2016 Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview

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Table of contents

Preface

This document provides a statistical overview of corrections and conditional release within a context of trends in crime and criminal justice. A primary consideration in producing this overview was to present general statistical information in a “user friendly” way that will facilitate understanding by a broad audience. Accordingly, there are a number of features of this document that make it different from typical statistical reports.

The Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview (CCRSO) has been published annually since 1998. Readers are advised that in some instances figures have been revised from earlier publications. Also, the total number of offenders will vary slightly depending on characteristics of the data set.

It is hoped that this document will serve as a useful source of statistical information on corrections and conditional release and assist the public in gaining a better understanding of these important components of the criminal justice system.

Regarding police crime data from Statistics Canada, until the late 1980s, the Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) survey provided aggregate counts of the number of incidents reported to police and the number of persons charged by type of offence. With the advent of microdata reporting, the UCR has become an “incident-based” survey (UCR2), collecting in-depth information about each criminal incident. The update to this new survey, as well as revisions to the definitions of Violent crime, Property crime, and Other Criminal Code offences has resulted in data only being available from 1998 to the present. It is worth noting that the Total Crime Rates presented in the CCRSO differ from those reported by Statistics Canada in their publications. The Total Crime Rates reported in the CCRSO include offences (i.e., traffic offences in the Canadian Criminal Code and offences against federal statutes) that are excluded in rates published by Statistics Canada.

Contributing Partners

Public Safety Canada

Public Safety Canada is Canada’s lead federal department for public safety, which includes emergency management, national security and community safety. Its many responsibilities include developing legislation and policies governing corrections, implementing innovative approaches to community justice, and providing research expertise and resources to the corrections community.

Correctional Service Canada

The mandate of the Correctional Service Canada, as set out in the Corrections and Conditional Release Act, is to contribute to the maintenance of a just, peaceful and safe society by carrying out sentences  imposed by courts through the safe and humane custody and supervision of offenders with sentences of two years or more, and assisting in the rehabilitation of offenders and their reintegration into the community as law-abiding citizens through the provision of programs in penitentiaries and in the community.

Parole Board of Canada

The Parole Board of Canada is an independent administrative tribunal responsible for making decisions about the timing and conditions of release of offenders to the community on various forms of conditional release. The Board also makes pardon decisions and recommendations respecting clemency through the Royal Prerogative of Mercy.

Office of the Correctional Investigator

The Office of the Correctional Investigator is an ombudsman for federal offenders. It conducts investigations into the problems of offenders related to decisions, recommendations, acts or omissions of the Correctional Service of Canada that affect offenders individually or as a group.

Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics (Statistics Canada)

The Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics (CCJS) is a division of Statistics Canada. The CCJS is the  focal point of a federal-provincial-territorial partnership, known as the National Justice Statistics Initiative, for the collection of information on the nature and extent of crime and the administration of civil and criminal justice in Canada.

Section A: Context - Crime and the Criminal Justice System

Police-reported crime rate has been decreasing since 1998

Figure A1

Police-reported crime rate has been decreasing since 1998 - Rate per 100,000 population

Source: Uniform Crime Reporting Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Note:

*Unlike Statistics Canada, the Total Crime Rate in the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview includes traffic offences and offences against federal statutes to provide a measure of all criminal offences. As a result, the Total Crime Rate reported here is higher than that reported by Statistics Canada.

**The definitions for Violent, Property and Other Criminal Code offences have been revised by Statistics Canada to better reflect definitions used by the policing community. As a result of these changes, comparable data are only available starting in 1998 and the data presented in this year’s report are not comparable to the data reported in previous versions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview.

These crime statistics are based on crimes that are reported to the police. Since not all crimes are reported to the police, these figures underestimate actual crime. See Figure F1 for rates based on victimization surveys (drawn from the General Social Survey), an alternative method of measuring crime.

Table A1
Year Type of offence
Violent** Property** Traffic Other CCC** Drugs Other Fed. Statutes Total*
1998 1,345 5,696 496 1,051 235 119 8,915
1999 1,440 5,345 388 910 264 128 8,474
2000 1,494 5,189 370 924 287 113 8,376
2001 1,473 5,124 393 989 288 123 8,390
2002 1,441 5,080 379 991 296 128 8,315
2003 1,435 5,299 373 1,037 274 115 8,532
2004 1,404 5,123 379 1,072 306 107 8,391
2005 1,389 4,884 378 1,052 290 97 8,090
2006 1,387 4,809 376 1,050 295 87 8,004
2007 1,354 4,525 402 1,029 308 90 7,707
2008 1,334 4,258 437 1,039 308 100 7,475
2009 1,322 4,122 435 1,017 291 94 7,281
2010 1,292 3,838 420 1,029 321 96 6,996
2011 1,236 3,536 424 1,008 330 94 6,627
2012 1,197 3,435 406 1,000 317 103 6,459
2013 1,093 3,147 386 954 310 79 5,970
2014 1,041 3,090 364 915 294 71 5,776
2015 1,062 3,220 351 916 269 70 5,888

Source: Uniform Crime Reporting Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Note:

*Unlike Statistics Canada, the Total Crime Rate in the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview includes traffic offences and offences against federal statutes to provide a measure of all criminal offences. As a result, the Total Crime Rate reported here is higher than that reported by Statistics Canada.

**The definitions for Violent, Property and Other Criminal Code offences have been revised by Statistics Canada to better reflect definitions used by the policing community. As a result of these changes, comparable data are only available starting in 1998 and the data presented in this year’s report are not comparable to the data reported in previous versions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview.

Rates are based on incidents reported per 100,000 population.

Due to rounding, rates may not add to Totals.

Crime rates are higher in the west and highest in the north

Figure A2

Crime rates are higher in the west and highest in the north

Source: Uniform Crime Reporting Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Note:

*Rates are based on 100,000 population.

Unlike Statistics Canada, the Crime Rate in the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview includes traffic offences and offences against federal statutes to provide a measure of all criminal offences. As a result, the Crime Rate reported here is higher than that reported by Statistics Canada. In addition, the definitions for Violent, Property and Other Criminal Code offences have been revised by Statistics Canada to better reflect definitions used by the policing community. As a result of these changes, comparable data are only available starting in 1998 and the data presented in this year’s report are not comparable to the data reported in previous versions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview.

Table A2
Province/Territory Crime Rate *
2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
Newfoundland & Labrador 7,136 6,837 6,670 6,208 6,356
Prince Edward Island 7,290 7,351 6,530 5,295 4,677
Nova Scotia 7,343 7,143 6,415 6,228 5,641
New Brunswick 6,063 6,276 5,476 5,073 5,518
Quebec 5,295 5,199 4,699 4,314 4,176
Ontario 4,796 4,612 4,184 4,003 3,991
Manitoba 9,866 9,742 8,722 8,404 8,787
Saskatchewan 14,121 13,540 12,530 12,121 12,707
Alberta 8,372 8,187 7,942 7,962 8,758
British Columbia 9,308 9,069 8,549 8,617 8,799
Yukon Territory 22,544 22,634 26,056 26,307 25,906
Northwest Territories 52,300 51,244 48,428 46,558 47,142
Nunavut 39,443 40,540 34,630 32,614 34,007
Canada 6,627 6,459 5,970 5,776 5,888

Source: Uniform Crime Reporting Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Note:

*Rates are based on 100,000 population.

Unlike Statistics Canada, the Crime Rate in the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview includes traffic offences and offences against federal statutes to provide a measure of all criminal offences. As a result, the Crime Rate reported here is higher than that reported by Statistics Canada. In addition, the definitions for Violent, Property and Other Criminal Code offences have been revised by Statistics Canada to better reflect definitions used by the policing community. As a result of these changes, comparable data are only available starting in 1998 and the data presented in this year’s report are not comparable to the data reported in previous versions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview.

Canada’s incarceration rate is high relative to most western European countries

Figure A3

Canada's incarceration rate is high relative to most western European countries - Number of inmates per 100,000 population

Source: World Prison Population List online (retrieved December 6, 2016 at www.prisonstudies.org/highest-to-lowest/prison-population-total.

Note:

The incarceration rate, in this figure, is a measure of the number of people (i.e., adults and youth) in custody per 100,000 people in the general population. Incarceration rates from the World Prison Population List are based on the most recently available data at the time the list was compiled. Due to variations in the availability of information, the 2006 and 2008 dates reported in Figure A3 refer to when the World Prison Population Lists (Seventh and Eighth Editions respectively) were published, but may not necessarily correspond to the date the data were obtained. For 2016, the data was retrieved online on December 6, 2016 from http://www.prisonstudies.org which contains the most up-to-date information available. These data reflect incarceration rates based on the country’s population. Additionally, different practices and variations in measurement in different countries limit the comparability of these figures.

Table A3
  2003 2004 20061* 20082* 20113* 20124* 20135* 20146* 20157* 20168*
United States 714 723 738 756 743 730 716 707 698 693
New Zealand 168 168 186 185 199 194 192 190 190 203
England & Wales 142 141 148 153 155 154 148 149 148 147
Scotland 132 136 139 152 155 151 147 144 144 142
Australia 117 120 126 129 133 129 130 143 151 152
Canada 108 107 107 116 117 114 118 118 106 114
Italy 98 96 104 92 110 109 106 88 86 90
Austria 106 110 105 95 104 104 98 99 95 93
France 91 91 85 96 102 102 101 102 100 103
Germany 96 98 95 89 87 83 79 81 78 78
Switzerland 81 81 83 76 79 76 82 87 84 83
Sweden 75 81 82 74 78 70 67 57 60 53
Denmark 70 70 77 63 74 74 73 67 61 58
Norway 65 65 66 69 73 73 72 75 71 74
Finland 71 66 75 64 59 59 58 55 57 55

Source: International Centre for Prison Studies: 1World Prison Population List (Seventh Edition); 2World Prison Population List (Eighth Edition); 3World Prison Population List online (retrieved October 7, 2011 at www.prisonstudies.org/info/worldbrief/index.php), 4World Prison Population List online (retrieved October 15, 2012 at www.prisonstudies.org/info/worldbrief/index.php). 5World Prison Population List online (retrieved November 20, 2013 at www.prisonstudies.org/info/worldbrief/index.php). 6World Prison Population List online (retrieved December 8, 2014 at www.prisonstudies.org/world-prison-brief). 7World Prison Population List (retrieved November 20, 2015 at www.prisonstudies.org/highest-to-lowest/prison-population-total). 8World Prison Population List online (retrieved December 6, 2016 at www.prisonstudies.org/highest-to-lowest/prison-population-total.

Note:

*Incarceration rates from the World Prison Population List are based on the most recently available data at the time the list was compiled. Due to variations in the availability of information, the 2006 and 2008 dates reported in Table A3 refer to when the World Prison Population Lists (Seventh and Eighth Editions respectively) were published, but may not necessarily correspond to the date the data were obtained. For 2016, the data was retrieved online on December 6, 2016 at www.prisonstudies.org which contains the most up to date information available. Additionally, different practices and variations in measurement in different countries limit the comparability of these figures. Rates are based on 100,000 population.

The rate of adults charged has declined

Figure A4

The rate of adults charged has declined - Rate per 100,000 adult population

Source: Uniform Crime Reporting Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Note:

*Unlike Statistics Canada, the Total Crime Rate in the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview includes traffic offences and offences against federal statutes to provide a measure of all criminal offences. As a result, the Total Crime Rate reported here is higher than that reported by Statistics Canada.

**The definitions for Violent, Property and Other Criminal Code offences have been revised by Statistics Canada to better reflect definitions used by the policing community. As a result of these changes, comparable data are only available starting in 1998 and the data presented in this year’s report are not comparable to the data reported in previous versions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview.

Violent crimes include homicide, attempted murder, assault, sexual offences, abduction, extortion, robbery, firearms, and other violent offences such as uttering threats and criminal harassment.

Property crimes include break and enter, motor vehicle thefts, other thefts, possession of stolen property, fraud, mischief and arson.

Table A4
Year Type of offence
Violent** Property** Traffic Other CCC** Drugs Other Fed.
Statutes
Total
Charged*
1998 563 677 374 430 168 24 2,236
1999 590 632 371 396 185 30 2,203
2000 615 591 349 411 198 26 2,190
2001 641 584 349 451 202 28 2,256
2002 617 569 336 460 199 29 2,211
2003 598 573 326 476 172 23 2,168
2004 584 573 314 490 187 30 2,180
2005 589 550 299 479 185 29 2,131
2006 594 533 300 498 198 27 2,150
2007 577 499 298 521 208 28 2,132
2008 576 487 307 540 207 31 2,149
2009 585 490 311 532 201 34 2,152
2010 576 473 295 545 211 32 2,132
2011 548 441 271 527 213 34 2,034
2012 541 434 268 535 202 37 2,017
2013 504 415 242 518 200 26 1,904
2014 486 397 232 518 190 18 1,840
2015 496 406 227 520 179 21 1,850

Source: Uniform Crime Reporting Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Note:

*Unlike Statistics Canada, the Total Crime Rate in the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview includes traffic offences and offences against federal statutes to provide a measure of all criminal offences. As a result, the Total Crime Rate reported here is higher than that reported by Statistics Canada.

**The definitions for Violent, Property and Other Criminal Code offences have been revised by Statistics Canada to better reflect definitions used by the policing community. As a result of these changes, comparable data are only available starting in 1998 and the data presented in this year’s report are not comparable to the data reported in previous versions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview.

Rates are based on 100,000 population, 18 years of age and older.

Due to rounding, rates may not add to Totals.

Violent crimes include homicide, attempted murder, assault, sexual offences, abduction, extortion, robbery, firearms, and other violent offences such as uttering threats and criminal harassment.

Property crimes include break and enter, motor vehicle thefts, other thefts, possession of stolen property, fraud, mischief and arson.

Administration of justice cases account for 23% of cases* in adult courts

Figure A5

Percentage of all Criminal Code and Other Federal Statute Charges (2014-2015)

Source: Adult Criminal Court Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Note:

*Cases completed in adult criminal courts.

The concept of a case has changed to more closely reflect court processing. Statistics from the Adult Criminal Court Survey used in this report should not be compared to editions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview prior to 2007. A case is one or more charges against an accused person or corporation, processed by the courts at the same time, and where all of the charges in the case received a final disposition. Where a case has more than one charge, it is necessary to select a charge to represent the case. An offence is selected by applying two rules. First, the “most serious decision” rule is applied. In cases where two or more offences have the same decision, the “most serious offence” rule is applied. All charges are ranked according to an offence seriousness scale.

Superior Court data are not reported to the Adult Criminal Court Survey for Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba and Saskatchewan. In addition, information from Quebec’s municipal courts is not collected.

The Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics continues to make updates to the offence library used to classify offence data sent by the provinces and territories. These improvements have resulted in minor changes in the counts of charges and cases as well as the distributions by type of offence. Data presented have been revised to account for these updates.

Due to rounding, percentages may not add to 100 percent.

Table A5
Type of Charge Criminal Code and Other Federal Statute Charges
  2012-13   2013-14   2014-15
  # % # % # %
Crimes Against the Person 91,033 23.49 87,887 23.19 76,888 23.44
  Homicide and Related 243 0.06 278 0.07 236 0.07
  Attempted Murder 145 0.04 202 0.05 137 0.04
  Robbery 3,985 1.03 3,669 0.97 3,028 0.92
  Sexual Assault 3,204 0.83 3,135 0.83 2,586 0.79
  Other Sexual Offences 3,307 0.85 3,661 0.97 3,204 0.98
  Major Assault (Levels 2 & 3) 20,547 5.30 20,009 5.28 17,531 5.34
  Common Assault (Level 1) 35,863 9.25 34,169 9.01 29,867 9.11
  Uttering Threats 17,559 4.53 16,546 4.37 14,863 4.53
  Criminal Harassment 3,158 0.81 3,325 0.88 2,808 0.86
  Other Crimes Against Persons 3,022 0.78 2,893 0.76 2,628 0.80
Crimes Against Property 88,664 22.87 85,301 22.50 76,356 23.28
  Theft 39,318 10.14 37,522 9.90 34,001 10.37
  Break and Enter 10,864 2.80 10,388 2.74 8,569 2.61
  Fraud 12,130 3.13 11,964 3.16 10,470 3.19
  Mischief 13,771 3.55 13,248 3.49 11,951 3.64
  Possession of Stolen Property 10,987 2.83 10,636 2.81 9,977 3.04
  Other Property Crimes 1,594 0.41 1,543 0.41 1,388 0.42
Administration of Justice 85,554 22.07 84,213 22.22 74,811 22.81
  Fail to Appear 4,565 1.18 4,497 1.19 3,769 1.15
  Breach of probation 32,742 8.45 32,035 8.45 29,626 9.03
  Unlawfully at large 2,512 0.65 2,642 0.70 2,470 0.75
  Fail to Comply with Order 37,232 9.61 36,362 9.59 31,544 9.62
  Other Admin. Justice 8,503 2.19 8,677 2.29 7,402 2.26
Other Criminal Code 16,791 4.33 16,341 4.31 13,843 4.22
  Weapons 9,682 2.50 9,600 2.53 8,713 2.66
  Prostitution 896 0.23 924 0.24 355 0.11
  Disturbing the Peace 1,452 0.37 1,338 0.35 1,094 0.33
  Residual Criminal Code 4,761 1.23 4,479 1.18 3,681 1.12
Criminal Code Traffic 52,413 13.52 54,666 14.42 42,165 12.85
  Impaired Driving 42,048 10.85 44,476 11.73 33,121 10.10
  Other CC Traffic 10,365 2.67 10,190 2.69 9,044 2.76
Other Federal Statutes 53,159 13.71 50,650 13.36 43,965 13.40
  Drug Possession 16,303 4.21 15,072 3.98 13,375 4.08
  Other Drug Offences 11,577 2.99 10,434 2.75 8,825 2.69
  Residual Federal Statutes 25,279 6.52 25,144 6.63 21,765 6.64
Total Offences 387,614 100.00 379,058 100.00 328,028 100.00

Source: Adult Criminal Court Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Note:

*Cases completed in adult criminal courts.

The concept of a case has changed to more closely reflect court processing. Statistics from the Adult Criminal Court Survey used in this report should not be compared to editions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview prior to 2007. Superior Court data are not reported to the Adult Criminal Court Survey for Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba and Saskatchewan. In addition, information from Quebec’s municipal courts is not collected. The Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics continues to make updates to the offence library used to classify offence data sent by the provinces and territories. These improvements have resulted in minor changes in the counts of charges and cases as well as the distributions by type of offence. Data presented have been revised to account for these updates.

Due to rounding, percentages may not add to 100 percent.

Most adult custodial sentences ordered by the court are short

Figure A6

Length of Sentence (2014-2015)

Source: Adult Criminal Court Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Note:

*The type of decision group “guilty” includes guilty of the offence, of an included offence, of an attempt of the offence, or of an attempt of an included offence. This category also includes cases where an absolute or conditional discharge has been imposed.

The concept of a case has changed to more closely reflect court processing. Statistics from the Adult Criminal Court Survey used in this report should not be compared to editions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview prior to 2007.

Excludes cases where length of prison sentence and/or sex was not known, data for Manitoba as information on sentence length was not available.

Superior Court data are not reported to the Adult Criminal Court Survey for prince Edward Island, Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba and Saskatchewan. In addition, information from Quebec’s  municipal courts is not collected.

The Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics continues to make updates to the offence library used to classify offence data sent by the provinces and territories. These improvements have resulted in minor changes in the counts of charges and cases as well as the distributions by type of offence. Data presented have been revised to account for these updates.

Due to rounding, totals may not add to 100 percent.

Table A6
Length of Prison Sentence 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 2013-14 2014-15
  % % % % %
1 Month or Less
Women 66.7 67.5 67.8 66.3 68.9
Men 51.4 52.6 53.2 53.0 56.4
Total 53.0 54.3 54.9 54.5 57.9
More Than 1 Month to 6 Months
Women 24.7 23.9 24.1 25.1 23.6
Men 33.9 33.2 32.6 32.9 31.4
Total 32.9 32.2 31.6 32.0 30.5
More Than 6 Months to 12 Months
Women 3.8 4.4 4.2 4.2 3.6
Men 6.8 6.6 6.4 6.2 5.6
Total 6.5 6.4 6.1 6.0 5.4
More Than 1 Year to Less Than 2 Years
Women 2.4 2.2 2.1 2.3 1.8
Men 3.6 3.7 3.9 3.9 3.2
Total 3.5 3.5 3.7 3.7 3.1
2 Years or More
Women 2.4 2.1 1.8 2.1 2.1
Men 4.4 3.9 3.8 3.9 3.3
Total 4.1 3.7 3.6 3.7 3.2

Source: Adult Criminal Court Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Note:

The concept of a case has changed to more closely reflect court processing. Statistics from the Adult Criminal Court Survey used in this report should not be compared to editions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview prior to 2007.

Excludes cases where length of prison sentence and/or sex was not known, data for Manitoba as information on both sentence length was not available.

Superior Court data are not reported to the Adult Criminal Court Survey for Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba and Saskatchewan. In addition, information from Quebec’s municipal courts is not collected.

The Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics continues to make updates to the offence library used to classify offence data sent by the provinces and territories. These improvements have resulted in minor changes in the counts of charges and cases as well as the distributions by type of offence. Data presented have been revised to account for these updates.

Due to rounding, totals may not add to 100 percent.

Relatively few crimes result in sentences to federal penitentiaries

Figure A7

Relatively few crimes result in sentences to federal penitentiaries

Source: 1 Uniform Crime Reporting Survey-2, Adult Criminal Court Survey, and Adult Correctional Services Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada; 2 Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

*The type of decision group “guilty” includes guilty of the offence, of an included offence, of an attempt of the offence, or of an attempt of an included offence. This category also includes cases where an absolute or conditional discharge has been imposed.

**This figure only includes cases in provincial court and partial data from Superior Court. Superior Court data are not reported to the Adult Criminal Court Survey for Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba and Saskatchewan. Information from Quebec’s municipal courts is not collected.

The concept of a case has changed to more closely reflect court processing. Statistics from the Adult Criminal Court Survey used in this report should not be compared to editions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview prior to 2007. A case is one or more charges against an accused person or corporation, processed by the courts at the same time, and where all of the charges in the case received a final disposition.

Police data are reported on a calendar year basis whereas court and prison data are reported on a fiscal year basis (April 1 through March 31).

Table A7
  2011-12 2012-13 2013-14 2014-15 2015-16
Total Number of Incidents Reported to Police1 2,275,917 2,244,458 2,098,776 2,052,925 2,111,021
Cases with guilty* findings in Adult Criminal Court1** 251,603 249,152 244,742 207,528 Not available
Sentenced Admissions to Provincial/ Territorial Custody1 85,013 65,922 64,604 62,279 Not available
Warrant of Committal Admissions to Federal Facilities2 5,032 5,046 5,074 4,821 4,797

Source: 1Uniform Crime Reporting Survey, Adult Criminal Court Survey, and Adult Correctional Services Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada; 2 Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

*The type of decision group “guilty” includes guilty of the offence, of an included offence, of an attempt of the offence, or of an attempt of an included offence. This  category also includes cases where an absolute or conditional discharge has been imposed.

**This figure only includes cases convicted in provincial court and partial data from Superior Court. Superior Court data are not reported to the Adult Criminal Court Survey for Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba and Saskatchewan. Information from Quebec’s municipal courts is not collected.

The concept of a case has changed to more closely reflect court processing. Statistics from the Adult Criminal Court Survey used in this report should not be compared to editions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview prior to 2007. A case is one or more charges against an accused person or corporation, processed by the courts at the same time, and where all of the charges in the case received a final disposition.

Police data are reported on a calendar year basis whereas court and prison data are reported on a fiscal year basis (April 1 through March 31).

The rate of youth charged has declined over the past nine years

Figure A8

The rate of youth charged has declined over the past seven years - rate of youth charged per 100,000 youth population

Source: Uniform Crime Reporting Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Note:

*Unlike Statistics Canada, the Total Crime Rate in the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview includestraffic offences and offences against federal statutes to provide a measure of all criminal offences. As a result, the Total Crime Rate reported here is higher than that reported by Statistics Canada. In addition, the definitions for Violent, Property and Other Criminal Code offences have been revised by Statistics Canada to better reflect definitions used by the policing community. As   a result of these changes, comparable data are only available starting in 1998 and the data presented in this year’s report are not comparable to the data reported in previous versions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview.

**For criminal justice purposes, youth are defined under Canadian law as persons aged 12 to 17 years. Rates are based on 100,000 youth population (12 to 17 years).

Violent crimes include homicide, attempted murder, assault, sexual offences, abduction, extortion, robbery, firearms, and other violent offences such as uttering threats and criminal harassment.

Property crimes include break and enter, motor vehicle thefts, other thefts, possession of stolen property, fraud, mischief and arson.

Table A8
Year Type of Offence
Violent* Property* Traffic** Other CCC* Drugs Other Fed.
Statutes
Total
Charged*
1998 994 2,500   870 226 184 4,775
1999 1,060 2,237   728 266 209 4,500
2000 1,136 2,177 760 317 198 4,589
2001 1,157 2,119 840 343 195 4,656
2002 1,102 2,009 793 337 235 4,476
2003 953 1,570 726 208 204 3,662
2004 918 1,395 691 230 222 3,457
2005 924 1,276 660 214 212 3,287
2006 917 1,216 680 240 216 3,269
2007 943 1,211 75 732 260 239 3,461
2008 909 1,130 74 730 267 259 3,369
2009 888 1,143 68 698 238 260 3,294
2010 860 1,035 62 669 255 266 3,147
2011 805 903 58 635 263 251 2,915
2012 764 840 58 628 240 235 2,765
2013 692 723 45 555 229 193 2,436
2014 629 629 43 530 200 169 2,199
2015 629 621 44 519 165 159 2,137

Source: Uniform Crime Reporting Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Note:

*Unlike Statistics Canada, the Total Crime Rate in the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview includestraffic offences and offences against federal statutes to provide a measure of all criminal offences. As a result, the Total Crime Rate reported here is higher than that reported by Statistics Canada. In addition, the definitions for Violent, Property and Other Criminal Code offences have been revised by Statistics Canada to better reflect definitions used by the policing community. As   a result of these changes, comparable data are only available starting in 1998 and the data presented in this year’s report are not comparable to the data reported in previous versions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview.

**Data for Youth Charged and Youth Not Charged for Impaired Driving are not available prior to 2007. As a result, comparisons to Total Charged and Other CCC (including traffic) over time should be made with caution.

For criminal justice purposes, youth are defined under Canadian law as persons aged 12 to 17 years. Rates are based on 100,000 youth population (12 to 17 years).

Violent crimes include homicide, attempted murder, assault, sexual offences, abduction, extortion, robbery, firearms, and other violent offences such as uttering threats and criminal harassment.

Property crimes include break and enter, motor vehicle thefts, other thefts, possession of stolen property, fraud, mischief and arson.

The most common youth court case is theft

Figure A9

Percentage of Youth Court Cases by Principal Charge (2014-2015)

Source: Integrated Criminal Court Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Note:

*“Administration of Justice” includes the offences failure to appear, failure to comply, and breach of recognizance.

**Youth Criminal Justice Act offences include failure to comply with a disposition or undertaking, contempt against youth court, assisting a youth to leave a place of custody and harbouring a youth unlawfully at large. Also included are similar offences under the Young Offenders Act, which preceded the Youth Criminal Justice Act.

***“Drug Offences” includes possession and trafficking.

The concept of a case has changed to more closely reflect court processing. Statistics from the Youth Court Survey used in this report should not be compared to editions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview prior to 2007. A case is one or more charges against an accused person or corporation, processed by the courts at the same time, and where all of the charges in the case received a final disposition. Where a case has more than one charge, it is necessary to select a charge to represent the case. An offence is selected by applying two rules. First, the “most serious decision” rule is applied. In cases where two or more offences have the same decision, the “most serious offence” rule is applied. All charges are ranked according to an offence seriousness scale.

The Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics continues to make updates to the offence library used to classify offence data sent by the provinces and territories. These improvements have resulted in minor changes in the counts of charges and cases as well as the distributions by type of offence. Data presented have been revised to account for these updates.

Table A9
Type of Case Number of Youth Court Cases
2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 2013-14 2014-15
Crimes Against the Person 14,275 13,216 12,792 11,883 9,743
  Homicide and Attempted Murder 69 55 52 53 47
  Robbery 2,605 2,464 2,336 1,937 1,459
  Sexual Assault / Other Sexual Offences 1,306 1,277 1,331 1,449 1,285
  Major Assault 3,361 2,900 2,715 2,427 2,074
  Common Assault 4,208 4,029 3,878 3,637 2,743
  Other Crimes Against the Person* 2,726 2,491 2,480 2,380 2,135
Crimes Against Property 20,408 17,389 15,723 13,526 10,735
  Theft 7,879 6,591 5,476 4,692 3,586
  Break and Enter 4,410 3,824 3,606 3,153 2,537
  Fraud 641 525 474 470 364
  Mischief 3,752 3,330 2,948 2,514 2,096
  Possession of Stolen Property 3,147 2,689 2,779 2,322 1,856
  Other Crimes Against Property 579 430 440 375 296
Administration of Justice 5,702 5,259 4,893 4,336 3,520
  Failure to comply with order 3,738 3,529 3,230 2,902 2,309
  Other Administration of Justice** 1,964 1,730 1,663 1,434 1,211
Other Criminal Code 2,709 2,476 2,424 2,193 2,014
  Weapons / Firearms 1,834 1,686 1,555 1,463 1,372
  Prostitution 14 5 6 11 16
  Disturbing the Peace 165 121 132 86 61
  Residual Criminal Code 696 664 731 633 565
Criminal Code Traffic 963 855 828 656 541
Other Federal Statutes 9,437 9,757 8,781 7,780 6,282
  Drug Possession 2,560 2,008 1,840 1,571 1,761
  Drug Trafficking 1,220 842 710 666 903
  Youth Criminal Justice Act*** 5,603 5,272 4,542 3,870 3,450
  Residual Federal Statutes 54 88 163 150 168
Total 53,494 48,952 45,441 40,374 32,835

Source: Integrated Criminal Court Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Note:

*“Other Crimes Against the Person” includes the offences uttering threats and criminal harassment.

**“Other Administration of Justice” includes the offences failure to appear, failure to comply, and breach of recognizance.

***Youth Criminal Justice Act offences include failure to comply with a disposition or undertaking, contempt against youth court, assisting a youth to leave a place of custody and harbouring a youth unlawfully at large. Also included are similar offences under the Young Offenders Act, which preceded the Youth Criminal Justice Act.

The concept of a case has changed to more closely reflect court processing. Statistics from the Youth Court Survey used in this report should not be compared to editions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview prior to 2007. A case is one or more charges against an accused person or corporation, processed by the courts at the same ti me, and where all of the charges in the case received a final disposition. Where a case has more than one charge, it is necessary to select a charge to represent the case. An offence is selected by applying two rules. First, the “most serious decision” rule is applied. In cases where two or more offences have the same decision, the “most serious offence” rule is applied. All charges are ranked according to an offence seriousness scale.

The Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics continues to make updates to the offence library used to classify offence data sent by the provinces and territories. These improvements have resulted in minor changes in the counts of charges and cases as well as the distributions by type of offence. Data presented have been revised to account for these updates.

The most common sentence for youth is probation

Figure A10

The most common sentence for youth is probation - percentage of youth court sentences

Source: Integrated Criminal Court Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Note:

*“Other Sentence” includes absolute discharge, restitution, prohibition, seizure, forfeiture, compensation, pay purchaser, essays, apologies, counselling programs and conditional discharge, conditional sentence, intensive support and supervision, attendance at non-residential program(s) and reprimand. This category also includes deferred custody and supervision, intensive support and supervision, attendance at non-residential program(s) and reprimand where sentencing data under the Youth Criminal Justice Act (YCJA) are not available.

Unlike previous years, this data represents the most serious sentence and therefore, sanctions are mutually exclusive. However, each case may receive more than one sentence.

The concept of a case has changed to more closely reflect court processing. Statistics from the Youth Court Survey used in this report should not be compared to editions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview prior to 2007.

Table A10
Type of Sentence Gender Year
2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 2013-14 2014-15
    % % % % %
Probation
  Female 47.5 47.4 48.7 49.2 47.3
  Male 47.5 48.4 47.6 48.4 48.5
  Total 48.2 48.7 47.7 48.5 48.3
Custody
  Female 12.6 11.5 11.1 10.8 11.8
  Male 17.3 17.0 16.4 16.3 16.0
  Total 15.6 15.2 14.9 14.9 14.9
Community Service Order
  Female 9.4 9.7 9.7 9.0 9.6
  Male 8.5 8.6 8.1 7.9 8.4
  Total 9.1 9.5 8.7 8.5 8.6
Fine
  Female 3.2 2.5 2.4 2.3 2.4
  Male 3.7 3.3 3.5 2.8 2.4
  Total 3.6 3.0 3.2 2.7 2.4
Deferred Custody and Supervision
  Female 4.3 5.1 3.9 4.1 3.1
  Male 4.7 4.5 4.7 4.7 4.1
  Total 4.4 4.3 4.4 4.5 3.9
Other Sentence*
  Female 23.0 23.8 24.2 24.6 25.8
  Male 18.4 18.2 19.6 20.0 20.7
  Total 19.2 19.2 21.0 20.9 21.9

Source: Integrated Criminal Court Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Note:

*“Other Sentence” includes absolute discharge, restitution, prohibition, seizure, forfeiture, compensation, pay purchaser, essays, apologies, counselling programs and conditional discharge, conditional sentence, intensive support and supervision, attendance at non-residential program(s) and reprimand. This category also includes deferred custody and supervision, intensive support and supervision, attendance at non-residential program(s) and reprimand where sentencing data under the Youth Criminal Justice Act (YCJA) are not available.

Unlike previous years, this data represents the most serious sentence and therefore, sanctions are mutually exclusive. However, each case may receive more than one sentence.

The concept of a case has changed to more closely reflect court processing. Statistics from the Youth Court Survey used in this report should not be compared to editions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview prior to 2007.

Section B: Corrections Administration

Expenditures on corrections

Figure B1

Expenditures on corrections

Source: Correctional Service Canada; Parole Board of Canada; Office of the Correctional Investigator; Statistics Canada Consumer Price Index.

Note:

Federal expenditures on corrections include spending by Correctional Service Canada (CSC), the Parole Board of Canada (PBC), and the Office of the Correctional Investigator (OCI). The expenditures for CSC include both operating and capital costs. CSC expenditures exclude CORCAN (a Special Operating Agency that conducts industrial operations within penitentiaries).

Constant dollars (2002) represent dollar amounts calculated on a one-year base that adjusts for inflation, thus allowing the yearly amounts to be directly comparable. Changes in the Consumer Price Index were used to calculate constant dollars.

Table B1
Year Current Dollars Constant 2002 Dollars
Operating Capital Total Per capita Operating Capital Total Per capita
  $’000     $ $’000     $
2010-11
CSC 2,156,955 22,849 2,379,803 69.73 1,981,066 20,986 2,185,742 64.05
PBC 46,000 46,000 1.35 42,249 42,249 1.24
OCI 4,162 4,162 0.12 3,823 3,823 0.11
Total 2,207,117 22,849 2,429,965 71.20 2,027,138 20,986 2,231,813 65.40
2011-12
CSC 2,313,422 345,327 2,658,750 77.10 2,105,040 314,222 2,419,263 70.16
PBC 52,200 52,200 1.51 47,498 47,498 1.38
OCI 4,936 4,936 0.14 4,491 4,491 0.13
Total 2,370,558 345,327 2,715,886 78.76 2,157,030 314,222 2,471,252 71.66
2012-13
CSC 2,204,005 437,736 2,641,742 76.01 2,019,281 401,048 2,420,331 69.64
PBC 46,500 46,500 1.34 42,603 42,603 1.23
OCI 4,801 4,801 0.14 4,399 4,399 0.13
Total 2,255,306 437,736 2,693,043 77.49 2,066,283 401,048 2,467,332 70.99
2013-14
CSC 2,371,700 378,372 2,750,072 78.22 2,203,672 351,566 2,555,238 72.68
PBC 50,400 50,400 1.43 46,829 46,829 1.33
OCI 4,946 4,946 0.14 4,596 4,596 0.13
Total 2,427,046 378,372 2,805,418 79.79 2,255,097 351,566 2,606,663 74.14
2014-15
CSC 2,373,604 200,606 2,574,210 72.42 2,168,852 183,301 2,352,154 66.17
PBC 50,100 50,100 1.41 45,778 45,778 1.29
OCI 4,659 4,659 0.13 4,257 4,257 0.12
Total 2,428,363 200,606 2,628,969 73.96 2,218,888 183,301 2,402,189 67.58

Source: Correctional Service Canada; Parole Board of Canada; Office of the Correctional Investigator; Statistics Canada Consumer Price Index.

Note:

Due to rounding, constant dollar amounts may not add to “Total”.

Per capita cost is calculated by dividing the total expenditures by the total Canadian population and thus represents the cost per Canadian for federal correctional services.

Constant dollars represent dollar amounts calculated on a one-year base (2002) that adjusts for inflation allowing the yearly amounts to be directly comparable. Changes in the Consumer Price Index were used to calculate constant dollars.

CSC employees are concentrated in custody centres

Figure B2

CSC employees are concentrated in custody centres - results as of end of fiscal year 2015-16

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

Due to changes in policy, Correctional Officers no longer occupy positions in the community.

*These parole officers are situated within institutions, with the responsibility of preparing offenders for release.

**The “Other” category represents job classifications such as trades and food services.

***CSC has changed its definition of employee. Previously, the total number of employees included casual employees, employees on leave without pay and suspended employees. These categories have been removed from the total as of 2005-06. These numbers represent Indeterminate and Term equal to, or more than 3 months substantive employment; and Employee Status of Active and Paid Leave as of end of fiscal year 2015-16.

Due to rounding, percentages may not add to 100 percent.

Table B2
Service Area March 31, 2006 March 31, 2016
  # % # %
Headquarters and Central Services 2,087 14.5 2,437 14.4
   Administration 1,699 11.8 2,052 12.1
   Health Care 111 0.8 81 0.5
   Program Staff 120 0.8 64 0.4
   Correctional Officers 28 0.2 39 0.2
   Instructors/Supervisors 10 0.1 11 0.1
   Parole Officers/Parole Supervisors     1 <0.1
   Other** 119 0.8 189 1.1
Custody Centres 11,229 77.8 13,099 77.3
   Correctional Officers 5,965 41.3 7,506 44.3
   Administration 1,914 13.3 1,740 10.3
   Health Care 779 5.4 871 5.1
   Program Staff 534 3.7 833 4.9
   Parole Officers/Parole Supervisors* 648 4.5 650 3.8
   Instructors/Supervisors 387 2.7 339 2.0
   Other** 1,002 6.9 1,160 6.8
Community Supervision 1,125 7.8 1,399 8.3
   Parole Officers/Parole Supervisors 581 4.0 680 4.0
   Administration 315 2.2 363 2.1
   Program Staff 172 1.2 273 1.6
   Health Care 34 0.2 81 0.5
   Correctional Officers 22 0.2 0 0.0
   Other** 1 <0.1 2 <0.1
Total*** 14,441 100.0 16,935 100.0

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

Due to changes in policy, Correctional Officers no longer occupy positions in the community.

*These parole officers are situated within institutions, with the responsibility of preparing offenders for release.

**The “Other” category represents job classifications such as trades and food services.

***CSC has changed its definition of employee. Previously, the total number of employees included casual employees, employees on leave without pay and suspended employees. These categories have been removed from the total as of 2005-06. These numbers represent Indeterminate and Term equal to, or more than 3 months substantive employment; and Employee Status of Active and Paid Leave as of end of fiscal year 2015-16.

Due to rounding, percentages may not add to 100 percent.

The cost of keeping an inmate incarcerated

Figure B3

The cost of keeping an inmate incarcerated - Federal average daily inmate cost in current dollars

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

The average daily inmate cost includes those costs associated with the operation of the institutions, such as salaries and employee benefit plan contributions, but excludes capital expenditures and expenditures related to CORCAN (a Special Operating Agency that conducts industrial operations within penitentiaries).

Total incarcerated and community includes additional NHQ & RHQ administrative costs which are not part of the Institutional and/or Community calculations.

Offenders in the Community includes: Offenders on conditional release, statutory release or with Long-Term Supervision Order, under CSC supervision.

Figures may not add due to rounding.

Table B3
Categories Annual Average Costs per Offender (current $)
2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 2013-14 2014-15
Incarcerated Offenders
   Maximum Security (men only) 147,418 151,484 148,330 156,768 160,094
   Medium Security (men only) 99,519 104,889 99,207 101,583 105,750
   Minimum Security (men only) 95,034 91,959 83,910 83,182 86,613
   Women’s Facilities 214,614 211,618 210,695 219,884 213,800
   Exchange of Services Agreements 90,712 97,545 104,828 108,388 111,839
   Incarcerated Average 114,364 117,788 112,197 115,310 119,152
Offenders in the Community 31,148 35,101 33,799 34,432 33,067
Total Incarcerated and Community 96,412 100,622 95,504 99,923 99,982

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

The average daily inmate cost includes those costs associated with the operation of the institutions, such as salaries and employee benefit plan contributions, but excludes capital expenditures and expenditures related to CORCAN (a Special Operating Agency that conducts industrial operations within penitentiaries).

Total incarcerated and community includes additional NHQ & RHQ administrative costs which are not part of the Institutional and/or Community calculations.

Offenders in the Community includes: Offenders on conditional release, statutory release or with Long-Term Supervision Order, under CSC supervision.

Figures may not add due to rounding.

The number of Parole Board of Canada employees

Figure B4

The number of Parole Board of Canada employees - Full-time equivalents

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Table B4
  Full-Time Equivalents
2011-12 2012-13 2013-14 2014-15 2015-16
Strategic Outcome*
   Conditional Release Decisions 310 311 325 325 322
   Conditional Release Openness and Accountability 60 56 53 54 42
   Record Suspension and Clemency Recommendations 37 58 79 69 52
   Internal Services 54 43 48 47 59
   Total 461 468 505 495 475
Type of Employees
   Full-time Board Members 43 44 42 42 41
   Part-time Board Members 21 20 20 18 18
   Staff 397 404 443 435 416
   Total 461 468 505 495 475

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

The number of employees in the Office of the Correctional Investigator

Figure B5

The number of employees in the Office of the Correctional Investigator - Full-time equivalents

Source: Office of the Correctional Investigator.

Note:

*The Office of the Correctional Investigator (OCI) may commence an investigation on receipt of a complaint by or on behalf of an offender or on its own initiative. Complaints are made by telephone, letter and during interviews with the OCI's investigative staff at federal correctional facilities. The dispositions in response to complaints involve a combination of internal responses (where the information or assistance sought by the offender can generally be provided by the OCI's investigative staff) and investigations (where, further to a review/analysis of law, policies and documentation, OCI investigative staff make an inquiry or several interventions with Correctional Service Canada and submit recommendations to address the complaint). Investigations vary considerably in terms of scope, complexity, duration and resources required.

Table B5
  Full-Time Equivalents
2011-12 2012-13 2013-14 2014-15 2015-16
Type of Employees
   Correctional Investigator 1 1 1 1 1
   Senior Management and Legal Counsel/Advisor 5 5 5 5 5
   Investigative Services 21 25 25 25 25
   Administrative Services 5 5 5 5 5
Total 32 36 36 36 36

Source: Office of the Correctional Investigator.

Health Care is the most common area of offender complaint received by the Office of the Correctional Investigator

Figure B6

Ten most common complaints in 2015-16

Source: Office of the Correctional Investigator.

Note:

*The Office of the Correctional Investigator (OCI) may commence an investigation on receipt of a complaint by or on behalf of an offender or on its own initiative. Complaints are made by telephone, letter and during interviews with the OCI's investigative staff at federal correctional facilities. The dispositions in response to complaints involve a combination of internal responses (where the information or assistance sought by the offender can generally be provided by the OCI's investigative staff) and investigations (where, further to a review/analysis of law, policies and documentation, OCI investigative staff make an inquiry or several interventions with Correctional Service Canada and submit recommendations to address the complaint). Investigations vary considerably in terms of scope, complexity, duration and resources required.

Table B6
Category of Complaint Number of Complaints*
2011-12 2012-13 2013-14 2014-15 2015-16
  # # # # #
Health Care (including Dental) 730 577 613 763 855
Conditions of Confinement 483 509 628 516 733
Institutional Transfers 408 376 403 459 353
Staff Performance 310 368 412 412 415
Administrative Segregation 428 424 363 375 260
Cell Property 386 399 327 356 414
Telephone 141 135 227 268 218
Visits (includes Private Family Visits) 253 213 225 235 283
Grievance Procedures 255 163 161 189 186
File Information 166 162 140 175 149
Financial Matters 108 109 138 172 192
Correspondence 127 84 85 144 161
Security Classification 92 115 98 139 139
Programs/Services 122 101 107 117 146
Decisions (General) - Implementation** 227 372 93 102 47
Safety/Security of Offender 87 54 56 77 101
Mental Health 54 74 50 74 128
Harassment 119 64 42 74 72
Other*** 1,061 943 957 1,296 1,085
Outside OCI’s Terms of Reference 232 235 309 309 315
Total 5,789 5,477 5,434 6,252 6,501

Source: Office of the Correctional Investigator.

Note:

*The Office of the Correctional Investigator (OCI) may commence an investigation on receipt of a complaint by or on behalf of an offender or on its own initiative. Complaints are made by telephone, letter and during interviews with the OCI's investigative staff at federal correctional facilities. The dispositions in response to complaints involve a combination of internal responses (where the information or assistance sought by the offender can generally be provided by the OCI's investigative staff) and investigations (where, further to a review/analysis of law, policies and documentation, OCI investigative staff make an inquiry or several interventions with Correctional Service Canada and submit recommendations to address the complaint). Investigations vary considerably in terms of scope, complexity, duration and resources required.

OCI has updated the categories of complaints to better reflect their corporate priorities and the changing nature of the complaints that they received in the 2010-11 fiscal year. As a result, some categories reported in previous years have been changed or removed.

  • **Previously, Decisions (General) - Implementation, Correspondence, and Mental Health were reported in “Other”, therefore, numbers previous to 2010-11 are not reported.
  • ***“Other” refers to other types of complaints not specified in the table and includes: Cell Placement, Claims Against the Crown, Community Programs/Supervision, Conditional Release, Death or Serious Injury, Diets, Discipline, Discrimination, Double Bunking, Employment, Financial Matters, Food Services, Health and Safety - Inmate Worksites/Programs, Hunger Strike, Inmate Requests, Ion Scan/Drug Dog, Methadone, OCI, Official Languages, Operation/Decisions of the OCI, Release Procedures, Religious/Spiritual, Safety/Security - Incompatibles/Worksite, Search and Seizure, Sentence Administration, Temporary Absence, Temporary Absence Decision, Uncategorized, Urinalysis and Use of Force. In 2010-11, Cell Placement, Conditional Release, Employment, Inmate Requests, OCI, Religious/Spiritual, Safety/Security - Incompatibles/ Worksite, and Temporary Absence were added to the “Other” category, and Correspondence, General Decision/Implementation, and Mental Health were removed.

The number of individual complaints processed by the OCI has decreased in recent years because the OCI has reallocated resources to sharpen its focus on systemic issues and death in custody investigations.

Section C: Offender Population

Offenders under the responsibility of Correctional Service Canada

Figure C1

Offenders under the responsibility of Correctional Service Canada - Total offender population

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Definitions:

Total Offender Population includes all active offenders, who are incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, offenders who are temporarily detained, offenders who are actively supervised and offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days.

In-Custody includes all active offenders incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, offenders who are temporarily detained in a CSC facility and offenders on remand in a CSC facility.

Temporarily Detained includes offenders who are physically held in a non-CSC facility after being suspended for a breach of a parole condition or to prevent a breach of parole conditions.

Actively Supervised includes all active offenders on day parole, full parole or statutory release, as well as those who are in the community on long-term supervision orders.

CSC Facilities include all federal institutions and federally funded healing lodges.

In Community Under Supervision includes all active offenders on day parole, full parole, or statutory release, or in the community supervised on a long term supervision order, offenders who are temporarily detained in a non-CSC facility, offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days, offenders on remand in a non-CSC facility, and offenders supervised and subject to an immigration hold by Canada Border Services Agency.

In addition to Total Offender Population, there are excluded groups such as:

Federal jurisdiction offenders incarcerated in a Community Correctional Centre or in a non-CSC facility. Federal jurisdiction offenders deported/extradited including offenders for whom a deportation order has been enforced by Canada Border Services Agency. Federal offenders on bail which includes offenders on judicial interim release; they have appealed their conviction or sentence and have been released to await results of a new trial. Escaped includes offenders who have absconded from either a correctional facility or while on a temporary absence and whose whereabouts are unknown. Unlawfully at Large for 90 days or more. This includes offenders who have been released to the community on day parole, full parole, statutory release, or a long-term supervision order for whom a warrant of suspension has been issued at least 90 days ago but has not yet been executed.

Note:

*The definition of “Offender Population” changed from previous editions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview (CCRSO). As such, comparisons to editions of the CCRSO prior to 2016 should be done with caution.

Table C1
Status Offenders under the responsibility of Correctional Service Canada
  # # # % % %
In Custody Population (CSC Facility) 14,712         63.8
Incarcerated in CSC Facility   14,012     60.8  
Temporarily Detained in CSC Facility   700     3.0  
In Community under Supervision 8,345         36.2
Temporarily Detained in non-CSC Facility   124     0.5  
  Actively Supervised   8,221     35.7  
    Day Parole     1,343 5.8    
    Full Parole     3,533 15.3    
    Statutory Release     2,951 12.8    
    Long Term Supervision Order     394 1.7    
Total 23,057*         100.0

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

*In addition to this total offender population, 165 offenders were on bail, 121 offenders had escaped, 251 offenders were under federal jurisdiction serving their sentence in a non-CSC facility, 309 offenders were unlawfully at large for 90 days or more, and 431 offenders were deported.

The definition of “Offender Population” changed from previous editions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview (CCRSO). As such, comparisons to editions of the CCRSO prior to 2016 should be done with caution.

The number of offenders in custody in a CSC facility has decreased in the last two years

Figure C2

Number of In Custody Offenders in a CSC facility at fiscal year end 2015-16

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

*The data reflect the number of offenders in custody at the end of each fiscal year. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

The term "In custody Offenders" includes all active offenders incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, offenders who are temporarily detained in a CSC facility and offenders on remand in a CSC facility.

**Source: Corrections Key Indicator Report for Adults and Youth, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada

Table C2
Year In Custody Offenders
In Custody in a
CSC Facility*1
Provincial/Territorial2 Total
Sentenced Remand Other/Temporary Detention Total
2006-07 14,021 10,032 12,169 283 22,484 36,505
2007-08 14,403 9,799 12,973 315 23,086 37,489
2008-09 13,960 9,931 13,548 311 23,790 37,750
2009-10 14,197 10,045 13,739 308 24,092 38,289
2010-11 14,840 10,922 13,086 427 24,435 39,275
2011-12 15,131 11,138 13,369 308 24,814 39,945
2012-13 15,318 11,138 13,739 308 25,185 40,503
2013-14 15,342 9,888 11,494 322 21,704 37,046
2014-15 14,886 10,364 13,650 441 24,455 39,341
2015-16 14,712

Source: 1Correctional Service Canada.; 2Corrections Key Indicator Report for Adults and Youth, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada

Note:

*Data reflects the number of offenders in custody at the end of each fiscal year. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

The term “In Custody in a CSC Facility” includes all active offenders incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, offenders who are temporarily detained in a CSC facility, and offenders on remand in a CSC facility.

The figures for provincial and territorial offenders reflect annual average counts.

– Data not available.

The number of admissions to federal jurisdiction has fluctuated

Figure C3

The number of admissions to federal jurisdiction has fluctuated

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

*“Other” includes transfers from other jurisdictions (exchange of services), terminations, transfers from foreign countries, and admissions where a release is interrupted as a consequence of a new conviction.

These numbers refer to the total number of admissions to a federal institution or Healing Lodge during each fiscal year and may be greater than the actual number of offenders admitted, since an individual offender may be admitted more than once in a given year. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

Table C3
  2011-12 2012-13 2013-14 2014-15 2015-16
Women Men Women Men Women Men Women Men Women Men
Warrant of Committal
   1st Federal Sentence 295 3,401 220 3,430 273 3,472 302 3,315 344 3,260
   All Others 42 1,294 46 1,350 39 1,290 41 1,163 39 1,154
   Subtotal 337 4,695 266 4,780 312 4,762 343 4,478 383 4,414
   Total 5,032 5,046 5,074 4,821 4,797
Revocations 135 2,441 133 2,760 111 2,604 124 2,379 149 2,323
   Total 2,576 2,893 2,715 2,503 2,472
Other* 17 110 14 119 6 108 5 71 4 78
   Total 127 133 114 76 82
  489 7,246 413 7,659 429 7,474 472 6,928 536 6,815
Total Admissions 7,735 8,072 7,903 7,400 7,351

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

*“Other” includes transfers from other jurisdictions (exchange of services), terminations, transfers from foreign countries, and admissions where a release is interrupted as a consequence of a new conviction.

These numbers refer to the total number of admissions to a federal institution or Healing Lodge during each fiscal year and may be greater than the actual number of offenders admitted, since an individual offender may be admitted more than once in a given year. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

The number of women admitted from the courts to federal jurisdiction increased in the last two years

Figure C4

The number of women admitted from the courts to federal jurisdiction increased in the last two years - Number of warrant of committal admissions for women

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

A warrant of committal is a new admission to federal jurisdiction from the courts.

Table C4
Year Warrant of Committal Admissions Total
Women Men
  # % # %  
2006-07 316 6.3 4,691 93.7 5,007
2007-08 304 6.2 4,623 93.8 4,927
2008-09 306 6.4 4,459 93.6 4,765
2009-10 307 6.0 4,832 94.0 5,139
2010-11 328 6.2 5,005 93.8 5,333
2011-12 337 6.7 4,695 93.3 5,032
2012-13 266 5.3 4,780 94.7 5,046
2013-14 312 6.1 4,762 93.9 5,074
2014-15 343 7.1 4,478 92.9 4,821
2015-16 383 8.0 4,414 92.0 4,797

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

A warrant of committal is a new admission to federal jurisdiction from the courts.

About half of total offender population in CSC facilities is serving a sentence of less than 5 years

Figure C5

About half of total offender population in CSC facilities is serving a sentence of less than 5 years - sentence length of total offender population

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

*Total Offender Population includes all active offenders who are incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, offenders who are temporarily detained, offenders who are actively supervised, and offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days.

Offenders serving a sentence less than 2 years includes offenders transferred from foreign countries or offenders under a long term supervision order who received a new sentence of less than 2 years.

Table C5
Sentence Length 2011-12 2012-13 2013-14 2014-15 2015-16
  # % # % # % # % # %
< than 2 years 256 1.1 271 1.2 291 1.3 287 1.2 306 1.3
2 years to < 3 years 5,784 25.3 5,469 23.8 5,296 22.9 5,241 22.8 5,367 23.3
3 years to < 4 years 3,629 15.9 3,732 16.2 3,771 16.3 3,631 15.8 3,503 15.2
4 years to < 5 years 2,289 10.0 2,367 10.3 2,447 10.6 2,422 10.5 2,393 10.4
5 years to < 6 years 1,577 6.9 1,599 7.0 1,638 7.1 1,672 7.3 1,692 7.3
6 years to < 7 years 998 4.4 1,084 4.7 1,100 4.8 1,104 4.8 1,136 4.9
7 years to < 10 years 1,656 7.2 1,725 7.5 1,793 7.7 1,788 7.8 1,805 7.8
10 years to < 15 years 980 4.3 962 4.2 954 4.1 936 4.1 940 4.1
15 years and more 631 2.8 609 2.7 612 2.6 564 2.5 522 2.3
Indeterminate 5,088 22.2 5,158 22.4 5,253 22.7 5,316 23.2 5,393 23.4
Total 22,888 100 22,976 100 23,155 100 22,961 100 23,057 100

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

Total Offender Population includes all active offenders who are incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, offenders who are temporarily detained, offenders who are actively supervised, and offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days.

Offenders serving a sentence less than 2 years includes offenders transferred from foreign countries or offenders under a long term supervision order who received a new sentence of less than 2 years.

Offender age at admission to federal jurisdiction is increasing

Figure C6

Offender age at admission to federal jurisdiction is increasing - percentage of warrant of committal admissions

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

* These three offenders include one offender admitted to a youth correctional centre and two offenders who was admitted to federal jurisdiction by the courts.

A warrant of committal is a new admission to federal jurisdiction from the courts.

Due to rounding, percentages may not add to 100 percent.

Table C6
Age at Admission 2006-07 2015-16
Women Men Total Women Men Total
  # % # % # % # % # % # %
Under 18 0 0.0 3* 0.1 3 0.1 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0
18 and 19 10 3.2 153 3.3 163 3.3 5 1.3 100 2.3 105 2.2
20 to 24 58 18.4 921 19.6 979 19.6 57 14.9 621 14.1 678 14.1
25 to 29 56 17.7 809 17.2 865 17.3 72 18.8 784 17.8 856 17.8
30 to 34 54 17.1 712 15.2 766 15.3 74 19.3 807 18.3 881 18.4
35 to 39 45 14.2 661 14.1 706 14.1 51 13.3 575 13.0 626 13.0
40 to 44 42 13.3 583 12.4 625 12.5 29 7.6 410 9.3 439 9.2
45 to 49 30 9.5 369 7.9 399 8.0 39 10.2 400 9.1 439 >9.2
50 to 59 18 5.7 359 7.7 377 7.5 41 10.7 481 10.9 522 10.9
60 to 69 3 0.9 97 2.1 100 2.0 14 3.7 182 4.1 196 4.1
70 and over 0 0.0 24 0.5 24 0.5 1 0.3 54 1.2 55 1.1
Total 316   4,691   5,007   383   4,414   4,797  

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

*These three offenders include one offender admitted to a youth correctional centre and two offenders who were admitted to federal jurisdiction by the courts.

A warrant of committal is a new admission to federal jurisdiction from the courts.

Due to rounding, percentages may not add to 100 percent.

The average age at admission is lower for Indigenous offenders than for non-Indigenous offenders

Figure C7

The average age at admission is lower for Indigenous offenders than for non-Indigenous offenders - percentage of warrant of committal admissions

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

A warrant of committal is a new admission to federal jurisdiction from the courts.

Due to rounding, percentages may not add to 100 percent.

Table C7
Age at Admission 2006-07 2015-16
Indigenous Non-Indigenous Total Indigenous Non-Indigenous Total
  # % # % # % # % # % # %
Under 18 2 0.2 1 0.0 3 0.1 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0
18 and 19 43 4.3 120 3.0 163 3.3 43 3.7 62 1.7 105 2.2
20 to 24 243 24.3 736 18.4 979 19.6 202 17.5 476 13.1 678 14.1
25 to 29 209 20.9 656 16.4 865 17.3 240 20.8 616 16.9 856 17.8
30 to 34 150 15.0 616 15.4 766 15.3 231 20.0 650 17.8 881 18.4
35 to 39 141 14.1 565 14.1 706 14.1 134 11.6 492 13.5 626 13.0
40 to 44 101 10.1 524 13.1 625 12.5 106 9.2 333 9.1 439 9.2
45 to 49 58 5.8 341 8.5 399 8.0 75 6.5 364 10.0 439 9.2
50 to 59 46 4.6 331 8.3 377 7.5 101 8.8 421 11.6 522 10.9
60 to 69 7 0.7 93 2.3 100 2.0 17 1.5 179 4.9 196 4.1
70 and over 1 0.1 23 0.6 24 0.5 4 0.3 51 1.4 55 1.1
Total 1,001   4,006   5,007   1,153   3,644   4,797  

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

A warrant of committal is a new admission to federal jurisdiction from the courts.

Due to rounding, percentages may not add to 100 percent.

24% of the in-custody offender population is aged 50 or over

Figure C8

24% of the in-custody offender population is aged 50 or over - percentage of In Custody offender population

Source: Correctional Service Canada; Statistics Canada.

Note:

*In-custody population includes all active offenders incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, offenders who are temporarily detained in a CSC facility, and offenders on remand in a CSC facility.

**2014 Postcensal Estimates, Demography Division, Statistics Canada and include only those age 18 and older.

In community under supervision includes all active offenders on day parole, full parole, statutory release, or in the community supervised on a long term super- vision order, offenders who are temporarily detained in a non-CSC facility, offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days, offenders on remand in a non-CSC facility, and offenders supervised and subject to an immigration hold by Canada Border Services Agency.

Due to rounding, percentage may not add to 100 percent.

Table C8
Age In Custody In Community Under
Supervision
Total % of Canadian
Adult Population*
  # % # % # % %
Under 18 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0.0
18 and 19 73 0.5 4.0 <0.1 77 0.3 3.2
20 to 24 1,405 9.6 474 5.7 1,879 8.1 8.6
25 to 29 2,266 15.4 1,010 12.1 3,276 14.2 8.5
30 to 34 2,450 16.7 1,030 12.3 3,480 15.1 8.7
35 to 39 1,933 13.1 968 11.6 2,901 12.6 8.3
40 to 44 1,536 10.4 788 9.4 2,324 10.1 8.2
45 to 49 1,499 10.2 936 11.2 2,435 10.6 8.7
50 to 54 1,373 9.3 895 10.7 2,268 9.8 9.7
55 to 59 902 6.1 734 8.8 1,636 7.1 8.9
60 to 64 613 4.2 582 7.0 1,195 5.2 7.6
65 to 69 368 2.5 421 5.0 789 3.4 6.4
70 and over 294 2.0 503 6.0 797 3.5 13.1
Total 14,712 100.0 8,345 100 23,057 100.0 100.0

Source: Correctional Service Canada; Statistics Canada.

Note:

*2014 Postcensal Estimates, Demography Division, Statistics Canada and include only those age 18 and older.

In-custody population includes all active offenders incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, offenders who are temporarily detained in a CSC facility, and offenders on remand in a CSC facility.

In community under supervision includes all active offenders on day parole, full parole, statutory release, or in the community supervised on a long term super- vision order, offenders who are temporarily detained in a non-CSC facility, offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days, offenders on remand in a non-CSC facility, and offenders supervised and subject to an immigration hold by Canada Border Services Agency.

Due to rounding, percentage may not add to 100 percent.

59% of federal offenders are Caucasian

Figure C9

59% of federal offenders are Caucasian - percentage of total offender population

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

The offenders themselves identify to which race they belong. The list of categories may not fully account for all races and the race groupings information has changed; therefore, the comparisons between 2011-12 and 2015-16 should be done with caution.

"Indigenous" includes offenders who are Inuit, Innu, Métis and North American Indian.

"Asian" includes offenders who are Arab, Arab/West Asian, Asian-East and Southeast, Asian-South, Asian West, Asiatic, Chinese, East Indian, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, South Asian, South East Asian. “Asiatic* includes offenders who are Asian-East and Southeast, Asian-South, Asian West, and Asiatic.

"Hispanic" includes offenders who are Hispanic and Latin American. "Black" includes offenders who are black.

"Other/Unknown" includes offenders who are European French, European-Eastern, European-Northern, European-Southern, European-Western, Multiracial/Ethnic, Oceania, British Isles, Caribbean, Sub-Sahara African, offenders unable to identify to one race, other and unknown.

The data reflect all active offenders, who are incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, offenders who are temporarily detained, offenders who are actively supervised, and offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days.

The data reflect the number of offenders active at the end of each fiscal year. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

Due to rounding, percentages may not add to 100 percent.

Table C9
  Total Offender Population
  2011-12 2015-16
  # % # %
Indigenous 4,483 19.6 5,227 22.7
   Inuit 209 0.9 229 1.0
   Métis 1,172 5.1 1,478 6.4
   North American Indian 3,102 13.6 3,520 15.3
Asian 1,202 5.3 1,263 5.5
   Arab/West Asian 288 1.3 344 1.5
   Asiatic* 47 0.2 322 1.4
   Chinese 153 0.7 118 0.5
   East Indian 19 0.1 12 0.1
   Filipino 64 0.3 76 0.3
   Japanese 3 0.0 4 0.0
   Korean 20 0.1 17 0.1
   South East Asian 388 1.7 222 1.0
   South Asian 220 1.0 148 0.6
Black 1,879 8.2 1,787 7.8
Caucasian 14,377 62.8 13,553 58.8
Hispanic 194 0.8 240 1.0
   Hispanic 9 0.0 6 0.0
   Latin American 185 0.8 234 1.0
Other/Unknown 753 3.3 987 4.3
Total 22,888 100.0 23,057 100.0

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

The offenders themselves identify to which race they belong. The list of categories may not fully account for all races and the race groupings information has changed; therefore, the comparisons between 2011-12 and 2015-16 should be done with caution.

"Indigenous" includes offenders who are Inuit, Innu, Métis and North American Indian.

"Asian" includes offenders who are Arab, Arab/West Asian, Asian-East and Southeast, Asian-South, Asian West, Asiatic, Chinese, East Indian, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, South Asian, South East Asian. “Asiatic* includes offenders who are Asian-East and Southeast, Asian-South, Asian West, and Asiatic.

"Hispanic" includes offenders who are Hispanic and Latin American. "Black" includes offenders who are black.

"Other/Unknown" includes offenders who are European French, European-Eastern, European-Northern, European-Southern, European-Western, Multiracial/Ethnic, Oceania, British Isles, Caribbean, Sub-Sahara African, offenders unable to identify to one race, other and unknown.

The data reflect all active offenders, who are incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, offenders who are temporarily detained, offenders who are actively supervised, and offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days.

The data reflect the number of offenders active at the end of each fiscal year. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

Due to rounding, percentages may not add to 100 percent.

The religious identification of the offender population is diverse

Figure C10

The religious identification of the offender population is diverse - percentage of total offender population

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

Religious identification is self-declared by offenders while they are incarcerated, and the categories are not comprehensive; therefore, the reader should interpret these data with caution.

Catholic includes offenders who are Catholic, Roman-Catholic, Greek-Catholic, Native-Catholic and Ukrainian-Catholic. Orthodox includes offenders who are Greek Orthodox, Russian Orthodox and Ukrainian Orthodox.

Protestant includes offenders who are Anglican, Baptist, Christian Missionary, Christian Reform, Hutterite, Lutheran, Mennonite, Moravian, Native Spirit, Nazarene Christ, Pentecostal, Philad. Church God, Presbyterian, Protestant, Salvation Army, Seventh Day Adventist, United Church, Christ Methodist, Christ Wesleyan and Worldwide Church.

Buddhist includes offenders who are Buddhist, Mahayana Buddhist and Theravadan Buddhist.

Other includes other declared identifications such as Agnostic, Asatruar Pagan, Atheist, Baha’i, Christian non spec., Christian Science, Church of Science, Druidry Pagan, Hindu, Independant Spirit, Jehovah’s Witness, Krishna, Mormon, Pagan, Quaker (Society of Friends), Rastafarian, Scientology, Siddhan Yoga, Sufiism, Taoism, Unitarian, Wicca and Zoroastrian.

The data reflect the total offender population which includes all active offenders, who are incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, offenders who are temporarily detained, offenders who are actively supervised, and offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days.

The data reflect the number of offenders active at the end of each fiscal year. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

Due to rounding, percentages may not add to 100 percent.

 

Table C10
  Total Offender Population
  2011-12 2015-16
  # % # %
Catholic 8,305 36.3 8,023 34.8
Protestant 3,972 17.4 2,650 11.5
Muslim 1,042 4.6 1,288 5.6
Native Spirituality 1,004 4.4 1,238 5.4
Buddhist 482 2.1 473 2.1
Jewish 183 0.8 163 0.7
Orthodox 100 0.4 74 0.3
Sikh 165 0.7 140 0.6
Other 1,937 8.5 2,720 11.8
None 3,758 16.4 3,295 14.3
Unknown 1,940 8.5 2,993 13.0
Total 22,888 100.0 23,057 100.0

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

Religious identification is self-declared by offenders while they are incarcerated, and the categories are not comprehensive; therefore, the reader should interpret these data with caution.

Catholic includes offenders who are Catholic, Roman-Catholic, Greek-Catholic, Native-Catholic and Ukrainian-Catholic. Orthodox includes offenders who are Greek Orthodox, Russian Orthodox and Ukrainian Orthodox.

Protestant includes offenders who are Anglican, Baptist, Christian Missionary, Christian Reform, Hutterite, Lutheran, Mennonite, Moravian, Native Spirit, Nazarene Christ, Pentecostal, Philad. Church God, Presbyterian, Protestant, Salvation Army, Seventh Day Adventist, United Church, Christ Methodist, Christ Wesleyan and Worldwide Church.

Buddhist includes offenders who are Buddhist, Mahayana Buddhist and Theravadan Buddhist.

Other includes other declared identifications such as Agnostic, Asatruar Pagan, Atheist, Baha’i, Christian non spec., Christian Science, Church of Science, Druidry Pagan, Hindu, Independant Spirit, Jehovah’s Witness, Krishna, Mormon, Pagan, Quaker (Society of Friends), Rastafarian, Scientology, Siddhan Yoga, Sufiism, Taoism, Unitarian, Wicca and Zoroastrian.

The data reflect the total offender population which includes all active offenders, who are incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, offenders who are temporarily detained, offenders who are actively supervised, and offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days.

The data reflect the number of offenders active at the end of each fiscal year. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

Due to rounding, percentages may not add to 100 percent.

The proportion of Indigenous offenders in custody is higher than for non-Indigenous offenders

Figure C11

The proportion of Indigenous  offenders in custody is higher than for non-Indigenous offenders - percentage of In-Custody offender population

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

Total Offender Population includes all active offenders, who are incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, offenders who are temporarily detained, offenders who are actively supervised, and offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days.

In Custody includes all active offenders incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, offenders who are temporarily detained in a CSC facility and offenders on remand in a CSC facility.

In Community Under Supervision includes all active offenders on day parole, full parole, statutory release, or in the community supervised on a long term supervision order, offenders who are temporarily detained in a non-CSC facility, offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days, offenders on remand in a non-CSC facility, and offenders supervised and subject to an immigration hold by Canada Border Services Agency.

The data reflect the number of offenders active at the end of each fiscal year. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

 

Table C11
    In Custody Population In Community Under
Supervision
Total
    # % # %  
Men
2012-13 Indigenous 3,358 74.8 1,134 >25.2 4,492
  Non-Indigenous 11,344 65.3 6,041 34.7 17,385
  Total 14,702 67.2 7,175 32.8 21,877
2013-14 Indigenous 3,329 73.6 1,196 26.4 4,525
  Non-Indigenous 11,387 65.0 6,125 35.0 17,512
  Total 14,716 66.8 7,321 33.2 22,037
2014-15 Indigenous 3,417 73.4 1,238 26.6 4,655
  Non-Indigenous 10,788 63.0 6,327 37.0 17,115
  Total 14,205 65.3 7,565 34.7 21,770
2015-16 Indigenous 3,532 73.2 1,293 26.8 4,825
  Non-Indigenous 10,485 61.8 6,468 38.2 16,953
  Total 14,017 64.4 7,761 35.6 21,778
Women
2012-13 Indigenous 203 66.1 104 33.9 307
  Non-Indigenous 413 52.1 379 47.9 792
  Total 616 56.1 483 43.9 1,099
2013-14 Indigenous 213 64.4 118 35.6 331
  Non-Indigenous 413 52.5 374 47.5 787
  Total 626 56.0 492 44.0 1,118
2014-15 Indigenous 240 67.8 114 32.2 354
  Non-Indigenous 441 52.7 396 47.3 837
  Total 681 57.2 510 42.8 1,191
2015-16 Indigenous 251 62.4 151 37.6 402
  Non-Indigenous 444 50.6 433 49.4 877
  Total 695 54.3 584 45.7 1,279

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

Total Offender Population includes all active offenders, who are incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, offenders who are temporarily detained, offenders who are actively supervised, and offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days.

In Custody includes all active offenders incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, offenders who are temporarily detained in a CSC facility and offenders on remand in a CSC facility.

In Community Under Supervision includes all active offenders on day parole, full parole, statutory release, or in the community supervised on a long term supervision order, offenders who are temporarily detained in a non-CSC facility, offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days, offenders on remand in a non-CSC facility, and offenders supervised and subject to an immigration hold by Canada Border Services Agency.

The data reflect the number of offenders active at the end of each fiscal year. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

The majority of in-custody offenders are classified as medium security risk

Figure C12

The majority of in-custody offenders are classified as medium security risk - percentage of classified In-Custody offenders

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

The data represent the offender security level decision as of end of fiscal year 2015-2016.

In Custody includes all active offenders incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, offenders who are temporarily detained in a CSC facility, and offenders on remand in a CSC facility.

Table C12
Security Risk Level Indigenous Non-Indigenous Total
  # % # % # %
Minimum 571 16.1 2,376 23.7 2,947 21.7
Medium 2,404 67.6 6,208 61.9 8,612 63.4
Maximum 581 16.3 1,450 14.5 2,031 14.9
Total 3,556 100.0 10,034 100.0 13,590 100.0
Not Yet Determined* 227   895   1,122  
Total 3,783   10,929   14,712  

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

*The “Not Yet Determined” category includes offenders who have not yet been classified.

The data represent the offender security level decision as of end of fiscal year 2015-2016.

In Custody includes all active offenders incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, offenders who are temporarily detained in a CSC facility, and offenders on remand in a CSC facility.

Admissions with a life or indeterminate sentence increased in 2015-16

Figure C13

Admissions with a life or indeterminate sentence increased in 2015-16 - number of warrant of committal admissions

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

*Although life sentences and indeterminate sentences both may result in imprisonment for life, they are different. A life sentence is a sentence of life imprisonment, imposed by a judge at the time of sentence, for example for murder. An indeterminate sentence is a result of a designation, where an application is made to the court to declare an offender a Dangerous Offender, and the consequence of this designation is imprisonment for an indeterminate period.

A warrant of committal is a new admission to federal jurisdiction from the courts.

This table combines offenders serving life sentences and offenders serving indeterminate sentences.

Table C13
Year Indigenous Offenders Non-Indigenous Offenders Total
Women Men Total Women Men Total Women Men Total
2006-07 4 36 40 9 118 127 13 154 167
2007-08 4 36 40 4 127 131 8 163 171
2008-09 3 35 38 2 130 132 5 165 170
2009-10 7 47 54 6 134 140 13 181 194
2010-11 4 33 37 5 131 136 9 164 173
2011-12 8 45 53 9 113 122 17 158 175
2012-13 6 45 51 2 119 121 8 164 172
2013-14 7 36 43 7 122 129 14 158 172
2014-15 1 38 39 8 117 125 9 155 164
2015-16 4 45 49 7 123 130 11 168 179

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

This table combines offenders serving life sentences and offenders serving indeterminate sentences.

Although life sentences and indeterminate sentences both may result in imprisonment for life, they are different. A life sentence is a sentence of life imprisonment, imposed by a judge at the time of sentence, for example for murder. An indeterminate sentence is a result of a designation, where an application is made to the court to declare an offender a Dangerous Offender, and the consequence of this designation is imprisonment for an indeterminate period.

A warrant of committal is a new admission to federal jurisdiction from the courts.

Offenders with Life or Indeterminate sentences represent 23% of the total offender population

Figure C14

Offenders with Life or Indeterminate sentences represent 23% of the total offender population - sentence imposed for the total offender population

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

*Although life sentences and indeterminate sentences may both result in imprisonment for life, they are different. A life sentence is a sentence of life imprisonment, imposed by a judge at the time of sentence, for example, for murder. An indeterminate sentence is a result of a designation, where an application is made to the court to declare an offender a Dangerous Offender, and the consequence of this designation is imprisonment for an indeterminate period. The Dangerous Sexual Offender and Habitual Offender designations were replaced with Dangerous Offender Legislation in 1977.

Total Offender Population includes all active offenders, who are incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, offenders who are temporarily detained, offenders who are actively supervised, and offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days. In Custody includes all active offenders incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, offenders who are temporarily detained in a CSC facility and offenders on remand in a CSC facility. In Community Under Supervision includes all active offenders on day parole, full parole, statutory release, in the community supervised on a long term supervision order, offenders who are temporarily detained in a non-CSC facility, offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days, offenders on remand in a non-CSC facility, and offenders supervised and subject to an immigration hold by Canada Border Services Agency.

Table C14
  Total Offender
Population
Current Status
In Custody
in a CSC Facility
In Community Under Supervision
Incarcerated Day Parole Full Parole Other***
  # %        
Offenders with a life sentence for:
   1st Degree Murder 1,154 5.0 940 41 173 0
   2nd Degree Murder 3,433 14.9 1,963 196 1,274 0
   Other Offences* 198 0.9 117 10 71 0
Total 4,785 20.8 3,020 247 1,518 0
Offenders with indeterminate sentences resulting from the special designation of:
   Dangerous Offender 565 2.5 541 13 11 0
   Dangerous Sexual Offender 18 0.1 10 1 7 0
   Habitual Offenders 3 0 0 0 3 0
Total 586 2.5 551 14 21 0
Offenders serving an indeterminate sentence (due to a special designation) and a life sentence (due to an offence):
  22 0.1 20 0 2 0
Total offenders with Life and/or Indeterminate sentence 5,393 23.4 3,591 261 1,541 0
Offenders Serving Determinate sentences** 17,664 76.6 11,121 1,111 2,008 3,424
Total 23,057 100.0 14,712 1,372 3,549 3,424

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

*“Other offences” include Schedule 1, Schedule 2 and Non-Schedule types of offences.

**This includes 95 offenders designated as Dangerous Offenders who were serving determinate sentences.

***“Other” in the Community Under Supervision includes offenders on statutory release or on a long term supervision order.

Among the 22 offenders serving an indeterminate sentence (due to a special designation) and a life sentence (due to an offence), there was one Habitual Offender.

Although life sentences and indeterminate sentences both may result in imprisonment for life, they are different. A life sentence is a sentence of life imprisonment, imposed by a judge at the time of sentence, for example for murder. An indeterminate sentence is a result of a designation, where an application is made to the court to declare an offender a Dangerous Offender, and the consequence of this designation is imprisonment for an indeterminate period. The Dangerous Sexual Offender and Habitual Offender designations were replaced with Dangerous Offender legislation in 1977.

Total Offender Population includes all active offenders, who are incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, offenders who are temporarily detained, offenders who are actively supervised, and offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days. In Custody includes all active offenders incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, offenders who are temporarily detained in a CSC facility and offenders on remand in a CSC facility. In Community Under Supervision includes all active offenders on day parole, full parole, statutory release, in the community supervised on a long term supervision order, offenders who are temporarily detained in a non-CSC facility, offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days, offenders on remand in a non- CSC facility, and offenders supervised and subject to an immigration hold by Canada Border Services Agency.

69% of offenders are serving a sentence for a violent offence*

Figure C15

69% of offenders are serving a sentence for a violent offence* - percentage of total offender population 2015-16

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

*Violent offences include Murder I, Murder II and Schedule I offences.

Schedule I is comprised of sexual offences and other violent crimes excluding first and second degree murder (see the Corrections and Conditional Release Act).

Schedule II is comprised of serious drug offences or conspiracy to commit serious drug offences (see the Corrections and Conditional Release Act).

In cases where the offender is serving a sentence for more than one offence, the data reflect the most serious offence.

The data reflect all active offenders who are incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, offenders who are temporarily detained, offenders who are actively supervised, and offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days.

 

Table C15
Offence Category Indigenous Non-Indigenous Total
Women Men Total Women Men Total Women Men Total
Murder I 10 214 224 37 911 948 47 1,125 1,172
  Percent 2.5 4.4 4.3 4.2 5.4 5.3 3.7 5.2 5.1
Murder II 56 668 724 107 2,617 2,724 163 3,285 3,448
  Percent 13.9 13.8 13.9 12.2 15.4 15.3 12.7 15.1 15.0
Schedule I 223 2,919 3,142 262 7,889 8,151 485 10,808 11,293
  Percent 55.5 60.5 60.1 29.9 46.5 45.7 37.9 49.6 49.0
Schedule II 75 445 520 300 3,329 3,629 375 3,774 4,149
  Percent 18.7 9.2 9.9 34.2 19.6 20.4 29.3 17.3 18.0
Non-Schedule 38 579 617 171 2,207 2,378 209 2,786 2,995
  Percent 9.5 12.0 11.8 19.5 13.0 13.3 16.3 12.8 13.0
  402 4,825   877 16,953   1,279 21,778  
Total 5 227   17,830   23,057  

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

*Violent offences include Murder I, Murder II and Schedule I offences.

Schedule I is comprised of sexual offences and other violent crimes excluding first and second degree murder (see the Corrections and Conditional Release Act).

Schedule II is comprised of serious drug offences or conspiracy to commit serious drug offences (see the Corrections and Conditional Release Act).

In cases where the offender is serving a sentence for more than one offence, the data reflect the most serious offence.

The data reflect all active offenders, who are incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, offenders who are temporarily detained, offenders who are actively supervised, and offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days.

The number of Indigenous offenders has increased

Figure C16

The number of Indigenous offenders has increased - Indigenous offender population

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

*In-Custody Population includes all active offenders incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, offenders who are temporarily detained in a CSC facility, and offenders on remand in a CSC facility.

**In Community Under Supervision Population includes all active offenders on day parole, full parole, statutory release, or in the community supervised on a long term supervision order, offenders who are temporarily detained in a non-CSC facility, offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days, offenders on remand in a non-CSC facility, and offenders supervised and subject to an immigration hold by Canada Border Services Agency.

Regional statistics for Correctional Service Canada account for data relating to the northern territories in the following manner: data for Nunavut are reported in the Ontario Region, data for the Northwest Territories are reported in the Prairies Region, and data for the Yukon Territories are reported in the Pacific Region.

Table C16
Indigenous Offenders Fiscal Year
2011-12 2012-13 2013-14 2014-15 2015-16
In Custody
Atlantic Region Men 131 153 181 174 157
  Women 17 15 14 11 12
Quebec Region Men 374 380 422 443 425
  Women 12 11 15 19 24
Ontario Region Men 486 495 440 441 453
  Women 37 36 36 34 39
Prairie Region Men 1,666 1,779 1,686 1,757 1,868
  Women 119 108 110 139 133
Pacific Region Men 502 551 600 602 629
  Women 32 33 38 37 43
National Total Men 3,159 3,358 3,329 3,417 3,532
  Women 217 203 213 240 251
  Total 3,376 3,561 3,542 3,657 3,783
In Community Under Supervision
Atlantic Region Men 32 42 50 60 68
  Women 8 12 11 12 10
Quebec Region Men 116 121 134 158 185
  Women 2 2 7 12 18
Ontario Region Men 137 157 180 178 204
  Women 24 20 >20 21 24
Prairie Region Men 492 581 582 574 560
  Women 52 55 63 52 77
Pacific Region Men 227 233 250 268 276
  Women 17 15 17 17 22
National Total Men 1,004 1,134 1,196 1,238 1,293
  Women 103 104 118 114 151
  Total 1,107 1,238 1,314 1,352 1,444
Total In Custody & In Community Under Supervision 4,483 4,799 4,856 5,009 5,227

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

In-Custody Population includes all active offenders incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, offenders who are temporarily detained in a CSC facility, and offenders on remand in a CSC facility.

In Community Under Supervision Population includes all active offenders on day parole, full parole, statutory release, or in the community supervised on a long term supervision order, offenders who are temporarily detained in a non-CSC facility, offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days, offenders on remand in a non-CSC facility, and offenders supervised and subject to an immigration hold by Canada Border Services Agency.

Regional statistics for Correctional Service Canada account for data relating to the northern territories in the following manner: data for Nunavut are reported in the Ontario Region, data for the Northwest Territories are reported in the Prairies Region, and data for the Yukon Territories are reported in the Pacific Region.

The total number of admissions to administrative segregation has decreased

Figure C17

The total number of admissions to administrative segregation has decreased - number of admissions to administrative segregation

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

These reports count admissions, not offenders. Offenders admitted multiple times to segregation are counted once for each admission. Offenders segregated under paragraph (f), subsection 44(1) of the Corrections and Conditional Release Act (Disciplinary Segregation) are not included.

Administrative segregation is the separation, when specific legal requirements are met, of an inmate from the general population, other than pursuant to a disciplinary decision. As per subsection 31(3) of the Corrections and Conditional Release Act:

The institutional head may order that an inmate be confined in administrative segregation if the institutional head is satisfied that there is no reasonable alternative to administrative segregation and he or she believes on reasonable grounds that
(a) the inmate has acted, has attempted to act or intends to act in a manner that jeopardizes the security of the penitentiary or the safety of any person and allowing the inmate to associate with other inmates would jeopardize the security of the penitentiary or the safety of any person;
(b) allowing the inmate to associate with other inmates would interfere with an investigation that could lead to a criminal charge or a charge under subsection 41(2) of a serious disciplinary offence; or
(c) allowing the inmate to associate with other inmates would jeopardize the inmate’s safety.

Table C17
Year and Type of Administrative Segregation By Gender By Race
Women Men Total Indigenous Non-Indigenous Total
2011-12
CCRA 31(3-A)* 351 5,524 5,875 1,594 4,281 5,875
CCRA 31(3-B)* 18 356 374 109 265 374
CCRA 31(3-C)* 48 2,026 2,074 622 1,452 2,074
Total 417 7,906 8,323 2,325 5,998 8,323
2012-13
CCRA 31(3-A) 373 5,274 5,647 1,653 3,994 5,647
CCRA 31(3-B) 6 390 396 115 281 396
CCRA 31(3-C) 37 2,141 2,178 733 1,445 2,178
Total 416 7,805 8,221 2,501 5,720 8,221
2013-14
CCRA 31(3-A)Total 315 5,196 5,511 1,582 3,929 5,511
CCRA 31(3-B) 5 320 325 92 233 325
CCRA 31(3-C) 28 2,272 2,300 789 1,511 2,300
Total 348 7,788 8,136 2,463 5,673 8,136
2014-15
CCRA 31(3-A) 427 5,288 5,715 1,695 4,020 5,715
CCRA 31(3-B) 7 328 335 103 232 335
CCRA 31(3-C) 27 2,242 2,269 772 1,497 2,269
  461 7,858 8,319 2,570 5,749 8,319
2015-16
CCRA 31(3-A) 343 4,200 4,543 1,316 3,227 4,543
CCRA 31(3-B) 2 235 237 91 146 237
CCRA 31(3-C) 33 1,975 2,008 629 1,379 2,008
Total 378 6,410 6,788 2,036 4,752 6,788

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

These reports count admissions, not offenders. Offenders admitted multiple times to segregation are counted once for each admission. Offenders segregated under paragraph (f), subsection 44(1) of the Corrections and Conditional Release Act (Disciplinary Segregation) are not included.

Administrative segregation is the separation, when specific legal requirements are met, of an inmate from the general population, other than pursuant to a disciplinary decision. As per subsection 31(3) of the Corrections and Conditional Release Act:

The institutional head may order that an inmate be confined in administrative segregation if the institutional head is satisfied that there is no reasonable alternative to administrative segregation and he or she believes on reasonable grounds that
(a) the inmate has acted, has attempted to act or intends to act in a manner that jeopardizes the security of the penitentiary or the safety of any person and allowing the inmate to associate with other inmates would jeopardize the security of the penitentiary or the safety of any person;
(b) allowing the inmate to associate with other inmates would interfere with an investigation that could lead to a criminal charge or a charge under subsection 41(2) of a serious disciplinary offence; or
(c) allowing the inmate to associate with other inmates would jeopardize the inmate’s safety.

71% of admissions to administrative segregation stay for less than 30 days

Figure C18

71% of admissions to administrative segregation stay for less than 30 days - length of stay in administrative segregation 2015-16

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

These reports count admissions, not offenders. Offenders admitted multiple times to segregation are counted once for each admission. Offenders segregated under paragraph (f), subsection 44(1) of the Corrections and Conditional Release Act (Disciplinary Segregation) are not included.

Administrative segregation is the separation, when specific legal requirements are met, of an inmate from the general population, other than pursuant to a disciplinary decision. As per subsection 31(3) of the Corrections and Conditional Release Act:

The institutional head may order that an inmate be confined in administrative segregation if the institutional head is satisfied that there is no reasonable alternative to administrative segregation and he or she believes on reasonable grounds that
(a) the inmate has acted, has attempted to act or intends to act in a manner that jeopardizes the security of the penitentiary or the safety of any person and allowing the inmate to associate with other inmates would jeopardize the security of the penitentiary or the safety of any person;
(b) allowing the inmate to associate with other inmates would interfere with an investigation that could lead to a criminal charge or a charge under subsection 41(2) of a serious disciplinary offence; or
(c) allowing the inmate to associate with other inmates would jeopardize the inmate’s safety.

Table C18
Length of Stay in Administrative Segregation By Gender By Race  
Women Men Indigenous Non-Indigenous Total
  # % # % # % # % # %
2015-16
< 30 days 365 97.6 4,593 69.5 1,506 71.3 3,452 70.9 4,958 71.0
30-60 days 7 1.9 1,120 17.0 346 16.4 781 16.0 1,127 16.1
61-90 days 2 0.5 438 6.6 128 6.1 312 6.4 440 6.3
91-120 days 0 0.0 208 3.1 63 3.0 145 3.0 208 3.0
> 120 days 0 0.0 247 3.7 70 3.3 177 3.6 247 3.5
Total 374 100.0 6,606 100.0 2,113 100.0 4,867 100.0 6,980 100.0

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

These reports count admissions, not offenders. Offenders admitted multiple times to segregation are counted once for each admission. Offenders segregated under paragraph (f), subsection 44(1) of the Corrections and Conditional Release Act (Disciplinary Segregation) are not included.

Administrative segregation is the separation, when specific legal requirements are met, of an inmate from the general population, other than pursuant to a disciplinary decision. As per subsection 31(3) of the Corrections and Conditional Release Act:

The institutional head may order that an inmate be confined in administrative segregation if the institutional head is satisfied that there is no reasonable alternative to administrative segregation and he or she believes on reasonable grounds that
(a) the inmate has acted, has attempted to act or intends to act in a manner that jeopardizes the security of the penitentiary or the safety of any person and allowing the inmate to associate with other inmates would jeopardize the security of the penitentiary or the safety of any person;
(b) allowing the inmate to associate with other inmates would interfere with an investigation that could lead to a criminal charge or a charge under subsection 41(2) of a serious disciplinary offence; or
(c) allowing the inmate to associate with other inmates would jeopardize the inmate’s safety.

The number of offender deaths while in custody has fluctuated

Figure C19

The number of offender deaths while in custody has fluctuated - number of offender deaths

Source: Adult Correctional Services Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada

Note:

*Other causes of death include: natural causes, accidental deaths, death as a result of a legal intervention, other causes of death and where cause of death was not stated.

**For the calculation of rates, the total actual in-count numbers between 2004-05 and 2013-14 was used as the denominator.

The data on cause of death are subject to change following an official review or investigation, and should be used/interpreted with caution. The data presented were provided by the Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics at Statistics Canada, and may not reflect the outcome of recent reviews or investigations on cause of death.

Table C19
Year Type of Death
Homicide Suicide Other* Total
  # % # % # % #
Federal
2004-05 3 6.1 9 18.4 37 75.5 49
2005-06 3 6.1 10 20.4 36 73.5 49
2006-07 3 4.9 10 16.4 48 78.7 61
2007-08 1 2.5 5 12.5 34 85.0 >40
2008-09 2 3.1 9 13.8 54 83.1 65
2009-10 1 2.0 9 18.4 39 79.6 49
2010-11 5 10.0 4 8.0 41 82.0 50
2011-12 3 5.7 8 15.1 42 79.2 53
2012-13 1 1.8 11 20.0 43 78.2 55
2013-14 1 2.1 9 18.8 38 79.2 48
Total 29 4.4 >84 16.2 412 79.4 519
Provincial
2004-05 0 0.0 12 25.0 36 75.0 48
2005-06 2 4.0 20 40.0 28 56.0 50
2006-07 0 0.0 8 23.5 26 76.5 34
2007-08 0 0.0 6 20.7 23 79.3 29
2008-09 1 3.0 7 21.2 25 75.8 33
2009-10 1 2.6 5 12.8 33 84.6 39
2010-11 0 0.0 5 14.3 30 85.7 35
2011-12 0 0.0 16 42.1 22 57.9 38
2012-13 1 2.3 8 18.2 35 79.5 44
2013-14 0 0.0 6 20.0 24 80.0 30
Total 5 1.3 93 24.5 282 74.2 380
Total Federal and Provincial Offender Deaths 28 3.1 177 19.7 694 77.2 899

Source: Adult Correctional Services Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada

Note:

*Other causes of death include: natural causes, accidental deaths, death as a result of a legal intervention, other causes of death and where cause of death was not stated.

Percent calculation include deaths where the cause was unknown. Between 2001-02 and 2013-14, there were 54 deaths in federal custody and 129 deaths in provincial custody where the cause was unknown.

The data on cause of death are subject to change following an official review or investigation, and should be used/interpreted with caution. The data presented were provided by the Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics at Statistics Canada, and may not reflect the outcome of recent reviews or investigations on cause of death.

The number of escapees

Figure C20

The number of escapees - number of escapees from Federal institutions

Source: Security, Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

The data represents the number of escape incidents from federal facilities during each fiscal year. An escape can involve more than one offender.

A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

Table C20
Type of Escapes 2011-12 2012-13 2013-14 2014-15 2015-16
Escapes from Multi-level Institutions 0 0 0 0 0
  Number of Escapees 0 0 0 0 0
Escapes from Maximum Security Level Institutions 0 0 0 0 0
  Number of Escapees 0 0 0 0 0
Escapes from Medium Security Level Institutions 0 0 1 0 2
  Number of Escapees 0 0 1 0 2
Escapes from Minimum Security Level Institutions 15 18 10 14 13
  Number of Escapees 16 24 12 15 16
Total Number of Escape Incidents 15 18 11 14 15
  Total Number of Escapees 16 24 13 15 18

Source: Security, Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

The data represents the number of escape incidents from federal facilities during each fiscal year. An escape can involve more than one offender.

A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

The population of offenders in the community under supervision has increased in the past 3 years

Figure C21

The population of offenders in the community under supervision has increased in the past 3 years - In-the-Community-Under-Supervision Population at Fiscal Year* End

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

*These cases reflect the number of offenders on active supervision at fiscal year end. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

The data reflect the offender population in the community under supervision which includes all active offenders on day parole, full parole, statutory release, offenders who are temporarily detained in a non-CSC facility, offenders on remand in a non-CSC facility, offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days, and offenders supervised and subject to an immigration hold by Canada Border Services Agency.

The data presented above do not include offenders who were on long term supervision orders (See Figure/Table E4).

Day parole is a type of conditional release granted by the Parole Board of Canada whereby offenders are permitted to participate in community-based activities  in preparation for full parole or statutory release. The conditions require offenders to return nightly to an institution or half-way house unless otherwise authorized by the Parole Board of Canada. Full parole is a type of conditional release granted by the Parole Board of Canada whereby the remainder of the sentence is served under supervision in the community. Statutory release refers to a conditional release that is subject to supervision after the offender has served two-thirds of the sentence.

Table C21
Year Supervision Type of Offenders
Day Parole Full Parole Statutory Release Totals % change*
Women Men Women Men Women Men Women Men Both Both
2006-07 108 1,072 319 3,493 80 2,428 507 6,993 7,500  
2007-08 114 1,062 326 3,477 113 2,395 553 6,934 7,487 -0.2
2008-09 106 1,017 344 3,419 113 2,675 563 7,111 7,674 2.5
2009-10 108 1,083 328 3,418 93 2,602 529 7,103 7,632 -0.5
2010-11 79 1,017 314 3,441 109 2,598 502 7,056 7,558 -1.0
2011-12 123 1,123 257 3,154 127 2,661 507 6,938 7,445 -1.5
2012-13 116 1,106 225 2,932 136 2,801 477 6,839 7,316 -1.7
2013-14 106 1,104 225 3,017 153 2,858 484 6,979 7,463 2.0
2014-15 115 1,236 239 3,065 150 2,909 504 7,210 7,714 3.4
2015-16 124 1,248 273 3,276 177 2,849 574 7,373 7,947 3.0

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

These cases reflect the number of offenders on active supervision at fiscal year end. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

The data reflect the offender population in the community under supervision which includes all active offenders on day parole, full parole, statutory release, offenders who are temporarily detained in a non-CSC facility, offenders on remand in a non-CSC facility, offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days, and offenders supervised and subject to an immigration hold by Canada Border Services Agency.

The data presented above do not include offenders who were on long term supervision orders (See Figure/Table E4).

Day parole is a type of conditional release granted by the Parole Board of Canada whereby offenders are permitted to participate in community-based activities  in preparation for full parole or statutory release. The conditions require offenders to return nightly to an institution or half-way house unless otherwise authorized by the Parole Board of Canada. Full parole is a type of conditional release granted by the Parole Board of Canada whereby the remainder of the sentence is served under supervision in the community. Statutory release refers to a conditional release that is subject to supervision after the offender has served two-thirds of the sentence.

*Percent change is measured from the previous year.

Provincial/territorial community corrections population decreased

Figure C22

Provincial/territorial community corrections population decreased - average monthly offender counts

Source: Corrections Key Indicator Report for Adults and Youth, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Note:

A conditional sentence is a disposition of the court where the offender serves a term of imprisonment in the community under specified conditions. This type of sentence can only be imposed in cases where the term of imprisonment would be less than two years. Conditional sentences have been a provincial and territorial sentencing option since September 1996.

Table C22
Year Average Monthly Offender
Counts on Probation
Average Monthly Offender
Counts on Conditional Sentence
Total
2005-06 92,004 13,252 105,256
2006-07 93,754 12,776 106,530
2007-08 96,795 12,535 108,330
2008-09 97,529 13,124 110,653
2009-10 99,498 13,105 112,603
2010-11 101,825 12,969 114,794
2011-12 98,843 12,616 111,459
2012-13 96,116 12,202 108,318
2013-14 84,905 10,077 94,981
2014-15 80,705 8,747 89,452

Source: Corrections Key Indicator Report for Adults and Youth, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Note:

A conditional sentence is a disposition of the court where the offender serves a term of imprisonment in the community under specified conditions. This type of sentence can only be imposed in cases where the term of imprisonment would be less than two years. Conditional sentences have been a provincial and territorial sentencing option since September 1996.

The number of offenders on provincial parole increased

Figure C23

The number of offenders on provincial parole increased - number of offenders on provincial parole (average monthly counts)

Source: Corrections Key Indicator Report for Adults, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada

Note:

Provincial parole boards operate in Quebec and Ontario. On April 1, 2007, the Parole Board of Canada assumed responsibility for parole decisions relating to offenders serving sentences in British Columbia’s provincial correctional facilities. The Parole Board of Canada has jurisdiction over granting parole to provincial offenders in the Atlantic and Prairie provinces, British Columbia, and to territorial offenders in the Yukon, Nunavut and Northwest Territories.

Table C23
Year Average Monthly Counts on Provincial Parole
Provincial Boards Parole Board
of Canada**
Total Percent
Change
Quebec Ontario British Columbia* Total
2005-06 628 152 147 926 163 1,089 10.4
2006-07 593 142 120 855 136 991 -9.0
2007-08 581 205 n/a 785 237 1,022 3.1
2008-09 581 205 n/a 785 237 1,022 3.1
2009-10 506 194 n/a 700 168 868 -7.7
2010-11 482 171 n/a 653 167 820 -5.6
2011-12 481 179 n/a 660 144 804 -2.0
2012-13 462 164 n/a 626 143 769 -4.4
2013-14 527 172 n/a 699 154 853 11.0
2014-15 612 207 n/a 819 151 970 13.7

Source: Corrections Key Indicator Report for Adults and Youth, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Note:

*On April 1, 2007, the Parole Board of Canada assumed responsibility for parole decisions relating to offenders serving sentences in British Columbia’s provincial correctional facilities.

**The data represent the number of provincial offenders who are released from custody on the authority of the Parole Board of Canada and supervised by the Correctional Service of Canada.

Provincial parole boards operate in Quebec and Ontario. The Parole Board of Canada has jurisdiction over granting parole to provincial offenders in the Atlantic and Prairie provinces, British Columbia, and to territorial offenders in the Yukon, Nunavut and Northwest Territories.

Section D: Conditional Release

The percentage of offenders released from federal penitentiaries at statutory release decreased in the past three years

Figure D1

The percentage of offenders released from federal penitentiaries at statutory release decreased in the past three years - percentage of offenders released on statutory release

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

*Percentage is calculated based on the number of statutory releases compared to the total releases for each offender group.

The data includes all releases from federal institution or Healing Lodge in a given fiscal year excluding offenders with quashed sentences, offenders who died  in custody LTSO releases, offenders released at warrant expiry and offenders transferred to foreign countries. An offender may be released more than once a year in cases where a previous release was subject to revocation, suspension, temporary detention, or interruption.

Statutory release refers to a conditional release that is subject to supervision after the offender has served two-thirds of the sentence.

A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

Table D1
  Indigenous Non-Indigenous Total Offender Population
Year Statutory Release Total Releases Percent* Statutory Release Total Releases Percent* Statutory Release Total Releases Percent*
2006-07 1,194 1,531 78.0% 3,994 6,060 65.9% 5,188 7,591 68.3%
2007-08 1,363 1,695 80.4% 4,066 6,184 65.8% 5,429 7,879 68.9%
2008-09 1,412 1,687 83.7% 4,303 6,363 67.6% 5,715 8,050 71.0%
2009-10 1,385 1,686 82.1% 4,153 6,120 67.9% 5,538 7,806 70.9%
2010-11 1,293 1,552 83.3% 3,787 5,694 66.5% 5,080 7,246 70.1%
2011-12 1,422 1,712 83.1% 3,879 5,528 70.2% 5,301 7,240 73.2%
2012-13 1,567 1,878 83.4% 4,021 5,655 71.1% 5,588 7,533 74.2%
2013-14 1,653 1,949 84.8% 3,983 5,732 69.5% 5,636 7,681 73.4%
2014-15 1,683 1,995 84.4% 3,690 5,538 66.6% 5,373 7,533 71.3%
2015-16 1,635 1,984 82.4% 3,673 5,631 65.2% 5,308 7,615 69.7%

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

*Percentage is calculated based on the number of statutory releases compared to the total releases for each offender group.

The data includes all releases from federal institution or Healing Lodge in a given fiscal year excluding offenders with quashed sentences, offenders who died in custody LTSO releases, offenders released at warrant expiry and offenders transferred to foreign countries. An offender may be released more than once a year in cases where a previous release was subject to revocation, suspension, temporary detention, or interruption.

Statutory release refers to a conditional release that is subject to supervision after the offender has served two-thirds of the sentence.

A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

The percentage of offenders released from federal penitentiaries at statutory release decreased in the past three years

Figure D2

The percentage of offenders released from federal penitentiaries at statutory release decreased in the past three years - percentage of offenders released

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

*Percentage is calculated based on the number of day and full paroles compared to the total releases for each offender group.

The data includes all releases from federal penitentiaries in a given fiscal year excluding offenders with quashed sentences, offenders who died in custody LTSO releases, offenders released at warrant expiry and offenders transferred to foreign countries.

An offender may be released more than once a year in cases where a previous release was subject to revocation, suspension, temporary detention, or interruption.

Day parole is a type of conditional release granted by the Parole Board of Canada whereby offenders are permitted to participate in community-based activities in preparation for full parole or statutory release. The conditions require offenders to return nightly to an institution or half-way house unless otherwise authorized by the Parole Board of Canada.

Full parole is a type of conditional release granted by the Parole Board of Canada whereby the remainder of the sentence is served under supervision in the community.

A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

Table D2
    Indigenous Non-Indigenous Total Offender Population
Year   Day Parole Full Parole Total Releases Day Parole Full Parole Total Releases Day Parole Full Parole Total Releases
2006-07 # 323 14 1,531 1,886 180 6,060 2,209 194 7,591
  % 21.1% 0.9%   31.1% 3.0%   29.1% 2.6%  
2007-08 # 315 17 1,695 1,946 172 6,184 2,261 189 7,879
  % 18.6% 1.0%   31.5% 2.8%   28.7% 2.4%  
2008-09 # 259 16 1,687 1,846 214 6,363 2,105 230 8,050
  % 15.4% 0.9%   29.0% 3.4%   26.1% 2.9%  
2009-10 # 289 12 1,686 1,807 160 6,120 2,096 172 7,806
  % 17.1% 0.7%   29.5% 2.6%   26.9% 2.2%  
2010-11 # 248 11 1,552 1,770 137 5,694 2,018 148 7,246
  % 16.0% 0.7%   31.1% 2.4%   27.8% 2.0%  
2011-12 # 278 12 1,712 1,533 116 5,528 1,811 128 7,240
  % 16.2% 0.7%   27.7% 2.1%   25.0% 1.8%  
2012-13 # 304 7 1,878 1,524 110 5,655 1,828 117 7,533
  % 16.2% 0.4%   26.9% 1.9%   24.3% 1.6%  
2013-14 # 278 18 1,949 1,604 145 5,732 1,882 163 7,681
  % 14.3% 0.9%   28.0% 2.5%   24.5% 2.1%  
2014-15 # 302 10 1,995 1,673 175 5,538 1,975 185 7,533
  % 15.1% 0.5%   30.2% 3.2%   26.2% 2.5%  
2015-16 # 334 15 1,984 1,794 164 5,631 2,128 179 7,615
  % 16.8% 0.8%   31.9% 2.9%   27.9% 2.4%  

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

The data includes all releases from a federal institution or Healing Lodge in a given fiscal year excluding offenders with quashed sentences, offenders who died  in custody, LTSO releases, offenders released at warrant expiry and offenders transferred to foreign countries. An offender may be released more than once a year in cases where a previous release was subject to revocation, suspension, temporary detention, or interruption.

Day parole is a type of conditional release granted by the Parole Board of Canada whereby offenders are permitted to participate in community-based activities in preparation for full parole or statutory release. The conditions require offenders to return nightly to an institution or half-way house unless otherwise authorized by the Parole Board of Canada.

Full parole is a type of conditional release granted by the Parole Board of Canada whereby the remainder of the sentence is served under supervision in the community.

A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

Due to rounding, percentages may not add to 100 percent.

Federal day and full parole grant rates increased

Figure D3

Federal day and full parole grant rates increased - Federal parole grant rate (%)

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Note:

The grant rate represents the percentage of pre-release reviews resulting in a grant by the Parole Board of Canada.

Day parole is a type of conditional release granted by the Parole Board of Canada in which offenders are permitted to participate in community-based activities  in preparation for full parole or statutory release. The conditions require offenders to return nightly to an institution or half-way house unless otherwise authorized by the Parole Board of Canada. Not all offenders apply for day parole, and some apply more than once before being granted day parole.

Full parole is a type of conditional release granted by the Parole Board of Canada in which the remainder of the sentence is served under supervision in the community. The Parole Board of Canada must review the cases of all offenders for full parole at the time prescribed by legislation, unless the offender advises the Parole Board of Canada in writing that he/she does not wish to be considered for full parole.

On March 28, 2011, Bill C-59 (Abolition of Early Parole Act) eliminated the accelerated parole review (APR) process, affecting first-time non-violent offenders serving sentences for schedule II and non-scheduled offences, who in 2011-12 were no longer eligible for an APR review. These offenders are now assessed on general reoffending as compared to the APR risk assessment, which considered the risk of committing a violent offence only. To better illustrate historical trends, APR decisions were excluded.

Even though comparisons were made between federal regular day parole and full parole grant rates only, they nevertheless contain an APR residual effect between 2011-12 and 2015-16. A sufficiently large proportion of the APR-affected population was granted regular federal day parole and full parole, perhaps inflating the grant rates.

Table D3
Type of Release Year Granted Denied Grant Rate (%) APR*
Women Men Women Men Women Men Total Directed Total
Day Parole 2006-07 143 2,039 31 876 82.2 69.9 70.6 984 1,428
  2007-08 162 2,001 22 776 88.0 72.1 73.0 977 1,482
  2008-09 135 1,908 24 825 84.9 69.8 70.6 1,000 1,525
  2009-10 151 1,959 40 967 79.1 67.0 67.7 947 1,491
  2010-11 134 1,856 40 1,151 77.0 61.7 62.6 970 1,591
  2011-12 248 2,492 64 1,443 79.5 63.3 64.5 0 0
  2012-13 287 2,823 71 1,417 80.2 66.6 67.6 14 21
  2013-14 244 2,828 52 1,274 82.4 68.9 69.8 39 47
  2014-15 293 3,026 51 1,283 85.2 70.2 71.3 38 45
  2015-16 286 3,098 51 1,080 84.9 74.2 75.0 86 90
Full Parole 2006-07 41 523 81 2,035 33.6 20.4 21.0 1,038 1,042
  2007-08 40 490 70 1,990 36.4 19.8 20.5 1,030 1,036
  2008-09 43 495 61 2,017 41.3 19.7 20.6 1,097 1,100
  2009-10 32 459 89 2,077 26.4 18.1 18.5 1,004 1,010
  2010-11 20 435 85 2,206 19.0 16.5 16.6 1,046 1,059
  2011-12 76 643 126 2,317 37.6 21.7 22.7 0 0
  2012-13 90 913 141 2,329 39.0 28.2 28.9 26 26
  2013-14 84 901 103 2,201 44.9 29.0 29.9 126 142
  2014-15 87 966 106 2,305 45.1 29.5 30.4 119 137
  2015-16 94 1,061 126 2,156 42.7 33.0 33.6 166 185

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Note:

The grant rate represents the percentage of pre-release reviews resulting in a grant by the Parole Board of Canada.

Day parole is a type of conditional release granted by the Parole Board of Canada in which offenders are permitted to participate in community-based activities in preparation for full parole or statutory release. The conditions require offenders to return nightly to an institution or half-way house unless otherwise authorized by the Parole Board of Canada. Not all offenders apply for day parole, and some apply more than once before being granted day parole.

Full parole is a type of conditional release granted by the Parole Board of Canada in which the remainder of the sentence is served under supervision in the community. The Parole Board of Canada must review the cases of all offenders for full parole at the time prescribed by legislation, unless the offender advises the Parole Board of Canada in writing that he/she does not wish to be considered for full parole. Grant rates should be read with caution.

*On March 28, 2011, Bill C-59 (Abolition of Early Parole Act) eliminated the accelerated parole review (APR) process, affecting first-time non-violent offenders serving sentences for schedule II and non-scheduled offences, who in 2011-12 were no longer eligible for an APR review. These offenders are now assessed on general reoffending as compared to the APR risk assessment, which considered the risk of committing a violent offence only.  To better illustrate historical trends, APR decisions were exclude d. Grant rates should be read with caution. Even though comparisons were made between federal regular day parole and full parole grant rates only, they nevertheless contain an APR residual effect between 2011-12 and 2015-16. A sufficiently large proportion of APR-affected population were granted regular federal day parole and full parole, perhaps inflating the grant rates.

*As a result of court challenges, the Pacific region (in 2012) and the Quebec region (in 2013) have been processing active APR cases for offenders sentenced or convicted prior to the abolition of APR. Following the Canada (Attorney General) v. Whaling decision on March 20, 2014, the accelerated parole review process was reinstated across all regions for offenders sentenced prior to the abolition of APR.

Federal day and full parole grant rates for Indigenous offenders increased

Figure D4

Federal day and full parole grant rates for Indigenous offenders increased - Federal parole grant rate (%)

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Note:

The grant rate represents the percentage of pre-release reviews resulting in a grant by the Parole Board of Canada.

Day parole is a type of conditional release granted by the Parole Board of Canada in which offenders are permitted to participate in community-based activities  in preparation for full parole or statutory release. The conditions require offenders to return nightly to an institution or half-way house unless otherwise authorized by the Parole Board of Canada. Not all offenders apply for day parole, and some apply more than once before being granted day parole.

Full parole is a type of conditional release granted by the Parole Board of Canada in which the remainder of the sentence is served under supervision in the community. The Parole Board of Canada must review the cases of all offenders for full parole at the time prescribed by legislation, unless the offender advises the Parole Board of Canada in writing that he/she does not wish to be considered for full parole.

On March 28, 2011, Bill C-59 (Abolition of Early Parole Act) eliminated the accelerated parole review (APR) process, affecting first-time non-violent offenders serving sentences for schedule II and non-scheduled offences, who in 2011-12 were no longer eligible for an APR review. These offenders are now assessed on general reoffending as compared to the APR risk assessment, which considered the risk of committing a violent offence only. To better illustrate historical trends, APR were excluded. Grant rates should be read with caution. Even though comparisons were made between federal regular day parole and full parole grant rates only, they nevertheless contain an APR residual effect between 2011-12 and 2015-16. A sufficiently large proportion of APR-affected population were granted regular federal day parole and full parole, perhaps inflating the grant rates.

Table D4
Type of Release Year Indigenous Non-Indigenous Total Number
Granted/Denied
Number Granted Number Denied Grant Rate (%) Number Granted Number Denied Grant Rate (%)
Day Parole 2006-07 450 169 72.7 1,732 738 70.1 3,089
  2007-08 408 127 76.3 1,755 671 72.3 2,961
  2008-09 380 156 70.9 1,663 693 70.6 2,892
  2009-10 399 203 66.3 1,711 804 68.0 3,117
  2010-11 369 281 56.8 1,621 910 64.0 3,181
  2011-12 453 339 57.2 2,287 1,168 66.2 4,247
  2012-13 544 312 63.6 2,566 1,176 68.6 4,598
  2013-14 514 293 63.7 2,558 1,033 71.2 4,398
  2014-15 553 262 67.9 2,766 1,072 72.1 4,653
  2015-16 597 257 69.9 2,787 874 76.1 4,515
Full Parole 2006-07 76 401 15.9 488 1,715 22.2 2,680
  2007-08 83 356 18.9 447 1,704 20.8 2,590
  2008-09 73 383 16.0 465 1,695 21.5 2,616
  2009-10 50 400 11.1 441 1,766 20.0 2,657
  2010-11 71 471 13.1 384 1,820 17.4 2,746
  2011-12 74 458 13.9 645 1,985 24.5 3,162
  2012-13 99 466 17.5 904 2,004 31.1 3,473
  2013-14 119 416 22.2 866 1,888 31.4 3,289
  2014-15 106 445 19.2 947 1,966 32.5 3,464
  2015-16 135 432 23.8 1,020 1,850 35.5 3,437

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Note:

The grant rate represents the percentage of pre-release reviews resulting in a grant by the Parole Board of Canada.

Day parole is a type of conditional release granted by the Parole Board of Canada in which offenders are permitted to participate in community-based activities in preparation for full parole or statutory release. The conditions require offenders to return nightly to an institution or half-way house unless otherwise authorized by the Parole Board of Canada. Not all offenders apply for day parole, and some apply more than once before being granted day parole.

Full parole is a type of conditional release granted by the Parole Board of Canada in which the remainder of the sentence is served under supervision in the community. The Parole Board of Canada must review the cases of all offenders for full parole at the time prescribed by legislation, unless the offender advises the Parole Board of Canada in writing that he/she does not wish to be considered for full parole.

On March 28, 2011, Bill C-59 (Abolition of Early Parole Act) eliminated the accelerated parole review (APR) process, affecting first-time non-violent offenders serving sentences for schedule II and non-scheduled offences, who in 2011-12 were no longer eligible for an APR review. These offenders are now assessed on general reoffending as compared to the APR risk assessment, which considered the risk of committing a violent offence only. To better illustrate historical trends, APR were excluded. Grant rates should be read with caution. Even though comparisons were made between federal regular day parole and full parole grant rates only, they nevertheless contain an APR residual effect between 2011-12 and 2015-16. A sufficiently large proportion of APR-affected population were granted regular federal day parole and full parole, perhaps inflating the grant rates.

Federal hearings with an Indigenous cultural advisor increased

Figure D5

Federal hearings with an Indigenous cultural advisor increased - Number of Federal parole hearings held with an Indigenous Cultural Advisor

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Note:

The presence of an Indigenous Cultural Advisor is an alternative approach to the traditional parole hearing, and was introduced by the Parole Board of Canada to ensure that conditional release hearings were sensitive to Indigenous cultural values and traditions. This type of hearing is available to both Indigenous and non-Indigenous offenders.

Table D5
Year Hearings held with an Indigenous Cultural Advisor
Indigenous Offenders Non-Indigenous Offenders All Offenders
Total Hearings With Cultural Advisor Total Hearings With Cultural Advisor Total Hearings With Cultural Advisor
  # # % # # % # # %
2006-07 1,394 606 43.5 5,242 79 1.5 6,636 685 10.3
2007-08 1,273 472 37.1 4,728 49 1.0 6,001 521 8.7
2008-09 1,224 425 34.7 4,396 53 1.2 5,620 478 8.5
2009-10 1,181 362 30.7 4,499 58 1.3 5,680 420 7.4
2010-11 1,214 441 36.3 4,366 50 1.1 5,580 491 8.8
2011-12 1,244 434 34.9 4,667 45 1.0 5,911 479 8.1
2012-13 1,276 435 34.1 4,689 46 1.0 5,965 481 8.1
2013-14 906 361 39.8 3,695 31 0.8 4,601 392 8.5
2014-15 868 356 41.0 3,850 42 1.1 4,718 398 8.4
2015-16 946 378 40.0 3,987 27 0.7 4,933 405 8.2

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Note:

The presence of an Indigenous Cultural Advisor is an alternative approach to the traditional parole hearing, and was introduced by the Parole Board of Canada to ensure that conditional release hearings were sensitive to Indigenous cultural values and traditions. This type of hearing is available to both Indigenous and non-Indigenous offenders.

Proportion of sentence served prior to being released on parole increased

Figure D6

Proportion of sentence served prior to being released on parole increased - Timing of first parole supervision in the sentence

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Note:

Timing of parole in the sentence refers to the percentage of the sentence served at the time the first day parole or full parole starts during the sentence. In most cases a full parole is preceded by a day parole.

These calculations are based on sentences under federal jurisdiction, excluding life sentences and indeterminate sentences.

Offenders (other than those serving life or indeterminate sentences or subject to judicial determination) normally become eligible for full parole after serving 1/3 of their sentence or seven years, whichever is less. Eligibility for day parole is normally at 6 months before full parole eligibility.

The increases in the average proportion of time served after 2010-11 are in part due to the effect of Bill C-59 and were driven primarily by offenders serving sentences for schedule II and non-scheduled offences (some of whom were former APR-eligible offenders).

Table D6
Year Type of Supervision
First Day Parole First Full Parole
Women Men Total Women Men Total
  Percentage of sentence incarcerated
2006-07 27.4 33.2 32.6 37.2 39.3 39.1
2007-08 30.3 32.3 32.1 37.9 38.4 38.4
2008-09 28.2 32.4 31.9 36.6 38.7 38.5
2009-10 29.5 33.2 32.8 36.1 38.5 38.2
2010-11 29.2 31.8 31.6 36.6 38.1 37.9
2011-12 35.0 38.1 37.8 40.3 41.7 41.6
2012-13 38.9 38.3 38.4 45.6 46.8 46.7
2013-14 34.9 38.3 38.0 44.2 46.8 46.6
2014-15 35.3 37.9 37.7 44.5 45.7 45.6
2015-16 36.9 38.7 38.5 45.2 46.6 46.5

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Note:

Timing of parole in the sentence refers to the percentage of the sentence served at the time the first day parole or full parole starts during the sentence. In most cases a full parole is preceded by a day parole.

These calculations are based on sentences under federal jurisdiction, excluding life sentences and indeterminate sentences.

Offenders (other than those serving life or indeterminate sentences or subject to judicial determination) normally become eligible for full parole after serving 1/3 of their sentence or seven years, whichever is less. Eligibility for day parole is normally at 6 months before full parole eligibility.

The increases in the average proportion of time served after 2010-11 are in part due to the effect of Bill C-59 and were driven primarily by offenders serving sentences for schedule II and non-scheduled offences (some of whom were former APR-eligible offenders).

Indigenous offenders serve a higher proportion of their sentences before being released on parole

Figure D7

Indigenous offenders serve a higher proportion of their sentences before being released on parole - Timing of first parole supervision in the sentence (%)

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Note:

Timing of parole in the sentence refers to the percentage of the sentence served at the time the first day parole or full parole starts during the sentence. In most cases a full parole is preceded by a day parole.

These calculations are based on sentences under federal jurisdiction, excluding life sentences and indeterminate sentences.

Offenders (other than those serving life or indeterminate sentences or subject to judicial determination) normally become eligible for full parole after serving 1/3 of their sentence or seven years, whichever is less. Eligibility for day parole is normally at 6 months before full parole eligibility.

The increases in the average proportion of time served after 2010-11 are in part due to the effect of Bill C-59 and were driven primarily by offenders serving sentences for schedule II and non-scheduled offences (some of whom were former APR-eligible offenders).

Table D7
Year Type of Supervision
First Day Parole First Full Parole
Indigenous Non-Indigenous Total Indigenous Non-Indigenous Total
  Percentage of sentence incarcerated
2006-07 37.3 31.9 32.6 41.1 38.9 39.1
2007-08 38.3 31.1 32.1 41.0 38.1 38.4
2008-09 38.3 31.0 31.9 41.0 38.2 38.5
2009-10 38.8 31.9 32.8 41.2 37.9 38.2
2010-11 37.3 30.8 31.6 41.6 37.5 37.9
2011-12 41.8 37.1 37.8 43.9 41.4 41.6
2012-13 42.1 37.7 38.4 49.0 46.5 46.7
2013-14 43.1 37.1 38.0 49.1 46.2 46.6
2014-15 40.8 37.1 37.7 46.9 45.5 45.6
2015-16 43.7 37.5 38.5 50.5 46.0 46.5

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Note:

Timing of parole in the sentence refers to the percentage of the sentence served at the time the first day parole or full parole starts during the sentence. In most cases a full parole is preceded by a day parole.

These calculations are based on sentences under federal jurisdiction, excluding life sentences and indeterminate sentences.

Offenders (other than those serving life or indeterminate sentences or subject to judicial determination) normally become eligible for full parole after serving 1/3 of their sentence or seven years, whichever is less. Eligibility for day parole is normally at 6 months before full parole eligibility.

The increases in the average proportion of time served after 2010-11 are in part due to the effect of Bill C-59 and were driven primarily by offenders serving sentences for schedule II and non-scheduled offences (some of whom were former APR-eligible offenders).

Successful completion of federal day parole

Figure D8

Successful completion of federal day parole - Day parole outcomes

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Note:

*Revocation for Breach of Conditions includes revocation with outstanding charges.

A day parole is considered successful if it was completed without a return to prison for a breach of conditions or for a new offence.

Table D8
Federal Day Parole Outcomes 2011-12 2013-14 2013-14 2014-15 2015-16
  # % # % # % # % # %
Successful Completion
   Regular 1,912 87.4 2,738 88.6 2,768 89.2 2,784 90.4 2,979 91.1
   Accelerated 364 89.2 21 95.5 27 100.0 36 100.0 37 100.0
   Total 2,276 87.7 2,759 88.6 2,795 89.3 2,820 90.5 3,016 91.2
Revocation for Breach of Conditions*
   Regular 232 10.6 288 9.3 293 9.4 262 8.5 263 8.0
   Accelerated 35 8.6 1 4.5 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0
   Total 267 10.3 289 9.3 293 9.4 262 8.4 263 8.0
Revocation with Non-Violent Offence
   Regular 37 1.7 59 1.9 35 1.1 34 1.1 24 0.7
   Accelerated 8 2.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0
   Total 45 1.7 59 1.9 35 1.1 34 1.1 24 0.7
Revocation with Violent Offence**
   Regular 7 0.3 6 0.2 6 0.2 0 0.0 5 0.2
   Accelerated 1 0.2 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0
   Total 8 0.3 6 0.2 6 0.2 0 0.0 5 0.2
Total
   Regular 2,188 84.3 3,091 99.3 3,102 99.1 3,080 98.8 3,271 98.9
   Accelerated 408 15.7 22 0.7 27 0.9 36 1.2 37 1.1
   Total 2,596 100.0 3,113 100.0 3,129 100.0 3,116 100.0 3,308 100.0

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Note:

*Revocation for Breach of Conditions includes revocation with outstanding charges.

**Violent offences include murder and Schedule I offences (listed in the Corrections and Conditional Release Act) such as assaults, sexual offences, arson, abduction, robbery and some weapon offences.

A day parole is considered successful if it was completed without a return to prison for a breach of conditions or for a new offence.

Successful completion of federal full parole

Figure D9

Successful completion of federal full parole - Full parole outcomes

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Note:

*Excludes offenders serving indeterminate sentences because they do not have a warrant expiry date and can only successfully complete full parole upon [their] death.

**Revocation for Breach of Conditions includes revocation with outstanding charges.

A full parole is considered successful if it was completed without a return to prison for a breach of conditions or for a new offence.

Table D9
Federal Full Parole Outcomes* 2011-12 2012-13 2013-14 2014-15 2015-16
  # % # % # % # % # %
Successful Completion
   Regular 335 82.5 425 80.0 579 81.9 734 87.0 744 87.7
   Accelerated 688 76.8 589 89.0 246 93.2 97 87.4 94 86.2
   Total 1,023 78.6 1,014 85.0 825 85.0 831 87.0 838 87.6
Revocation for Breach of Conditions**
   Regular 54 13.3 77 14.5 92 13.0 77 9.1 78 9.2
   Accelerated 146 16.3 49 7.4 12 4.5 12 10.8 12 11.0
   Total 200 15.4 126 10.6 104 10.7 89 9.3 90 9.4
Revocation with Non-Violent Offence
   Regular 15 3.7 23 4.3 30 4.2 33 3.9 24 2.8
   Accelerated 57 6.4 23 3.5 5 1.9 2 1.8 3 2.8
   Total 72 5.5 46 3.9 35 3.6 35 3.7 27 2.8
Revocation with Violent Offence***
   Regular 2 0.5 6 1.1 6 0.8 0 0.0 2 0.2
   Accelerated 5 0.6 1 0.2 1 0.4 0 0.0 0 0.0
   Total 7 0.5 7 0.6 7 0.7 0 0.0 2 0.2
Total
   Regular 406 31.2 531 44.5 707 72.8 844 88.4 848 88.6
   Accelerated 896 68.8 662 55.5 264 27.2 111 11.6 109 11.4
   Total 1,302 100.0 1,193 100.0 971 100.0 955 100.0 957 100.0

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Note:

*Excludes offenders serving indeterminate sentences because they do not have a warrant expiry date and can only successfully complete full parole upon [their] death.

**Revocation for Breach of Conditions includes revocation with outstanding charges.

***Violent offences include murder and Schedule I offences (listed in the Corrections and Conditional Release Act) such as assaults, sexual offences, arson, abduction, robbery and some weapon offences.

A full parole is considered successful if it was completed without a return to prison for a breach of conditions or for a new offence.

Successful completion of Statutory Release

Figure D10

Successful completion of Statutory Release - Statutory release outcomes

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Note:

*Revocation for Breach of Conditions includes revocation with outstanding charges.

A statutory release is considered successful if it was completed without a return to prison for a breach of conditions or for a new offence.

An offender serving a determinate sentence, if he/she is not detained, will be subject to statutory release after serving 2/3 of his/her sentence if he/she is not on full parole at that time. On statutory release, an offender is subject to supervision until the end of his/her sentence.

Table D10
Statutory Release Outcomes 2011-12 2012-13 2013-14 2014-15 2015-16
  # % # % # % # % # %
Successful Completion 3,428 61.3 3,736 60 3,812 61.5 3,776 63.2 3,733 63.1
Revocation for Breach of Conditions* 1,547 27.7 1,846 29.6 1,748 28.2 1,662 27.8 1,735 29.3
Revocation with Non-Violent Offence 486 8.7 514 8.3 526 8.5 466 7.8 393 6.6
Revocation with Violent Offence** 131 2.3 130 2.1 111 1.8 74 1.2 52 0.9
Total 5,592 100 6,226 100 6,197 100 5,978 100 5,913 100

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Note:

*Revocation for Breach of Conditions includes revocation with outstanding charges.

**Violent offences include murder and Schedule I offences (listed in the Corrections and Conditional Release Act) such as assaults, sexual offences, arson, abduction, robbery and some weapon offences.

A statutory release is considered successful if it was completed without a return to prison for a breach of conditions or for a new offence.

An offender serving a determinate sentence, if he/she is not detained, will be subject to statutory release after serving 2/3 of his/her sentence if he/she is not on full parole at that time. On statutory release, an offender is subject to supervision until the end of his/her sentence.

Over the past decade, the rate of violent convictions for offenders while under supervision has declined

Figure D11

Rate of convictions for violent offences - per 1,000 supervised offenders

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Note:

*Supervised offenders include offenders who are on parole, statutory release, those temporarily detained in federal institutions, and those who are unlawfully at large.

**Violent offences include murder and Schedule I offences (listed in the Corrections and Conditional Release Act) such as assaults, sexual offences, arson, abduction, robbery and some weapon offences.

Day and full parole include those offenders serving determinate and indeterminate sentences.

The dotted line between 2014-15 and 2015-16 is intended to signify that due to delays in the court process, these numbers under-represent the actual number of convictions, as verdicts may not have been reached by year-end.

Table D11
Year # of Offenders Convicted for Violent Offences*** Rate per 1,000 Supervised Offenders*
Day Parole Full Parole Statutory Release Total Day Parole Full Parole Statutory Release
2006-07 25 21 213 259 19 6 67
2007-08 18 22 213 253 14 6 68
2008-09 22 17 153 192 18 4 46
2009-10 17 16 149 182 13 4 46
2010-11 10 19 127 156 8 5 39
2011-12 8 10 131 149 6 3 37
2012-13 6 11 130 147 5 3 37
2013-14 6 8 111 125 5 2 31
2014-15 0 1 74 75 0 0 21
2015-16** 5 2 52 59 3 1 14

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Note:

*Supervised offenders include offenders who are on parole, statutory release, those temporarily detained in federal institutions, and those who are unlawfully at large.

**Due to delays in the court processes, the numbers under-represent the actual number of convictions, as verdicts may not have been reached by year-end. Day and full parole include those offenders serving determinate and indeterminate sentences.

***Violent offences include murder and Schedule I offences (listed in the Corrections and Conditional Release Act) such as assaults, sexual offences, arson, abduction, robbery and some weapon offences.

The number of offenders granted temporary absences decreased

Figure D12

The number of offenders granted temporary absences decreased

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

A temporary absence is permission given to an eligible offender to be away from the normal place of confinement for medical, administrative, community service, family contact, personal development for rehabilitative purposes, or compassionate reasons, including parental responsibilities.

A work release is a structure program of release of specified duration for work or community service outside the penitentiary, under the supervision of a staff member or other authorized person or organization.

These numbers depict the number of offenders who received at least one temporary absence permit (excluding those for medical purposes) or at least one work release. An offender may be granted more than one temporary absence permit or work release over a period of time.

Table D12
Year Temporary Absences Work Releases
Escorted Unescorted
  # of Offenders # of Permits # of Offenders # of Permits # of Offenders # of Permits
2006-07 2,519 39,422 499 4,122 341 730
2007-08 2,500 41,460 464 3,679 301 616
2008-09 2,321 36,116 431 3,649 240 655
2009-10 2,210 35,773 386 3,280 251 1,055
2010-11 2,289 40,035 351 3,095 321 1,303
2011-12 2,682 44,371 414 3,863 409 825
2012-13 2,752 47,803 443 3,693 433 769
2013-14 2,735 49,440 447 3,988 388 597
2014-15 2,558 49,593 410 3,558 319 435
2015-16 2,392 46,870 435 4,016 230 294

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

A temporary absence is permission given to an eligible offender to be away from the normal place of confinement for medical, administrative, community service, family contact, personal development for rehabilitative purposes, or compassionate reasons, including parental responsibilities.

A work release is a structured program of release of specified duration for work or community service outside the penitentiary, under the supervision of a staff member or other authorized person or organization.

These numbers depict the number of offenders who received at least one temporary absence permit (excluding those for medical purposes) or at least one work release. An offender may be granted more than one temporary absence permit or work release over a period of time.

Section E: Statistics on Special Applications of Criminal Justice

The number of initial detention reviews

Figure E1

The number of initial detention reviews - number of initial detention reviews

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Note:

According to the Corrections and Conditional Release Act, an offender entitled to statutory release after serving two-thirds of the sentence may be held in custody until warrant expiry if it is established that the offender is likely to commit, before the expiry of his/her sentence, an offence causing death or serious harm, a serious drug offence or a sex offence involving a child.

Table E1
Year Outcome of Initial Detention Reviews Total
Detained Statutory Release Total
Ind. Non - Ind. Total % Ind. Non - Ind. Total % Ind. Non - Ind.
2001-02 75 182 257 94.5 2 13 15 5.5 77 195 272
2002-03 82 163 245 86.3 14 25 39 13.7 96 188 284
2003-04 73 206 279 92.1 8 16 24 7.9 81 222 303
2004-05 71 154 225 91.1 6 16 22 8.9 77 170 247
2005-06 76 157 233 89.3 11 17 28 10.7 87 174 261
2006-07 64 158 222 88.8 4 24 28 11.2 68 182 250
2007-08 87 160 247 93.2 7 11 18 6.8 94 171 265
2008-09 106 150 256 95.9 5 6 11 4.1 111 156 267
2009-10 99 162 261 93.9 2 15 17 6.1 101 177 278
2010-11 113 126 239 94.5 5 9 14 5.5 118 135 253
2011-12 88 119 207 96.7 3 4 7 3.3 91 123 214
2012-13 93 139 232 98.3 4 0 4 1.7 97 139 236
2013-14 84 116 200 96.2 4 4 8 3.8 88 120 208
2014-15 68 96 164 94.3 5 5 10 5.7 73 101 174
2015-16 73 94 167 96.5 2 4 6 3.5 75 98 173
Total 1,252 2,182 3,434 93.2 82 169 251 6.8 1,334 2,351 3,685

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Note:

According to the Corrections and Conditional Release Act, an offender entitled to statutory release after serving two-thirds of the sentence may be held in custody until warrant expiry if it is established that the offender is likely to commit, before the expiry of his/her sentence, an offence causing death or serious harm, a serious drug offence or a sex offence involving a child.

76% of judicial review hearings result in earlier parole eligibility

Figure E2

76% of judicial review hearings result in earlier parole eligibility

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

*Of the 46 offenders no longer under active supervision, 9 were in custody, 30 were deceased, six were deported, and one was temporarily detained.

Judicial review is an application to the court for a reduction in the time required to be served before being eligible for parole. Judicial review procedures apply to offenders who have been sentenced to imprisonment for life without eligibility for parole until more than fifteen years of their sentence has been served. Offenders can apply when they have served at least 15 years of their sentence.

Judicial reviews are conducted in the province where the conviction took place.

Table E2
Province/Territory of Judicial Review Parole Ineligibility
Reduced by Court
Reduction Denied
by Court
Total
1st degree murder 2nd degree murder 1st degree murder 2nd degree murder 1st degree murder 2nd degree murder
Northwest Territories 0 0 0 0 0 0
Nunavut 0 0 0 0 0 0
Yukon 0 0 0 0 0 0
Newfoundland & Labrador 0 0 0 0 0 0
Prince Edward Island 0 0 0 0 0 0
Nova Scotia 1 1 1 0 2 1
New Brunswick 1 0 0 0 1 0
Quebec 68 15 5 2 73 17
Ontario 22 0 26 1 48 1
Manitoba 8 3 1 0 9 3
Saskatchewan 6 0 3 0 9 0
Alberta 19 0 7 0 26 0
British Columbia 21 1 6 0 27 1
Sub-total 146 20 49 3 195 23
Total 166 52 218

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

These numbers represent total decisions at the end of fiscal year 2015-16.

Judicial reviews are conducted in the province where the conviction took place.

The number of dangerous offender designations

Figure E3

Number of dangerous offender designations designated per year

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

*The number of Dangerous Offenders designated per year does not include overturned decisions.

Offenders who have died since receiving designations are no longer classified as “active”; however, they are still represented in the above graph, which depicts the total number of offenders ‘”designated”. Dangerous Offender legislation came into effect in Canada on October 15, 1977, replacing the Habitual Offender and Dangerous Sexual Offender provisions that were abolished. A Dangerous Offender (DO) is an individual given an indeterminate or determinate** sentence on the basis of a particularly violent crime or pattern of serious violent offences where it is judged that the offender’s behaviour is unlikely to be inhibited by normal standards of behavioural restraint (see section 753 of the Criminal Code of Canada). Determinate sentences for Dangerous Offenders must be a minimum punishment of imprisonment for a term of two years and have an order that the offender be subject to a long-term supervision period that does not exceed 10 years. In addition to the DOs, there were 18 Dangerous Sexual Offenders and four Habitual Offenders under the responsibility of CSC at the end of fiscal year 2015-16.

Table E3
Province/Territory
of Designation
All Designations
(# designated
since 1978)
Active Dangerous Offenders
# of Indeterminate
Offenders
# of Determinate
Offenders
Total
Newfoundland & Labrador 12 7 1 8
Nova Scotia 23 18 1 19
Prince Edward Island 0 0 0 0
New Brunswick 8 4 0 4
Quebec 102 81 13 94
Ontario 331 237 41 278
Manitoba 23 21 1 22
Saskatchewan 80 51 20 71
Alberta 62 51 3 54
British Columbia 144 104 10 114
Yukon 6 2 4 6
Northwest Territories 9 9 0 9
Nunavut 2 1 1 2
Total 802 586 95 681

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

Numbers presented are as of end of fiscal year 2015-16.

The number of Dangerous Offenders declared per year does not include overturned decisions.

Offenders who have died since receiving designations are no longer classified as “active”; however, they are still represented in the total number of offenders “designated”.

Most long term supervision orders are for a 10-year period

Figure E4

Most long term supervision orders are for a 10-year period - number of long term supervision orders imposed

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

Long Term Supervision Order (LTSO) legislation, which came into effect in Canada on August 1, 1997, allows the court to impose a sentence of two years or more for the predicate offence and order that the offender be supervised in the community for a further period not exceeding 10 years.

Sixty offenders under these provisions have died and 147 offenders have completed their long term supervision period.

Remand is a temporary detention of a person while awaiting trial, sentencing, or the commencement of a custodial disposition.

Table E4
Province or Territory of Order Length of Supervision Order (years) Current Status
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Total Incarcerated DP, FP or SR* LTSO period LTSO** interrupted Total
Newfoundland & Labrador 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 9 9 3 0 4 0 7
Nova Scotia 0 0 0 0 5 0 1 1 0 13 20 5 0 7 2 14
Prince Edward Island 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 2 0 0 0 0 0
New Brunswick 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 8 11 4 0 2 2 8
Quebec 1 1 5 2 57 15 38 11 1 215 346 112 17 116 23 268
Ontario 0 0 0 5 16 9 20 21 0 234 305 70 6 133 26 235
Manitoba 0 0 0 0 1 2 3 1 0 35 42 6 0 12 7 25
Saskatchewan 0 1 0 1 11 9 12 11 1 54 100 38 5 25 16 84
Alberta 0 0 0 0 7 1 0 1 0 65 74 24 2 27 2 55
British Columbia 0 0 0 2 13 4 5 6 0 106 136 34 4 58 7 103
Yukon 0 0 0 0 1 0 3 0 0 12 16 6 1 7 0 14
Northwest Territories 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 2 3 0 0 2 0 2
Nunavut 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 1 0 3 7 0 0 5 0 5
Total 1 2 6 10 116 41 82 54 2 7577 1,071 302 35 398 85 820

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

*This category includes offenders whose current status is either supervised on day parole (DP), full parole (FP) or statutory release (SR).

**This category includes offenders convicted of a new offence while on the supervision portion of an LTSO. When this occurs, the LTSO supervision period is interrupted until the offender has served the new sentence to its warrant expiry date. At that time, the LTSO supervision period resumes where it left off. Of the 85 offenders, 75 were in custody and 10 were supervised in the community on statutory release.

These numbers are as of end of fiscal year 2015-16.

Sixty offenders under these provisions have died and 147 offenders have completed their long term supervision period.

The number of record suspension applications received has decreased

Figure E5

Number of record suspension applications received

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Note:

*Refers to record suspension applications received between March 13 and March 31, 2012.

The number of record suspension applications received and accepted in 2012-13 should be considered with caution as the Record Suspension program, formerly the Pardon Program, underwent substantial changes between 2010-11 and 2012-13.

**Source: Royal Canadian Mounted Police Criminal Records Division, 2009.

On March 13, 2012, Bill C-10 amended the CRA by replacing the term “pardon” with the term “record suspension”. The Record Suspension and Clemency program involves the review of record suspension applications, the ordering of record suspensions and the making of clemency recommendations. The amendments to the CRA increased the waiting periods for a record suspension to five years for all summary convictions and to ten years for all indictable offences. Individuals convicted of sexual offences against minors (with certain exceptions) and those who have been convicted of more than three indictable offences, each with a sentence of two or more years, became ineligible for a record suspension.

Table E5
Record Suspension Applications Processed 2011-12 2012-13 2013-14 2014-15 2015-16
Applications Received 1035* 19,526 14,253 12,415 12,384
Applications Accepted 362 11,527 9,624 9,071 8,917
Percentage Accepted 35.0 59.0 67.5 73.1 72.0
Record Suspensions
Ordered - 6,022 8,511 8,422 8,428
Refused - 203 772 726 525
Total Record Suspension Applications Ordered/Refused - 6,225 9,283 9,148 8,953
Percentage Ordered - 96.7 91.7 92.1 94.1
Pardons
Granted 3,270 612 8,265 5,625 1,628
Denied 272 128 581 681 349
Total Pardon Applications Granted/Issued/Denied 3,542 740** 8,846** 6,306** 1,977**
Percentage Granted/Issued 92.3% 82.7% 93.4% 89.2% 82.3%
Pardon/Record Suspension Revocations/Cessations
Revocations*** 1,129 987 669 438 670
Cessations 903 705 589 578 636
Total Revocations/Cessations 2,032 1,692 1,258 1,016 1,306
Cumulative Granted/Issued and Ordered**** 456,600 463,234 480,010 494,057 504,113
Cumulative Revocations/Cessations**** 19,371 21,063 22,321 23,337 24,643

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Note:

*Refers to record suspension applications received between March 13 and March 31, 2012.

**Refers to pardon applications received on or before March 12, 2012.

The number of record suspension applications received and accepted in 2012-13 should be considered with caution as the Record Suspension program, formerly the Pardon Pro- gram, underwent substantial changes between 2010-11 and 2012-13. The grant/issued rate for pardon applications processed in 2012/13 should be considered with caution. The Record Suspension program, formerly the Pardon Program, underwent substantial changes between 2010-11 and 2012-13.

***Revocations fluctuate due to resource re-allocation to deal with backlogs.

****Cumulative data reflects activity since 1970, when the pardon process was established under the Criminal Records Act.

On June 29, 2010, Bill C-23A amended the CRA by extending the ineligibility periods for certain applications for pardon. Additionally, the bill resulted in significant changes to program operations. The process was modified to include additional inquiries and new, more exhaustive investigations by staff for some applications and required additional review time by Board members. New concepts of merit and disrepute to the administration of justice form part of the statute. As a result of these new changes, application processing time in- creased. On March 13, 2012, Bill C-10 amended the CRA by replacing the term “pardon” with the term “record suspension”. The Record Suspension and Clemency program involves the review of record suspension applications, the ordering of record suspensions and the making of clemency recommendations. The amendments to the CRA increased the waiting periods for a record suspension to five years for all summary convictions and to ten years for all indictable offences. Individuals convicted of sexual offences against minors (with certain exceptions) and those who have been convicted of more than three indictable offences, each with a sentence of two or more years, became ineligible for a record suspension.

Section F: Victims of Crime

Victimization rates for theft of personal property have decreased

Figure F1

Victimization rates for theft of personal property have decreased - rate of victimization per 1,000 population

Source: General Social Survey, Statistics Canada, 1999, 2004, 2009 and 2014.

Note:

*Assault data includes incidents of spousal violence. In previous editions of this document, the victimization data excluded incidents of spousal violence.

Rates are based on 1,000 population, 15 years of age and older, across the 10 provinces.

Table F1
Type of Incident Year
1999 2004 2009 2014
Theft of Personal Property 75 93 108 73
Sexual Assault 21 21 24 22
Robbery 9 11 13 6
Assault* 80 75 80 48

Source: General Social Survey, Statistics Canada, 1999, 2004, 2009 and 2014.

Note:

*Assault data includes incidents of spousal violence. In previous editions of this document, the victimization data excluded incidents of spousal violence.

Rates are based on 1,000 population, 15 years of age and older, across the 10 provinces.

The majority of victims of violent crime are under 30

Figure F2

The majority of victims of violent crime are under 30

Source: Incident-based Uniform Crime Reporting Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Note:

*Population estimates are as of July 1, 2010.

The data excludes traffic violations, victims whose age is above 89, victims whose age is unknown and victims whose gender is unknown.

Due to rounding, totals may not add to 100 percent.

Table F2 (2012)
Age of Victim Men Women Total
  # % # % # %
0 to 4 years 1,761 1.0 2,053 1.1 3,814 1.1
5 to 9 years 3,803 2.2 3,724 2.0 7,527 2.1
10 to 14 years 11,716 6.7 12,109 6.5 23,825 6.6
15 to 19 years 25,294 14.4 27,674 14.9 52,968 14.6
20 to 24 years 24,712 14.1 29,380 15.8 54,092 15.0
25 to 29 years 21,477 12.2 23,897 12.9 45,374 12.5
30 to 34 years 17,282 9.8 20,001 10.8 37,283 10.3
35 to 39 years 14,829 8.4 17,403 9.4 32,232 8.9
40 to 44 years 14,607 8.3 15,456 8.3 30,063 8.3
45 to 49 years 13,568 7.7 13,038 7.0 26,606 7.4
50 to 54 years 10,965 6.2 9,051 4.9 20,016 5.5
55 to 59 years 6,983 4.0 5,149 2.8 12,132 3.4
60 to 64 years 4,081 2.3 2,792 1.5 6,873 1.9
65 to 69 years 2,321 1.3 1,605 0.9 3,926 1.1
70 to 74 years 1,128 0.6 977 0.5 2,105 0.6
75 and over 1,228 0.7 1,507 0.8 2,735 0.8
Total 175,755 100.0 185,816 100.0 361,571 100.0

Source: Incident-based Uniform Crime Reporting Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Note:

The data excludes traffic violations, victims whose age is above 89, victims whose age is unknown and victims whose gender is unknown.

Due to rounding, totals may not add to 100 percent.

The majority of victims receiving services are victims of violent crime

Figure F3

The majority of victims receiving services are victims of violent crime - Number of victims receiving formal assistance on May 24, 2012

Source: Victim Services in Canada, 2011/2012; Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Note:

Victim services are defined as agencies that provide direct services to primary or secondary victims of crime, and that are funded in whole or in part by a ministry responsible for justice matters. Survey respondents included 684 victim service providers.

Table F3
Type of Crime Gender of Victim
Women Men Not Reported Total
Snapshot on May 27, 2010 # % # % # % # %
Homicide 154 2.4 70 3.3 3 0.5 227 2.5
Other offences causing death 95 1.5 77 3.7 8 1.4 180 2.0
Sexual assault 1,922 30.0 379 18.1 160 28.3 2,461 27.1
Other violent offences 3,323 51.8 917 43.8 262 46.4 4,502 49.6
Other criminal offences* 496 7.7 357 17.0 73 12.9 926 10.2
Other Incidents** 421 6.6 295 14.1 59 10.4 775 8.5
Total without unknown 6,411 100.0 2,095 100.0 565 100.0 9,071 100.0
Unknown type of crime 197 81 113 391
Total 6,608   2,176   678   9,462  
Snapshot on May 24, 2012
Homicide 179 2.6 126 5.3 3 0.9 308 3.2
Other offences causing death 90 1.3 47 2.0 0 0.0 137 1.4
Sexual assault 2,105 30.2 356 15.1 37 11.6 2,498 25.9
Other violent offences 3,461 49.7 1,103 46.8 179 56.1 4,743 49.2
Other criminal offences* 676 9.7 507 21.5 66 20.7 1,249 13.0
Other Incidents** 448 6.4 220 9.3 34 10.7 702 7.3
Total without unknown 6,959 100.0 2,359 100.0 319 100.0 9,637 100.0
Unknown type of crime 310 81 636 1,027
Total 7,269   2,440   955   10,664  

Source: Victim Services in Canada, 2009/2010; Victim Services in Canada 2011/2012; Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Note:

*Other criminal offences include arson, property crimes, traffic offences, and other Criminal Code offences.

**Other incidents include those of a non-criminal nature as well as those that are still under investigation to determine if they are criminal offences.

Victim services are defined as agencies that provide direct services to primary or secondary victims of crime, and that are funded in whole or in part by a ministry responsible for justice matters. Survey respondents included 684 victim service providers.

The number of victims registered with the federal correctional system has increased

Figure F4

The number of victims registered with the federal correctional system has increased - number of registered victims

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

*In order to register to receive information under sections 26 and 142 of the Corrections and Conditional Release Act, a person must meet the definition of a victim that appears in section 2, or subsections 26(3) or 142(3) of the Act. Victims can register with the Correctional Service of Canada or the Parole Board of Canada by completing a Victims Request for Information form, though a signed letter of request can be considered as meeting this requirement.

**A notification is a contact with a registered victim, by phone or mail, to provide information to which sections 26 and 142 of the Corrections and Conditional Release Act entitles them.

Data current up to the end of fiscal year 2015-16.

Table F4
Year Number of Offenders with
Registered Victims
Number of Registered
Victims*
Number of Notifications**
to Registered Victims
2006-07 3,147 4,979 13,829
2007-08 3,295 5,294 16,281
2008-09 3,412 5,816 28,069
2009-10 3,509 6,366 37,471
2010-11 3,726 6,940 41,986
2011-12 3,824 7,322 46,689
2012-13 3,935 7,585 51,379
2013-14 4,017 7,838 51,722
2014-15 4,053 7,929 54,689
2015-16 4,144 8,303 51,185

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

*In order to register to receive information under sections 26 and 142 of the Corrections and Conditional Release Act, a person must meet the definition of a victim that appears in section 2, or subsections 26(3) or 142(3) of the Act. Victims can register with the Correctional Service of Canada or the Parole Board of Canada by completing a Victims Request for Information form, though a signed letter of request can be considered as meeting this requirement.

**A notification is a contact with a registered victim, by phone or mail, to provide information to which sections 26 and 142 of the Corrections and Conditional Release Act entitles them.

Data current up to the end of fiscal year 2015-16.

Offences causing death are the most common type of offence** that harmed the victims registered* with Correctional Service Canada

Figure F5

Offences causing death are the most common type of offence** that harmed the victims registered* with Correctional Service Canada - Offences of victimization 2015-16

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

*In order to register to receive information under sections 26 and 142 of the Corrections and Conditional Release Act, a person must meet the definition of a victim that appears in section 2, or subsections 26(3) or 142(3) of the Act. Victims can register with the Correctional Service of Canada or the Parole Board of Canada by completing a Victims Request for Information form, though a signed letter of request can be considered as meeting this requirement.

**Some victims were harmed by more than one offence; therefore the number of Offences of Victimization are higher than the actual number of Registered Victims. The percentages represent the number of registered victims who were harmed by that offence.

Table F5
Type of Offence** That Harmed Victim* 2011-12 2012-13 2013-14 2014-15 2015-16
  # % # % # % # % # %
Offences Causing Death 4,056 55.4 4,292 56.6 4,533 57.8 5,432 68.5 6,151 74.1
Sexual Offences 2,114 28.9 2,169 28.6 2,237 28.5 2,493 31.4 2,817 33.9
Assaults 998 13.6 965 12.7 941 12.0 1,178 14.9 1,401 16.9
Involving Violence or Threats 707 9.7 710 9.4 720 9.2 849 10.7 706 8.5
Property Crimes 534 7.3 551 7.3 541 6.9 617 7.8 558 6.7
Other Offences 452 6.2 441 5.8 475 6.1 583 7.4 377 4.5
Attempts to Cause Death 272 3.7 281 3.7 249 3.2 330 4.2 157 1.9
Deprivation of Freedom 241 3.3 246 3.2 283 3.6 299 3.8 318 3.8
Driving Offences 125 1.7 152 2.0 153 2.0 163 2.1 157 1.9
Offence Not Recorded 6 0.1 4 0.1 9 0.1 85 1.1 0 0
Total Number of Victims** 7,322   7,585   7,838   7,929   8,303  

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

*In order to register to receive information under sections 26 and 142 of the Corrections and Conditional Release Act, a person must meet the definition of a victim that appears in section 2, or subsections 26(3) or 142(3) of the Act. Victims can register with the Correctional Service of Canada or the Parole Board of Canada by completing a Victims Request for Information form, though a signed letter of request can be considered as meeting this requirement.

**Some victims were harmed by more than one offence, therefore the number of Offences of Victimization are higher than the number of Registered Victims. The percentages in the table represent the number of registered victims who were harmed by that offence and do not add up to 100%.

Temporary Absence information is the most common type of information provided during a notification to registered victims* with Correctional Service Canada

Figure F6

Temporary Absence information is the most common type of information provided during a notification to registered victims* with Correctional Service Canada

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

Temporary Absence information includes information on unescorted and escorted temporary absences and work release. Conditional Release information includes information regarding day and full parole, statutory release, suspensions, detention, and long-term supervision orders. Sentencing information includes information on the offender’s sentence, offender information, warrant expiry date, judicial review, and public domain.

Disclosure means a type of information identified in section 26 of the CCRA that has been disclosed to a registered victim during a notification.

As of December 2, 2011  as per Bill S6, Correctional Services Canada now provides information to some victims who are not registered which requires providing information to family members of murdered victims where the offender is still eligible to apply for Judicial Review including when the offender does not apply for a Judicial Review within the allotted time period, as well as the next date the offender can apply. Notification to unregistered victims are excluded for the data.

*In order to register to receive information under section 26 and 142 of the Corrections and Conditional Release Act, a person must meet the definition of a victim that appears in section 2 or subsection 26(3) or 142(3) of the Act. Victims can register with the Correctional Service of Canada or the Parole Board of Canada by completing a Victims Request for Information form, though a signed letter of request can be considered as meeting this requirement.

**In 2012, Bill C10 expanded the types of information that could be disclosed to victims. These types now include information on reintegration programs taken by offenders and disciplinary offences committed by offenders.

Table F6
Year 2011-12 2012-13 2013-14 2014-15 2015-16
Temporary Absences 75,848 93,609 100,934 96,131 89,866
Travel Permits 10,877 28,763 34,294 34,501 31,176
Institutional Location 6,859 14,434 17,495 16,242 13,127
Program & Disciplinary Offence Information**   11,208 14,826 16,790 13,092
Conditional Release 10,870 11,803 12,318 13,253 15,055
Sentencing Information 16,268 12,813 10,333 10,792 12,246
Custody 2,414 2,569 2,476 2,423 3,536
Total 123,136 175,199 192,676 190,132 178,098

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

Temporary Absence information includes information on unescorted and escorted temporary absences and work release. Conditional Release information includes information regarding day and full parole, statutory release, suspensions, detention, and long-term supervision orders. Sentencing information includes information on the offender’s sentence, offender information, warrant expiry date, judicial review, and public domain.

Disclosure means a type of information identified in section 26 of the CCRA that has been disclosed to a registered victim during a notification.

As of December 2, 2011 as per Bill S6, Correctional Services Canada now provides information to some victims who are not registered which requires providing information to family members of murdered victims where the offender is still eligible to apply for Judicial Review including when the offender does not apply for a Judicial Review within the allotted time period, as well as the next date the offender can apply. Notification to unregistered victims are excluded for the data.

*In order to register to receive information under section 26 and 142 of the Corrections and Conditional Release Act, a person must meet the definition of a victim that appears in section 2 or subsection 26(3) or 142(3) of the Act. Victims can register with the Correctional Service of Canada or the Parole Board of Canada by completing a Victims Request for Information form, though a signed letter of request can be considered as meeting this requirement.

**In 2012, Bill C10 expanded the types of information that could be disclosed to victims. These types now include information on reintegration programs taken by offenders and disciplinary offences committed by offenders.

Parole Board of Canada contacts with victims has increased

Figure F7

Parole Board of Canada contacts with victims has increased

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Note:

*A victim contact refers to each time the Parole Board of Canada has contact with a victim by mail, fax, or by telephone.

**Bill C-10 (Safe Streets and Communities Act), which came into force on June 13, 2012, resulted in changes to the categories of victims defined in section 2 of the CCRA. An actual victim is a person who survived a crime 2(1). If the person is dead, ill or otherwise incapacitated, a) a spouse/common law 2(1)(a), b) a relative/dependant 2(1)(b), c) anyone who is responsible for the care of the person 2(1)(c), d) anyone who is responsible for the care of a dependant of the person 2(1)(d) are considered as victims. If physical or emotional harm was done to a person as a result of the offender’s act, whether or not the offender is prosecuted or convicted of the act, and if the person made a complaint to the police or the Crown attorney, the person is recognized as a victim per CCRA 26 (3) and 142(3).

Table F7
Year Total Number of Contacts*
2001-02 14,013
2002-03 14,270
2003-04 15,263
2004-05 15,479
2005-06 16,711
2006-07 21,434
2007-08 20,457
2008-09 20,039
2009-10 22,181
2010-11 22,483
2011-12 21,449
2012-13 22,475
2013-14 22,323
2014-15 27,191
2015-16 29,771

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Note:

*A victim contact refers to each time the Parole Board of Canada has contact with a victim by mail, fax, or by telephone.

Bill C-10 (Safe Streets and Communities Act), which came into force on June 13, 2012, resulted in changes to the categories of victims defined in section 2 of the CCRA. An actual victim is a person who survived a crime 2(1). If the person is dead, ill or otherwise incapacitated, a) a spouse/common law 2(1)(a), b) a relative/dependant 2(1)(b), c) anyone who is responsible for the care of the person 2(1)(c), d) anyone who is responsible for the care of a dependant of the person 2(1)(d) are considered as victims. If physical or emotional harm was done to a person as a result of the offender’s act, whether or not the offender is prosecuted or convicted of the act, and if the person made a complaint to the police or the Crown attorney, the person is recognized as a victim per CCRA 26 (3) and 142(3).

Date modified: