population to ensure it is well supported. When addressing challenges with fewer resources, there are hard choices and decisions to make. The importance of identifying a public safety "central coordinator" that can align relationships is critical, especially considering the dependencies and obligations that agencies place on one another in the criminal justice system.
Sir Denis noted that efforts to change the police sector often fall short or fail. There may be room for Canada to learn from the UK experience. Although there is no "reform-ology" for policing in this era, any approach should include more compelling evidence, durable leadership and public follow-up. This will improve the chances of success at doing better with less.
Panel 6: Streamlining the Justice System to Reduce the Costs of Policing
The objective of this panel session was to identify priorities for justice reform in order to reduce the costs of policing. Donald Piragoff, Senior Assistant Deputy Minister at Justice Canada, set the context for the panel by speaking to the need for reform in the criminal justice system. He discussed some of the initiatives underway to improve efficiencies in the justice system that would have an impact on the police, such as efforts to improve the fairness and efficiency of criminal trials (Bill C-2), consultations on bail reform and a new criminal justice symposium hosted by the Canadian Association of Chiefs of Police to bring together leading members of the bench, prosecution services, correctional services, police leaders and the defense bar to exchange views and have open discussions on how to strengthen cooperation.
Evan Bray, President, Saskatchewan Federation of Police Officers and Staff Sergeant, Regina Police Service
Evan Bray shared his thoughts on the impacts of the justice system on policing time and costs.
Mr. Bray spoke from a frontline officer perspective and highlighted the lengthy processes now required for certain policing activities, including obtaining search warrants and DNA warrants, and even for simple things like carrying out a photo line-up. He noted that increased workloads combined with limited resources have resulted in significant delays in the system, and cited many examples of inefficiencies, such as police officers being called to court multiple times for charges related to incidents that occurred several years before. Mr. Bray noted that there have been huge increases in the time it takes to close a case in the last 20 years. Longer delays affect all participants, including police. In policing, the most expensive and most important resource is front-line officers, yet they are often asked to spend days-on-end waiting to testify at trials that end up being adjourned or settled at the last minute. This leads to police frustrations with the courts and increased costs for the criminal justice system, including police budgets. The only way to address these delays and frustrations is to find efficiencies in the justice system. Mr. Bray identified legislative reform and cultural changes as key vehicles to find efficiencies in the system. Potential efficiencies in the system also included online reporting and greater use and acceptance of video interviews. He emphasized that success will only be achieved if all participants work together in innovative ways to seek and implement greater efficiencies.
Geoffrey Cowper, Senior Counsel and Leader of Fasken Martineau's Litigation & Dispute Resolution Group
Geoffrey Cowper shared his thoughts on the BC justice reform initiative and provided some insights on how police can talk to lawyers.
Despite the sharp decrease in crime rates in BC, costs and delays in the justice system are increasing. Some of the barriers to problem-solving in the system relate to the complexity of the system itself, as well as the entrenched culture and traditions of the justice system. Mr. Cowper shared some key findings from his report for the Government of BC on modernizing the province's justice system. He noted that the objectives of the report were to determine priority areas for immediate actions and focus on long-term structural changes that should be made to foster collaboration among the various participants in the criminal justice system.
Mr. Cowper highlighted some of the recommended areas of reform from the report, including ending the culture of delay in the system by establishing timeliness measures, providing transparency and establishing accountability for system performance. Other recommendations touched on improving managerial capacity, formalizing collaborative networks, engaging with the public more and taking a systems approach that emphasizes early resolution. The report can be found at www.bcjusticereform.ca.
Mr. Cowper spoke to some of the surface problems preventing an efficient criminal justice system, including a backlog in the amount of cases, delayed resolution, churn and the unmanaged length of hearings. He then moved on to identifying some of the underlying problems and systemic obstacles to an efficient system, including a misfit between public expectations and system performance, a lack of confidence in the possibility of solutions, a loss of faith in goals and a loss of market share and policy support.
In closing, Mr. Cowper stressed that the police community has to be bolder in their discussions with lawyers. He argued that police officers walk into these discussions with a huge amount of public support and accountability, and that their concerns are not misplaced. He suggested that police be more strategic and far more demanding in relation to justice efficiencies, including those related to timeliness and efficiency in the system.
Honourable Patrick LeSage, Former Chief Justice of the Ontario Superior Court
The Honourable Patrick LeSage shared his extensive knowledge of policing and the justice system in Canada, as well as the results of the wide-range of reports he has produced on these topics.
Justice LeSage proclaimed his belief in the independence of the role of police and that of the crown attorney. He highlighted the importance of a close liaison between the crown and police from the beginning.
Justice LeSage commented on federal-provincial processes to reform the justice system and highlighted the need to bring in new systems to move cases through the courts. For instance, he called for the review and re-categorization of some of the lesser offences in the Criminal Code (and other federal criminal statutes), so as to deal with them as regulatory violations. This would remove them from the criminal court system and give some relief to overused police resources. He also suggested creating common approaches across the country as to what disclosure should entail and who should be responsible. He pointed out that systemic problems require holistic solutions, and emphasized that it is in fact possible to make progress, cut down on the number of court appearances and move forward to a simpler system.
Building a Shared Forward Agenda for Policing in Canada
The closing session outlined a framework and process for the development of a Shared Forward Agenda or strategy for policing in Canada. Speakers included Graham Flack, Associate Deputy Minister at Public Safety Canada, Tom Stamatakis, President of the Canadian Police Association, Jim Chu, President of the Canadian Association of Chiefs of Police, and Alok Mukherjee, President of the Canadian Association of Police Boards. The speakers proposed a general framework to address the challenges faced, highlighted possible action items within the framework and laid out a process for consultation and engagement to develop the Shared Forward Agenda.
The results of the Summit – the innovative ideas explored and the framework for joint action developed – provide a very positive and encouraging step on the journey of transformation.
Many ideas and activities that contribute to renewal, both in Canada and internationally, were presented throughout the Summit. Considering the shared economic and fiscal challenges that are being faced by governments and communities across the country and around the world, there is a real opportunity to take advantage of the ideas for reform and the great work that is already occurring towards more efficient and effective policing.
All organizations represented on the panel at the closing session agreed on a framework to be used to develop a Shared Forward Agenda for policing in Canada. It should be based on the three pillars for reform outlined at the Summit (i.e., efficiencies within police services, new models of community safety, and efficiencies within the justice system) and will identify best practices, policies, laws and programs under each pillar that could be pursued by the various governments, police organizations and stakeholders to advance reform efforts.
The development of a shared strategy must be underpinned by strong engagement across the policing sector. In addition, it must be supported by research to identify, evaluate and validate best practices. This will facilitate transformation by fostering informed decision-making and the implementation of effective reforms that result in meaningful, long-lasting outcomes. Creating a central repository of these efforts would also support organizations across Canada in improving the efficiency and effectiveness of policing.
Public safety is a shared responsibility that requires a systems approach. Policing stakeholders need to engage with partners in justice, health, education and social services in a meaningful dialogue on a more integrated approach to community safety. Accordingly, it will be critical to reach out to all key players to develop a shared vision and agenda for the future. It is important to note that a shared agenda does not mean an agenda that will be imposed on anyone. It will be left up to each government and organization to decide which actions are the most appropriate for them.
Panelists agreed that there will be engagement and follow-up with stakeholders and all levels of government to ensure the entire policing sector can contribute to the development of the shared forward agenda. Through this collaborative process, the plan is to develop a concrete set of actions and timelines that will be presented to Federal, Provincial and Territorial Ministers Responsible for Justice and Public Safety for consideration at their next meeting in Fall 2013. The provinces of Ontario, Saskatchewan and British Columbia have each agreed to champion one of the Summit's three pillars and Public Safety Canada will play a facilitative coordination and leadership role in the development of the strategy.
Closing Remarks and Next Steps
On behalf of all Ministers, Associate Deputy Minister Graham Flack thanked Summit participants, panelists and organizers for making the Summit a success. He highlighted the following next steps:
- Broad collaboration and engagement with policing stakeholders (Spring/Summer 2013).
- Drafting of a Shared Forward Agenda for policing in Canada, including identification of activities (Summer 2013).
- Consideration of the Shared Forward Agenda by Federal, Provincial and Territorial Ministers Responsible for Justice and Public Safety (Fall 2013).
Appendix A: List of Participants
|Honourable Vic Toews||Minister||Public Safety Canada|
|Honourable Shirley Bond||Minister, Department of Justice and Attorney General||Government of British Columbia|
|Anderson, Dawn||Associate Director, Community Justice and Policing||Department of Justice, NT|
|Anderson, Ron||Executive Director, Strategic Systems and Innovation, Ministry of Corrections and Policing||Government of Saskatchewan|
|Angeconeb, Rick||Chief||Lac Seul Police, ON|
|Armstrong, Janice||A/Commr, Contract & Aboriginal Policing||RCMP HQ|
|Aust, Ed||Lawyer||Aust Legal|
|Bain, Martin||Vice-President||Ontario Provincial Police Association|
|Bain, Ron||Executive Director||Ontario Association of Chiefs of Police|
|Banulescu, Helen||Executive Director||Commission for Public Complaints Against the RCMP|
|Bass, Gary||Senior Research Fellow, Institute for Canadian Urban Research Studies||Simon Fraser University, BC|
|Beauregard, Marco||Director||Service de police de la Ville de Granby, QC|
|Bhupsingh, Trevor||Director General, Law Enforcement & Border Strategies||Public Safety Canada|
|Biro, Frederick||Executive Director||Peel Police Services Board, ON|
|Blais, Claude||Vice-president, Grievance and Training||Association des policiers et policières provinciaux du Québec|
|Blais, Jean-Michel||Chief||Halifax Regional Police, NS|
|Bordeleau, Charles||Chief||Ottawa Police, ON|
|Boyd, H.L. (Lee)||Chief||Blood Tribe Police, AB|
|Bray, Evan||President||Saskatchewan Federation of Police Officers, SK|
|Brine, Lindsey||CO/Supt||RCMP "V" Division, NU|
|Brosseau, Kevin||CO A/Commr||RCMP "D" Division, MB|
|Buda, Michael||Director, Policy and Research||Federation of Canadian Municipalities, ON|
|Bueermann, Jim||President, Police Foundation||Washington, DC, U.S.|
|Button, Debra||Mayor & Chair of the Weyburn Board of Police Commissioners||Weyburn, SK|
|Cadeschi, Dana Cristina||Senior Advisor and Team Leader, Police Services||Ministère de la Sécurité publique, QC|
|Cailloz, Thierry||Colonel, Interior Security Attaché||French Embassy|
|Callens, Craig||Deputy Commissioner & CACP Board of Directors||RCMP "E" Division, BC|
|Campbell, Joanne||Executive Director||Toronto Police Services Board, ON|
|Caputo, Tullio||Associate Professor, Sociology and Anthropology||Carleton University, ON|
|Carlson, Bruce||Deputy Chief||Barrie Police, ON|
|Casault, Mike||Director, National Executive, Staff Relations Representative Program||RCMP HQ|
|Chalmers, Marshall||Mayor||City of Camrose, AB|
|Chisholm, Delaney||Chief||New Glasgow Regional Police, NS|
|Chu, Jim||Chief Constable & CACP President||Vancouver Police, BC|
|Chum, Claude||Chief||Nishnawbe-Aski Police, ON|
|Clark, Peter||CO C/Supt||RCMP "M" Division, YK|
|Clarke, Curtis||Executive Director, Alberta Justice and Solicitor General||Staff College, AB|
|Clunis, Devon||Chief||Winnipeg Police, MB|
|Collins, Kathy||Executive Director, Policy & Program Development||Alberta Justice & Solicitor General|
|Collins, Mary||Vice Chair||Vancouver Police Board, BC|
|Collyer, John||Chief||Bridgewater Police, NS|
|Connell, Bruce||Deputy Chief||Saint John Police, NB|
|Cook, Paul||Chief||North Bay Police, ON|
|Cooper, Troy||Chief||Prince Albert Police, SK|
|Corley, Cal||A/Commr and Director General||Canadian Police College, ON|
|Côté, Denis||President||Fédération des policiers et policières municipaux du Québec|
|Couto, Joe L.||Director of Government Relations and Communications||Ontario Association of Chiefs of Police|
|Cowper, Geoffrey||Senior Counsel||Fasken Martineau, BC|
|Creutzberg, Tijs||Program Director||Council of Canadian Academies|
|Cunningham, Mike||Chief Constable, Staffordshire Police||Staffordshire, U.K.|
|Cuthbert, Peter||Executive Director||Canadian Association of Chiefs of Police|
|Dagenais, Anita||Senior Director, RCMP Policy Division||Public Safety Canada|
|Delaronde, Conrad||Chief||Treaty Three Police, ON|
|Honourable Jonathan Denis||Minister of Justice and Solicitor General||Government of Alberta|
|Desaulniers, Anouk||Acting Director and General Counsel||Justice Canada|
|Deschênes, François||CO A/Commr||RCMP "C" Division, QC|
|Desgagné, Michel||Chief||Service de police de la Ville de Québec|
|Desroches, Denis||Chief||Service de Police de la Ville de Longueuil|
|Domm, John||Chief||Rama Police, ON|
|Donaghy, Mary||Director General, Aboriginal Policing||Public Safety Canada|
|Dowdeswell, Elizabeth||President and CEO||Council of Canadian Academies|
|Downie, Bob||Deputy Chief Constable||Saanich Police, BC|
|Dubeau, Daniel||Deputy Commissioner, Chief Human Resources Officer||RCMP HQ|
|Duncan, Brad||Chief||London Police, ON|
|Duplantie, Alain||Chief Financial & Administrative Officer||RCMP HQ|
|Dupont, Benoît||Director, Centre international de criminologie comparée (CICC)||Université de Montréal, QC|
|Duxbury, Linda||Professor, Sprott School of Business||Carleton University, ON|
|El-Chantiry, Eli||Councillor, City of Ottawa & Chair||Ottawa Police Services Board, ON|
|Elsner, Frank||Chief||Greater Sudbury Police, ON|
|Evans, Jennifer||Chief||Peel Regional Police, ON|
|Farrell, Graham||Senior Research Fellow, Institute for Canadian Urban Research Studies||Simon Fraser University, BC|
|Fassbender, Peter||Mayor||City of Langley, BC|
|Fedec, Wendy||Executive Director||Ottawa Police Services Board, ON|
|Ferguson, Judith||Deputy Minister, Department of Justice||Government of Nova Scotia|
|Fielding, Scott||Councillor, City of Winnipeg & Director||Winnipeg Police Board, MB|
|Flack, Graham||Associate Deputy Minister||Public Safety Canada|
|Ford, Jeff||Director of Public Safety and Investigations, Justice||Government of Yukon|
|Fordy, Bill||C/Supt||RCMP, OIC Surrey Detachment, BC|
|Francoeur, Yves||President||Fraternité des policiers et policières de Montréal, QC|
|Franklin, Jonathan||Director||Canadian Association of Police Boards, NB|
|Frazer, Debra||Director General & CACP Board of Directors||Ottawa Police, ON|
|Gagnon, Marie||Director General||École nationale de Police du Québec|
|Gariépy, Jean-Pierre||Chief||Service de police de la Ville de Laval, QC|
|Garrison, Gordon||Acting Director, Community Safety and Justice Policy, Department of the Environment, Labour and Justice||Government of Prince Edward Island|
|Gendron, Michael||Government Media Relations Officer||Canadian Police Association|
|Gibson, Craig||CO C/Supt||RCMP "L" Division, PEI|
|Giguère, Chantale||Associate Director General||Ville de Québec|
|Gimse, Susan||Chair, Standing Committee on Community Safety and Crime Prevention||Federation of Canadian Municipalities|
|Girard, Martin||Director, Investigations||Bell Canada, QC|
|Girt, Eric||Deputy Chief||Hamilton Police, ON|
|Gisborne, Kenneth||President||3Si Risk Strategies Inc., BC|
|Gobeil, Francis||President||Association des directeurs de police du Québec (ADPQ)|
|Godwin, Tim||Managing Director, Defence & Public Safety||Accenture, London, U.K.|
|Goerke, Len||D/Chief Constable||Abbotsford Police, BC|
|Gomez, Juan||Director of Policy||Toronto Board of Trade, ON|
|Honourable Stephen Goudge||Chair of Future of Policing Project||Ontario Court of Appeal|
|Graham, Steve||Deputy Commissioner||RCMP East Region|
|Griffiths, Curt||Professor||Simon Fraser University, BC|
|Gruson, Geoff||Executive Director||Canadian Police Sector Council|
|Guimont, François||Deputy Minister||Public Safety Canada|
|Hagen, Troy||Chief of Police & CACP Board of Directors||Regina Police, SK|
|Hanson, Rick||Chief||Calgary Police, AB|
|Hardy, Tracy||CO A/Commr||RCMP "B" Division, NL|
|Harel, Mario||Director and CACP Board of Directors||Service de police de la Ville de Gatineau, QC|
|Hartlen, Mark||President||Halifax Regional Police Association, NS|
|Hawkes, Vince||D/Commr & CACP Board of Directors||Ontario Provincial Police|
|Hefkey, Daniel||Commissioner, Community Safety, Ministry of Community Safety and Correctional Services||Government of Ontario|
|Henschel, Peter||Deputy Commissioner, Specialized Policing Services||RCMP HQ|
|Holman, Peter||Councillor, City of Summerside & Director||Summerside Police Board, PEI|
|Holt, Leanne||Policy Advisor, Policy & Research||Federation of Canadian Municipalities|
|Horan-Lunney, Eamonn||Manager, Government and Media Relations||Federation of Canadian Municipalities|
|Houghton, Tim||Vice President||CKR Global Risk Solutions, AB|
|Huggins, Rachel||Manager, Policy & Coordination||Public Safety Canada|
|Irving, Jim||Director||Ottawa Police Association, ON|
|Johnston, Robert||Chief of Police & CACP Board of Directors||Royal Newfoundland Constabulary, NL|
|Jolliffe, Eric||Chief||York Regional Police, ON|
|Jones, Dave||Chief Constable & CACP Board of Directors||New Westminster Police, BC|
|Jones, Nick||Associate Professor & Police Studies Coordinator||University of Regina, SK|
|Kambeitz, Darrell||Chief||Camrose Police, AB|
|Kaustinen, Fred||Executive Director||Ontario Association of Police Services Boards|
|Kempa, Michael||Associate Professor, Criminology||University of Ottawa, ON|
|Kirby, Stuart||Lecturer, Criminology||Lancaster University, U.K.|
|Knecht, Rod||Chief||Edmonton Police, AB|
|Kolb, Emil||Chair||Peel Police Services Board, ON|
|Kong, Rebecca||Chief, Policing Services, Centre for Justice Statistics||Statistics Canada|
|Kotarski, Joan||Board Member||Victoria Police Board, BC|
|LaLonde, Mark||Director, International Operations||CKR Global Risk Solutions, Vancouver, BC|
|Landry, François||Chief, Partnership Services and Labour Organization||Service de police de la Ville de Montréal, QC|
|Landry, Manon||Chief Financial Officer||Service de police de la Ville de Montréal, QC|
|Lang, Doug||Deputy Commissioner, Contract & Aboriginal Policing||RCMP HQ|
|Lanzon, Jennifer||Executive Director||Canadian Association of Police Boards, ON|
|Laprise, Mario||Director General||Sûreté du Québec|
|Larkin, Bryan||Chief||Guelph Police, ON|
|Larsen, Dale||Chief||Moose Jaw Police, SK|
|Lawrence, Austin||Chief, Research||Public Safety Canada|
|Lemcke, Warren||Deputy Chief||Vancouver Police, BC|
|LeSage, Patrick||Counsel||Gowlings, Toronto, ON|
|Levesque, JP||Chief||Thunder Bay Police, ON|
|Lewis, Glen||Executive Director, Strategic Initiatives & Public Safety||Department of Justice, MB|
|Lipinski, Norm||A/Commr||RCMP Lower Mainland District Commander, BC|
|Liu, Kai||Chief||Cobourg Police, ON|
|MacKinnon, Paul||ADM, Strategic Policy||Public Safety Canada|
|MacLeod, Edgar||Executive Director||Atlantic Police Academy, PEI|
|MacMillan, Ron||Deputy Minister, Justice||Government of Yukon|
|MacNeil, Alphonse||Assistant Commissioner, CO||RCMP "H" Division, NS|
|Maguire, Edward||Professor & Chair, Department of Justice, Law & Society||American University, Washington, DC, U.S.|
|Mar, Randy||Director, Planning, Performance & Analytics||Ottawa Police, ON|
|Marcoux, Rennie||Executive Director of Strategic Planning and Policy||RCMP HQ|
|Marfleet, Patti||Executive Director||Vancouver Police Board, BC|
|Martin, Paul||Deputy Chief||Durham Regional Police, ON|
|Maxwell, Karen||ADM, Policy and Strategic Planning||Ministry of Community Safety and Correctional Services, ON|
|McCagherty, Trevor||Chief (Rtd), Advisor, Board of Directors, CACP||Durham Regional Police, ON|
|McCluskey, Karyn||Director, Scottish Violence Reduction Unit, Strathclyde Police Force||Glasgow, U.K.|
|McCord, Chris||Deputy Chief||Peel Regional Police, ON|
|McCormack, Mike||President||Toronto Police Association, ON|
|McFadden, Dave||President||Police Association Ontario|
|McFee, Dale||DM, Corrections and Policing, Ministry of Justice||Government of Saskatchewan|
|McGrogan, Andy||Chief of Police & CACP Board of Directors||Medicine Hat Police, AB|
|McGuire, Jeffrey||Chief||Niagara Regional Police, ON|
|McIntyre, Stephen||Chief of Police & CACP Board of Directors||Rothesay Regional Police, NB|
|McKenna, Paul||Professor, Faculty of Management||Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS|
|McKenzie, Tom||Chief||Lethbridge Regional Police, AB|
|McNamara, Gary||Mayor||Town of Tecumseh, ON|
|McPhail, Ian||Interim Chair||Commission for Public Complaints Against the RCMP|
|McPherson, Ian||Partner, Advisory Services, Management Consulting Services||KPMG, Vancouver, BC|
|Michaud, Gilles||CO A/Commr||RCMP"A" Division, ON|
|Miller, Gabriel||Director, Government and Media Relations||Federation of Canadian Municipalities|
|Mirasty, Russell||CO, C/Supt||RCMP "F" Division, SK|
|Mole, Kevin||ADM, Public Security & Correctional Division||Department of Public Safety, NB|
|Molyneaux, Larry||Director||Toronto Police Association, ON|
|Morency, Yves||ADM, Policing Issues Branch||Ministère de la Sécurité publique, QC|
|Morris, Shelagh||Director, Corporate Services||Guelph Police, ON|
|Mukherjee, Alok||Chair & President CAPB||Toronto Police Services Board, ON|
|Murphy, Christopher||Professor, Sociology and Social Anthropology||Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS|
|Murray, Colin||Director, Science & Technology Transition||Defence Research and Development Canada, ON|
|Noble, Paul||DM & Deputy Attorney General||Department of Justice, NL|
|Noreau, Marc||Senior Policy Counsel||Department of Justice, NU|
|Nyirfa, Craig||Sergeant||Canadian Police College|
|O'Connor, Sir Denis||Radzinowicz Fellow, Institute of Criminology, Cambridge University||London, U.K.|
|Ohrt, Gloria||Executive Director, Law Enforcement and Oversight, Alberta Justice & Solicitor General||Government of Alberta|
|O'Malley, Mike||Supt, District Policing Officer - West||RCMP "J" Division, NB|
|Omardeen, Wayne||President||Peel Regional Police Association, ON|
|O'Sullivan, Sue||Federal Ombudsman for Victims of Crime||Office of the Federal Ombudsman for Victims of Crime|
|Palmer, Cathryn||Vice President||Canadian Association of Police Boards, AB|
|Palmer, Steve||Acting Director, Canadian Centre for Public Safety and First Responders||University of Regina, SK|
|Palson, Doug||Chief||Dakota Ojibway Police, MB|
|Pannett, Mike||Detective Superintendent, New Zealand Police Liaison Officer to USA, Canada & South America||Washington, DC, U.S.|
|Parkinson, Daniel||Chief of Police & CACP Board of Directors||Cornwall Community Police, ON|
|Pasquini, Bruno||Associate Director||Service de police de la Ville de Montréal, QC|
|Paterson, Danny||Associate Director||Service de police de la Ville de Saint-Jérôme, QC|
|Paulson, Bob||RCMP Commissioner||RCMP HQ|
|Pecknold, Clayton||ADM, Ministry of Public Safety and Solicitor General||Government of British Columbia|
|Pentney, William||DM and Deputy Attorney General||Justice Canada|
|Phillips, Mark||Chief Administrative Officer||Town of Kentville, NS|
|Poole, Dennis||Chief||Chatham-Kent Police, ON|
|Potter, Mark||Director General, Policing Policy||Public Safety Canada|
|Pritchard, Marlo||Chief||Weyburn Police, SK|
|Purcell, Robert||Executive Director, Public Safety & Security||Department of Justice, NS|
|Purvis, Clif||Acting ADM, Alberta Justice and Solicitor General||Government of Alberta|
|Quigley, Mike||Director of Policing Services, Public Security & Corrections Division||Department of Public Safety, NB|
|Rich, Bob||Chief Constable||Abbotsford Police, BC|
|Richardson, Kate||Manager, Policing Standards Section||Ministry of Community Safety and Correctional Services, ON|
|Riches, Robert||ADM, Community Justice & Public Safety||Government of Yukon|
|Rickard, Viv||Deputy Commissioner, New Zealand Police||Wellington, NZ|
|Robertson, Gary||ADM, Corporate Management Branch||Public Safety Canada|
|Rodgers, Joe||Executive Director||Edmonton Police Commission, AB|
|Rolland, Daniel||Vice-president, Workplace Health and Safety and Material Assets||Association des Policiers et policières provinciaux du Québec|
|Ross, Dan||Vice President||Toronto Police Association, ON|
|Ruth, Micki||Vice Chair||Halifax Board of Police Commissioners|
|Ryan, Marianne||Assistant Commissioner, Criminal Operations Officer||RCMP "K" Division, AB|
|Sagynbekov, Kanybek||Economist||University of Regina, SK|
|Sansfaçon, Daniel||Director, Policy, Research & Evaluation||Public Safety Canada|
|Savard, Marcel||Associate Director General||Sûreté du Québec|
|Sawatsky, Murray||Executive Director, Strategic Systems and Innovation||Ministry of Justice, SK|
|Schafer, Joseph A.||Professor & Chair, Department of Criminology & Criminal Justice||Southern Illinois University, IL, U.S.|
|Schnitzer, Steve||Director||BC Police Academy|
|Shea, Brent||Deputy Chief||London Police, ON|
|Silverthorn, Mary||Provincial Commander||Ontario Provincial Police|
|Simioni, Tony||President||Edmonton Police Association, AB|
|Skof, Matt||President||Ottawa Police Association, ON|
|Skye, Ron||Chairperson||Kahnawake Peacekeeper Services Board, QC|
|Smallian-Khan, Jocelyne||OIC, Strategic Management Services Branch||RCMP HQ|
|Smith, Paul||Chief of Police & CACP Board of Directors||Charlottetown Police, PEI|
|Smith, Timothy||Government Relations & Communications||Canadian Association of Chiefs of Police|
|Sornberger, William||Chief||Owen Sound Police, ON|
|Southern, Evan||Minister Bond's Assistant||BC|
|Stamatakis, Tom||President, CPA||Vancouver Police Union, BC|
|Stephens, Bill||Acting Director||Ontario Police College|
|Steppan, Mat||Chief of Staff||Department of Justice, AB|
|Stewart, Josh||Press Secretary to Minister Denis||Department of Justice, AB|
|St-Onge, Alain||Director General||Association des directeurs de police du Québec|
|Sullivan, Warren||Vice President|| Royal Newfoundland Constabulary
|Sullivan Curley, Shauna||DM, Department of Environment, Labour & Justice & Deputy Attorney General||Government of Prince Edward Island|
|Sutherland, Mike||Director||Winnipeg Police Association, MB|
|Swamp, Jerry||Chief||Akwasasne Mohawk Police, ON|
|Sweet, Sandy||President||Canadian Police Knowledge Network, PEI|
|Tanner, Stephen||Chief||Halton Regional Police, ON|
|Taylor, Norm||Program Director||Institute for Strategic International Studies|
|Taylor, William||Chair||Dakota Ojibway Police Commission, MB|
|Thomas, Mike||President||Hamilton Police Association Ontario|
|Thompson, Rebecca||Research Manager, Policy and Coordination||Public Safety Canada|
|Thompson, Trevor||Financial Analyst, Department of Justice||Government of Nunavut|
|Thorne, Dave||Superintendent||Winnipeg Police, MB|
|Thornton, Sara||Chief Constable, Thames Valley Police||London, U.K.|
|Tierney, Tim||Councillor||City of Ottawa, ON|
|Tomei, Joe||Chief||Orangeville Police, ON|
|Torigian, Matt||Chief||Waterloo Regional Police, ON|
|Townsend, Abe||Member, National Executive Staff Relations Representative Program||RCMP, HQ|
|Tupper, Shawn||ADM, Community Safety and Partnerships||Public Safety Canada|
|Vrbanovic, Berry||Councillor (Kitchener) & Past President||Federation of Canadian Municipalities|
|Waldie, Stephen||Director, External Relations Branch||Ministry of Community Safety and Correctional Services, ON|
|Walker, David||Mayor of Bridgewater, Treasurer||Canadian Association of Police Boards, NS|
|Waller, Irvin||Professor, Criminology||University of Ottawa, ON|
|Watts, Dianne||Mayor||City of Surrey, BC|
|Weighill, Clive||Chief||Saskatoon Police, SK|
|Wex, Richard||ADM, Law Enforcement and Policing||Public Safety Canada|
|White, Stephen||CO A/Commr||RCMP "O" Division, ON|
|Williams, Rebekah||ADM, Department of Justice||Government of Nunavut|
|Wisker, Randy||Corporate Investigations, TRA Manager||Commissionaires, Ottawa, ON|
Appendix B: Agenda
January 16-17, 2013
Delta Ottawa City Centre Hotel
January 15, 2013
- Registration (Victoria Room)
January 16, 2013
- Registration (Outside Ballroom A)
- Breakfast (Ballroom C)
Framing the Summit (Ballroom A)
- Summit Launch
Facilitator's call to order
Ottawa Police Service Pipe Band
- Ministers' Welcoming Address
- Honourable Vic Toews, Minister of Public Safety, Government of Canada
- Honourable Shirley Bond, Attorney General and Minister of Justice, Government of British Columbia
Pillar #1: Efficiencies within Police Services
- Evolution of Policing
- Paul McKenna, Professor, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS
- Alok Mukherjee, President, Canadian Association of Police Boards
- Jim Chu, President, Canadian Association of Chiefs of Police
- Sara Thornton, Chief Constable, Thames Valley Police Service, UK
- Evolution of Policing (cont'd)
- Lunch: National and International Perspectives
- Bob Paulson, Commissioner, Royal Canadian Mounted Police
- Jim Bueermann, President, Police Foundation, Washington, DC, US
- Finding the Right Balance: Civilianization, Privatization and Tiered Policing
- Benoît Dupont, Professor, Université de Montréal, QC
- Curt Griffiths, Professor, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC
- Mike Cunningham, Chief Constable, Staffordshire Police, UK
- Mark Lalonde, Director, CKR Global Risk Solutions, Vancouver, BC
- Collective Bargaining and Arbitration in Policing
- Ed Aust, Lawyer, Aust Legal
- Tom Stamatakis, President, Canadian Police Association
- Fred Kaustinen, Executive Director, Ontario Association of Police Boards
- Reception: Emerging Police Research and Technology (kiosks)
Penthouse Level (Panoramic Room)
- Dinner: The Future of Policing
- Joseph A. Schafer, Professor, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL, US
January 17, 2013
- Breakfast (Ballroom C)
Pillar #2: New Models of Community Safety
- Research, Policing and Crime Reduction
- Curtis Clarke, Executive Director, Alberta Justice and Solicitor General Staff College
- Edward Maguire, Professor and Chair, Department of Justice, Law and Society, American University, Washington, DC, US
- Stuart Kirby, Lecturer, Lancaster University, UK
- Graham Farrell, Senior Research Fellow, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC
- New Models of Community Safety
- Dale McFee, Deputy Minister, Corrections and Policing, Government of Saskatchewan
- Karyn McCluskey, Director, Scottish Violence Reduction Unit, Strathclyde Police Service, UK
- Viv Rickard, Deputy Commissioner, New Zealand Police, Wellington, NZ
- Jean-Michel Blais, Chief, Halifax Regional Police Service, NS
- Lunch: Justice and Policing
- Sir Denis O'Connor, former CEO, Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Constabulary, UK
Pillar #3: Efficiencies within the Justice System
- Streamlining the Justice System to Reduce the Costs of Policing
- William Pentney, Deputy Minister, Justice Canada, Government of Canada
- Evan Bray, President, Saskatchewan Federation of Police Officers, SK
- Geoffrey Cowper, Senior Partner, Fasken Martineau, Vancouver, BC
- Honourable Patrick LeSage, Counsel, Gowlings, Toronto, ON
Moving Forward Together
- Closing Session: Building a Shared Forward Agenda for Policing in Canada
- Graham Flack, Associate Deputy Minister, Public Safety Canada, Government of Canada
- Jim Chu, President, Canadian Association of Chiefs of Police
- Tom Stamatakis, President, Canadian Police Association
- Alok Mukherjee, President, Canadian Association of Police Boards
- Date modified: