2014 Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview

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Table of Contents

Preface

This document provides a statistical overview of corrections and conditional release within a context of trends in crime and criminal justice. A primary consideration in producing this overview was to present general statistical information in a “user friendly” way that will facilitate understanding by a broad audience. Accordingly, there are a number of features of this document that make it different from typical statistical reports.

This is the 17th issue of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview (CCRSO). Readers are advised that in some instances figures have been revised from earlier publications. Also, the total number of offenders will vary slightly depending on characteristics of the data set.

It is hoped that this document will serve as a useful source of statistical information on corrections and conditional release and assist the public in gaining a better understanding of these important components of the criminal justice system.

Regarding police crime data from Statistics Canada, until the late 1980s, the Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) survey provided aggregate counts of the number of incidents reported to police and the number of persons charged by type of offence. With the advent of microdata reporting, the UCR has become an “incident-based” survey (UCR2), collecting in-depth information about each criminal incident. The update to this new survey, as well as revisions to the definitions of Violent crime, Property crime, and Other Criminal Code offences has resulted in data only being available from 1998 to the present. It is worth noting that the Total Crime Rates presented in the CCRSO differ from those reported by Statistics Canada in their publications. The Total Crime Rate reported in the CCRSO includes offences (i.e., traffic offences in the Canadian Criminal Code and offences against federal statutes) that are excluded in rates published by Statistics Canada.

Correctional Service Canada (CSC) has shifted the focus of its population counts from offenders serving a federal sentence to offenders under the responsibility of CSC. As such, CSC no longer reports on the status of only those offenders serving a federal sentence. CSC now focuses on the “in custody” and “community” populations under the responsibility of CSC. Some of the more significant changes include: (a) offenders temporarily detained in a CSC facility while their conditional releases are under suspension are now counted as part of the “in custody” population; (b) offenders serving a provincial sentence incarcerated in a CSC facility are now counted as part of the “in custody” population; and (c) offenders who have been deported are no longer counted as part of the “community” population. These changes bring the CSC population figures more in-line with CSC’s financial commitments.

Since 2010 the CCRSO excludes information found in earlier editions on the mental health of federal offenders. No valid and reliable data are available. The Correctional of Service of Canada is in the process of addressing this issue so as to provide reliable and valid information on the mental health issues of federal offenders.

Contributing Partners

Public Safety Canada

Public Safety Canada is Canada’s lead federal department for public safety, which includes emergency management, national security and community safety. Its many responsibilities include developing legislation and policies governing corrections, implementing innovative approaches to community justice, and providing research expertise and resources to the corrections community.

Correctional Service of Canada

The mandate of the Correctional Service of Canada, as set out in the Corrections and Conditional Release Act, is to contribute to the maintenance of a just, peaceful and safe society by carrying out sentences imposed by courts through the safe and humane custody and supervision of offenders with sentences of two years or more, and assisting in the rehabilitation of offenders and their reintegration into the community as law-abiding citizens through the provision of programs in penitentiaries and in the community.

Parole Board of Canada

The Parole Board of Canada is an independent administrative tribunal responsible for making decisions about the timing and conditions of release of offenders to the community on various forms of conditional release. The Board also makes pardon decisions and recommendations respecting clemency through the Royal Prerogative of Mercy.

Office of the Correctional Investigator

The Office of the Correctional Investigator is an ombudsman for federal offenders. It conducts investigations into the problems of offenders related to decisions, recommendations, acts or omissions of the Correctional Service of Canada that affect offenders individually or as a group.

Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics (Statistics Canada)

The Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics (CCJS) is a division of Statistics Canada. The CCJS is the focal point of a federal-provincial-territorial partnership, known as the National Justice Statistics Initiative, for the collection of information on the nature and extent of crime and the administration of civil and criminal justice in Canada.

Section A: Context - Crime and the Criminal Justice System

Police-reported crime rate has been decreasing since 1998

Figure A1

Police-reported crime rate has been decreasing since 1998 - Rate per 100,000 population

Source: Uniform Crime Reporting Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Note:

*Unlike Statistics Canada, the Total Crime Rate in the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview includes traffic offences and offences against
federal statutes to provide a measure of all criminal offences. As a result, the Total Crime Rate reported here is higher than that reported by Statistics Canada.

**The definitions for Violent, Property and Other Criminal Code offences have been revised by Statistics Canada to better reflect definitions used by the policing community. As a result of these changes, comparable data are only available starting in 1998 and the data presented in this year’s report are not comparable to the data reported in previous versions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview.

These crime statistics are based on crimes that are reported to the police. Since not all crimes are reported to the police, these figures underestimate actual crime. See Figure F1 for rates based on victimization surveys (drawn from the General Social Survey), an alternative method of measuring crime.

Table A1
Year Type of offence
Violent** Property** Traffic Other CCC** Drugs Other Fed. Statutes Total*
1998 1,345 5,696 469 1,051 235 119 8,915
1999 1,440 5,345 388 910 264 128 8,474
2000 1,494 5,189 370 924 287 113 8,376
2001 1,473 5,124 393 989 288 123 8,390
2002 1,441 5,080 379 991 296 128 8,315
2003 1,435 5,299 373 1,037 274 115 8,532
2004 1,404 5,123 379 1,072 306 107 8,391
2005 1,389 4,884 378 1,052 290 97 8,090
2006 1,387 4,809 376 1,050 295 87 8,004
2007 1,354 4,525 402 1,029 308 90 7,707
2008 1,334 4,258 437 1,039 308 100 7,475
2009 1,322 4,122 435 1,017 291 94 7,281
2010 1,292 3,838 420 1,029 321 96 6,996
2011 1,236 3,536 424 1,008 330 94 6,627
2012 1,197 3,434 406 1,000 317 103 6,458
2013 1,092 3,146 388 952 310 80 5,968

Source: Uniform Crime Reporting Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Note:

*Unlike Statistics Canada, the Total Crime Rate in the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview includes traffic offences and offences against federal statutes to provide a measure of all criminal offences. As a result, the Total Crime Rate reported here is higher than that reported by Statistics Canada.

**The definitions for Violent, Property and Other Criminal Code offences have been revised by Statistics Canada to better reflect definitions used by the policing community. As a result of these changes, comparable data are only available starting in 1998 and the data presented in this year's report are not comparable to the data reported in previous versions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview.

Rates are based on incidents reported per 100,000 population.

Due to rounding, rates may not add to Totals.

Crime rates are higher in the west and highest in the north

Figure A2

Crime rates are higher in the west and highest in the north

Source: Uniform Crime Reporting Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Note:

*Rates are based on 100,000 population.

Unlike Statistics Canada, the Crime Rate in the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview includes traffic offences and offences against federal statutes to provide a measure of all criminal offences. As a result, the Crime Rate reported here is higher than that reported by Statistics Canada. In addition, the definitions for Violent, Property and Other Criminal Code offences have been revised by Statistics Canada to better reflect definitions used by the policing community. As a result of these changes, comparable data are only available starting in 1998 and the data presented in this year's report are not comparable to the data reported in previous versions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview.

Table A2
Province/Territory Crime Rate *
2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
Newfoundland & Labrador 7,263 7,535 7,136 6,838 6,677
Prince Edward Island 7,132 7,141 7,290 7,356 6,509
Nova Scotia 7,749 7,837 7,343 7,141 6,401
New Brunswick 6,397 6,339 6,063 6,275 5,444
Quebec 5,832 5,553 5,295 5,199 4,699
Ontario 5,310 5,073 4,796 4,611 4,189
Manitoba 11,359 10,650 9,866 9,745 8,725
Saskatchewan 14,358 14,309 14,121 13,536 12,477
Alberta 9,556 9,073 8,372 8,187 7,870
British Columbia 10,295 9,814 9,308 9,068 8,593
Yukon Territory 25,362 23,069 22,544 22,598 25,741
Northwest Territories 46,288 51,585 52,300 51,277 48,669
Nunavut 39,356 41,025 39,443 40,570 34,354
Canada 7,281 6,996 6,627 6,458 5,968

Source: Uniform Crime Reporting Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Note:

*Rates are based on 100,000 population.

Unlike Statistics Canada, the Crime Rate in the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview includes traffic offences and offences against federal statutes to provide a measure of all criminal offences. As a result, the Crime Rate reported here is higher than that reported by Statistics Canada. In addition, the definitions for Violent, Property and Other Criminal Code offences have been revised by Statistics Canada to better reflect definitions used by the policing community. As a result of these changes, comparable data are only available starting in 1998 and the data presented in this year's report are not comparable to the data reported in previous versions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview.

Canada's incarceration rate is high relative to most western European countries

Figure A3

Canada's incarceration rate is high relative to most western European countries - Number of inmates per 100,000 population

Source: World Prison Population List online (retrieved December 8, 2014 at http://www.prisonstudies.org/world-prison-brief).

Note:

The incarceration rate, in this figure, is a measure of the number of people (i.e., adults and youth) in custody per 100,000 people in the general population. Incarceration rates from the World Prison Population List are based on the most recently available data at the time the list was compiled. Due to variations in the availability of information, the 2006 and 2008 dates reported in Figure A3 refer to when the World Prison Population Lists (Seventh and Eighth Editions respectively) were published, but may not necessarily correspond to the date the data were obtained. For 2014, the data was retrieved online on December 8, 2014 from http://www.prisonstudies.org/world-prison-brief which contains the most up-to-date information available. These data reflect incarceration rates based on the country's population. Additionally, different practices and variations in measurement in different countries limit the comparability of these figures.

Table A3
  2001 2002 2003 2004 20061* 20082* 20113* 20124* 20135* 20146*
United States 700 701 714 723 738 756 743 730 716 707
New Zealand 145 155 168 168 186 185 199 194 192 190
England & Wales 125 141 142 141 148 153 155 154 148 149
Scotland 120 129 132 136 139 152 155 151 147 144
Australia 110 115 117 120 126 129 133 129 130 143
Canada 116 116 108 107 107 116 117 114 118 118
Italy 95 100 98 96 104 92 110 109 106 88
Austria 85 100 106 110 105 95 104 104 98 99
France 80 93 91 91 85 96 102 102 101 102
Germany 95 98 96 98 95 89 87 83 79 81
Switzerland 90 68 81 81 83 76 79 76 82 87
Sweden 65 73 75 81 82 74 78 70 67 57
Denmark 60 64 70 70 77 63 74 74 73 67
Norway 60 59 65 65 66 69 73 73 72 75
Finland 50 70 71 66 75 64 59 59 58 55

Source: International Centre for Prison Studies: 1 World Prison Population List (Seventh Edition); 2 World Prison Population List (Eighth Edition); 3 World Prison Population List online (retrieved October 7, 2011 at www.prisonstudies.org/info/worldbrief/index.php), 4 World Prison Population List online (retrieved October 15, 2012 at www.prisonstudies.org/info/worldbrief/index.php).5 World Prison Population List online (retrieved November 20, 2013 at www.prisonstudies.org/info/worldbrief/index.php). 6World Prison Population List online (retrieved December 8, 2014 at http://www.prisonstudies.org/world-prison-brief).

Note:

*Incarceration rates from the World Prison Population List are based on the most recently available data at the time the list was compiled. Due to variations in the availability of information, the 2006 and 2008 dates reported in Table A3 refer to when the World Prison Population Lists (Seventh and Eighth Editions respectively) were published, but may not necessarily correspond to the date the data were obtained. For 2014, the data was retrieved online on December 8, 2014 from http://www.prisonstudies.org/world-prison-brief which contains the most up to date information available. Additionally, different practices and variations in measurement in different countries limit the comparability of these figures. Rates are based on 100,000 population.

The rate of adults charged has declined

Figure A4

The rate of adults charged has declined - Rate per 100,000 adult population

Source: Uniform Crime Reporting Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Note:

*Unlike Statistics Canada, the Total Crime Rate in the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview includes traffic offences and offences against federal statutes to provide a measure of all criminal offences. As a result, the Total Crime Rate reported here is higher than that reported by Statistics Canada.

**The definitions for Violent, Property and Other Criminal Code offences have been revised by Statistics Canada to better reflect definitions used by the policing community. As a result of these changes, comparable data are only available starting in 1998 and the data presented in this year's report are not comparable to the data reported in previous versions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview.

Violent crimes include homicide, attempted murder, assault, sexual offences, abduction, extortion, robbery, firearms, and other violent offences such as uttering threats and criminal harassment.

Property crimes include break and enter, motor vehicle thefts, other thefts, possession of stolen property, fraud, mischief and arson.

Table A4
Year Type of offence
Violent** Property** Traffic Other CCC** Drugs Other Fed. Statutes Total Charged*
1998 563 677 374 430 168 24 2,236
1999 590 632 371 396 185 30 2,203
2000 615 591 349 411 198 26 2,190
2001 641 584 349 451 202 28 2,256
2002 617 569 336 460 199 29 2,211
2003 598 573 326 476 172 23 2,168
2004 584 573 314 490 187 30 2,180
2005 589 550 299 479 185 29 2,131
2006 594 533 300 498 198 27 2,150
2007 577 499 298 521 208 28 2,132
2008 576 487 307 540 207 31 2,149
2009 585 490 311 532 201 34 2,152
2010 576 473 295 545 211 32 2,132
2011 548 441 271 527 213 34 2,034
2012 541 434 268 535 202 37 2,016
2013 499 412 241 514 198 26 1,889

Source: Uniform Crime Reporting Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Note:

*Unlike Statistics Canada, the Total Crime Rate in the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview includes traffic offences and offences against federal statutes to provide a measure of all criminal offences. As a result, the Total Crime Rate reported here is higher than that reported by Statistics Canada.

**The definitions for Violent, Property and Other Criminal Code offences have been revised by Statistics Canada to better reflect definitions used by the policing community. As a result of these changes, comparable data are only available starting in 1998 and the data presented in this year’s report are not comparable to the data reported in previous versions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview.

Rates are based on 100,000 population, 18 years of age and older.

Due to rounding, rates may not add to Totals.

Violent crimes include homicide, attempted murder, assault, sexual offences, abduction, extortion, robbery, firearms, and other violent offences such as uttering threats and criminal harassment.

Property crimes include break and enter, motor vehicle thefts, other thefts, possession of stolen property, fraud, mischief and arson.

Administration of justice cases account for 22% of cases* in adult courts

Figure A5

Administration of justice cases account for 22% of cases* in adult courts

Source: Adult Criminal Court Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Note:

*Cases completed in adult criminal courts.

The concept of a case has changed to more closely reflect court processing. Statistics from the Adult Criminal Court Survey used in this report should not be compared to editions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview prior to 2007. A case is one or more charges against an accused person or corporation, processed by the courts at the same time, and where all of the charges in the case received a final disposition. Where a case has more than one charge, it is necessary to select a charge to represent the case. An offence is selected by applying two rules. First, the “most serious decision” rule is applied. In cases where two or more offences have the same decision, the “most serious offence” rule is applied. All charges are ranked according to an offence seriousness scale.

Superior Court data are not reported to the Adult Criminal Court Survey for Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba and Saskatchewan. In addition, information from Quebec's municipal courts is not collected.

The Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics continues to make updates to the offence library used to classify offence data sent by the provinces and territories. These improvements have resulted in minor changes in the counts of charges and cases as well as the distributions by type of offence. Data presented have been revised to account for these updates.

Due to rounding, percentages may not add to 100 percent.

Table A5
Type of Charge Criminal Code and Other Federal Statute Charges
  2009-10   2010-11   2011-12
  # % # % # %
Crimes Against the Person 96,688 23.58 94,720 23.10 91,697 23.73
Homicide and Related 279 0.07 296 0.07 263 0.07
Attempted Murder 197 0.05 156 0.04 153 0.04
Robbery 4,472 1.09 4,223 1.03 3,804 0.98
Sexual Assault 4,092 1.00 4,087 1.00 3,949 1.02
Other Sexual Offences 2,062 0.50 2,338 0.57 2,252 0.58
Major Assault (Levels 2 & 3) 21,909 5.34 21,251 5.18 20,607 5.33
Common Assault (Level 1) 38,609 9.42 37,990 9.27 37,063 9.59
Uttering Threats 18,607 4.54 17,925 4.37 17,427 4.51
Criminal Harassment 3,200 0.78 3,284 0.80 3,242 0.84
Other Crimes Against Persons 3,261 0.80 3,170 0.77 2,937 0.76
Crimes Against Property 98,180 23.94 97,914 23.88 89,869 23.25
Theft 42,472 10.36 43,040 10.50 39,816 10.30
Break and Enter 11,708 2.86 11,497 2.80 10,672 2.76
Fraud 15,196 3.71 14,718 3.59 12,534 3.24
Mischief 14,843 3.62 14,832 3.62 14,193 3.67
Possession of Stolen Property 11,982 2.92 12,014 2.93 11,061 2.86
Other Property Crimes 1,979 0.48 1,813 0.44 1,593 0.41
Administration of Justice 84,684 20.65 85,947 20.96 83,987 21.73
Fail to Appear 4,764 1.16 5,112 1.25 4,556 1.18
Breach of probation 31,583 7.70 31,554 7.70 31,574 8.17
Unlawfully at large 2,529 0.62 2,563 0.63 2,615 0.68
Fail to Comply with Order 36,825 8.98 37,781 9.22 36,665 9.49
Other Admin. Justice 8,983 2.19 8,937 2.18 8,577 2.22
Other Criminal Code 19,475 4.75 18,999 4.63 16,556 4.28
Weapons 10,109 2.47 9,984 2.44 9,463 2.45
Prostitution 1,719 0.42 1,584 0.39 1,030 0.27
Disturbing the Peace 1,756 0.43 1,786 0.44 1,406 0.36
Residual Criminal Code 5,891 1.44 5,645 1.38 4,657 1.21
Criminal Code Traffic 61,244 14.94 61,185 14.92 53,022 13.72
Impaired Driving 49,462 12.06 49,520 12.08 42,053 10.88
Other CC Traffic 11,782 2.87 11,665 2.85 10,969 2.84
Other Federal Statutes 49,780 12.14 51,192 12.49 51,320 13.28
Drug Possession 15,442 3.77 16,498 4.02 16,787 4.34
Other Drug Offences 13,124 3.20 12,875 3.14 12,243 3.17
Residual Federal Statutes 21,214 5.17 21,819 5.32 22,290 5.77
Total Offences 410,051 100.0 409,957 100.00 386,451 100.00

Source: Adult Criminal Court Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Note:

*Cases completed in adult criminal courts.

The concept of a case has changed to more closely reflect court processing. Statistics from the Adult Criminal Court Survey used in this report should not be compared to editions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview prior to 2007. Superior Court data are not reported to the Adult Criminal Court Survey for Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba and Saskatchewan. In addition, information from Quebec’s municipal courts is not collected. The Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics continues to make updates to the offence library used to classify offence data sent by the provinces and territories. These improvements have resulted in minor changes in the counts of charges and cases as well as the distributions by type of offence. Data presented have been revised to account for these updates.

Due to rounding, percentages may not add to 100 percent.

Most adult custodial sentences ordered by the court are short

Figure A6

Most adult custodial sentences ordered by the court are short

Source: Adult Criminal Court Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Note:

*The type of decision group “guilty” includes guilty of the offence, of an included offence, of an attempt of the offence, or of an attempt of an included offence. This category also includes cases where an absolute or conditional discharge has been imposed.

The concept of a case has changed to more closely reflect court processing. Statistics from the Adult Criminal Court Survey used in this report should not be compared to editions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview prior to 2007.

Excludes cases where length of prison sentence and/or sex was not known, data for Manitoba as information on sentence length was not available.

Superior Court data are not reported to the Adult Criminal Court Survey for Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba and Saskatchewan. In addition, information from Quebec's municipal courts is not collected.

The Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics continues to make updates to the offence library used to classify offence data sent by the provinces and territories. These improvements have resulted in minor changes in the counts of charges and cases as well as the distributions by type of offence. Data presented have been revised to account for these updates.

Due to rounding, totals may not add to 100 percent.

Table A6
Length of Prison Sentence 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12
  % % % % %
1 Month or Less          
Women 69.6 67.6 67.7 66.7 67.8
Men 53.5 53.9 53.6 51.4 52.9
Total 55.0 55.1 54.8 52.7 54.2
           
More Than 1 Month to 6 Months          
Women 22.3 24.2 23.3 24.7 23.8
Men 31.6 31.5 31.6 33.9 33.2
Total 30.7 30.8 30.7 32.9 32.2
           
More Than 6 Months to 12 Months          
Women 4.3 4.2 4.4 3.8 4.3
Men 7.0 6.9 6.7 6.8 6.5
Total 6.8 6.8 6.6 6.6 6.4
           
More Than 1 Year to Less Than 2 Years          
Women 1.9 1.9 2.2 2.4 2.1
Men 3.7 3.7 3.7 3.6 3.6
Total 3.6 3.6 3.7 3.6 3.5
           
2 Years or More          
Women 1.9 2.1 2.3 2.4 2.0
Men 4.2 4.0 4.4 4.4 3.8
Total 4.0 3.8 4.2 4.2 3.6

Source: Adult Criminal Court Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Note:

The concept of a case has changed to more closely reflect court processing. Statistics from the Adult Criminal Court Survey used in this report should not be compared to editions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview prior to 2007.

Excludes cases where length of prison sentence and/or sex was not known, data for Manitoba as information on both sentence length was not available.

Superior Court data are not reported to the Adult Criminal Court Survey for Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba and Saskatchewan. In addition, information from Quebec's municipal courts is not collected.

The Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics continues to make updates to the offence library used to classify offence data sent by the provinces and territories. These improvements have resulted in minor changes in the counts of charges and cases as well as the distributions by type of offence. Data presented have been revised to account for these updates.

Due to rounding, totals may not add to 100 percent.

Relatively few crimes result in sentences to federal penitentiaries

Figure A7

Relatively few crimes result in sentences to federal penitentiaries

Source: 1 Uniform Crime Reporting Survey, Adult Criminal Court Survey, and Adult Correctional Services Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada; 2 Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

*The type of decision group “guilty” includes guilty of the offence, of an included offence, of an attempt of the offence, or of an attempt of an included offence. This category also includes cases where an absolute or conditional discharge has been imposed.

**This figure only includes cases in provincial court and partial data from Superior Court. Superior Court data are not reported to the Adult Criminal Court Survey for Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba and Saskatchewan. Information from Quebec's municipal courts is not collected.

The concept of a case has changed to more closely reflect court processing. Statistics from the Adult Criminal Court Survey used in this report should not be compared to editions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview prior to 2007. A case is one or more charges against an accused person or corporation, processed by the courts at the same time, and where all of the charges in the case received a final disposition.

Police data are reported on a calendar year basis whereas court and prison data are reported on a fiscal year basis (April 1 through March 31).

Table A7
  2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 2013-14
Total Number of Offences Reported to Police1 2,448,654 2,379,130 2,275,917 2,244,458 2,098,302
Cases with guilty* findings in Adult Criminal Court1** 266,430 261,325 246,984 Not available Not available
Sentenced Admissions to Provincial/Territorial Custody1*** 88,982 87,770 86,661 Not available Not available
Warrant of Committal Admissions to Federal Facilities2 5,220 5,425 5,108 5,111 5,146

Source: 1 Uniform Crime Reporting Survey, Adult Criminal Court Survey, and Adult Correctional Services Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada; 2 Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

*The type of decision group “guilty” includes guilty of the offence, of an included offence, of an attempt of the offence, or of an attempt of an included offence. This category also includes cases where an absolute or conditional discharge has been imposed.

**This figure only includes cases convicted in provincial court and partial data from Superior Court. Superior Court data are not reported to the Adult Criminal Court Survey for Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba and Saskatchewan. Information from Quebec's municipal courts is not collected.

The concept of a case has changed to more closely reflect court processing. Statistics from the Adult Criminal Court Survey used in this report should not be compared to editions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview prior to 2007. A case is one or more charges against an accused person or corporation, processed by the courts at the same time, and where all of the charges in the case received a final disposition.

Police data are reported on a calendar year basis whereas court and prison data are reported on a fiscal year basis (April 1 through March 31).

The rate of youth charged has declined over the past seven years

Figure A8

The rate of youth charged has declined over the past seven years - rate of youth charged per 100,000 youth population

Source: Uniform Crime Reporting Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Note:

*Unlike Statistics Canada, the Total Crime Rate in the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview includes traffic offences and offences against federal statutes to provide a measure of all criminal offences. As a result, the Total Crime Rate reported here is higher than that reported by Statistics Canada. In addition, the definitions for Violent, Property and Other Criminal Code offences have been revised by Statistics Canada to better reflect definitions used by the policing community. As a result of these changes, comparable data are only available starting in 1998 and the data presented in this year's report are not comparable to the data reported in previous versions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview.

**For criminal justice purposes, youth are defined under Canadian law as persons aged 12 to 17 years.

Rates are based on 100,000 youth population (12 to 17 years).

Violent crimes include homicide, attempted murder, assault, sexual offences, abduction, extortion, robbery, firearms, and other violent offences such as uttering threats and criminal harassment.

Property crimes include break and enter, motor vehicle thefts, other thefts, possession of stolen property, fraud, mischief and arson.

Table A8
Year Type of Offence
Violent* Property* Traffic Other CCC* Drugs Other Fed. Statutes Total Charged*
1998 994 2,500 -- 870 226 184 4,775
1999 1,060 2,237 -- 728 266 209 4,500
2000 1,136 2,177 -- 760 317 198 4,589
2001 1,157 2,119 -- 840 343 195 4,656
2002 1,102 2,009 -- 793 337 235 4,476
2003 953 1,570 -- 726 208 204 3,662
2004 918 1,395 -- 691 230 222 3,457
2005 924 1,276 -- 660 214 212 3,287
2006 917 1,216 -- 680 240 216 3,269
2007 943 1,211 75 732 260 239 3,461
2008 909 1,130 74 730 267 259 3,369
2009 888 1,143 68 698 238 260 3,294
2010 860 1,035 62 669 255 266 3,147
2011 805 903 58 635 263 251 2,915
2012 764 840 58 628 240 235 2,765
2013 697 725 44 555 234 192 2,447

Source: Uniform Crime Reporting Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Note:

*Unlike Statistics Canada, the Total Crime Rate in the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview includes traffic offences and offences against federal statutes to provide a measure of all criminal offences. As a result, the Total Crime Rate reported here is higher than that reported by Statistics Canada. In addition, the definitions for Violent, Property and Other Criminal Code offences have been revised by Statistics Canada to better reflect definitions used by the policing community. As a result of these changes, comparable data are only available starting in 1998 and the data presented in this year's report are not comparable to the data reported in previous versions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview.

**Data for Youth Charged and Youth Not Charged for Impaired Driving are not available prior to 2007. As a result, comparisons to Total Charged and Other CCC (including traffic) over time should be made with caution.

For criminal justice purposes, youth are defined under Canadian law as persons aged 12 to 17 years.

Rates are based on 100,000 youth population (12 to 17 years).

Violent crimes include homicide, attempted murder, assault, sexual offences, abduction, extortion, robbery, firearms, and other violent offences such as uttering threats and criminal harassment.

Property crimes include break and enter, motor vehicle thefts, other thefts, possession of stolen property, fraud, mischief and arson.

The most common youth court case is theft

Figure A9

The most common youth court case is theft

Source: Youth Court Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Note:

*“Administration of Justice” includes the offences failure to appear, failure to comply, and breach of recognizance.

**Youth Criminal Justice Act offences include failure to comply with a disposition or undertaking, contempt against youth court, assisting a youth to leave a place of custody and harbouring a youth unlawfully at large. Also included are similar offences under the Young Offenders Act, which preceded the Youth Criminal Justice Act.

***“Drug Offences” includes possession and trafficking.

The concept of a case has changed to more closely reflect court processing. Statistics from the Youth Court Survey used in this report should not be compared to editions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview prior to 2007. A case is one or more charges against an accused person or corporation, processed by the courts at the same time, and where all of the charges in the case received a final disposition. Where a case has more than one charge, it is necessary to select a charge to represent the case. An offence is selected by applying two rules. First, the “most serious decision” rule is applied. In cases where two or more offences have the same decision, the “most serious offence” rule is applied. All charges are ranked according to an offence seriousness scale.

The Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics continues to make updates to the offence library used to classify offence data sent by the provinces and territories. These improvements have resulted in minor changes in the counts of charges and cases as well as the distributions by type of offence. Data presented have been revised to account for these updates.

Table A9
Type of Case Number of Youth Court Cases
2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12
Crimes Against the Person 15,395 15,614 14,823 14,275 13,095
Homicide and Attempted Murder 70 76 70 69 53
Robbery 2,637 2,768 2,539 2,605 2,413
Sexual Assault / Other Sexual Offences 1,140 1,283 1,255 1,306 1,252
Major Assault 3,845 3,729 3,561 3,361 2,864
Common Assault 4,696 4,767 4,477 4,208 4,026
Other Crimes Against the Person* 3,007 2,991 2,921 2,726 2,487
Crimes Against Property 22,612 22,219 22,242 20,408 17,240
Theft 8,026 8,262 8,454 7,879 6,577
Break and Enter 5,203 4,855 4,835 4,410 3,738
Fraud 852 818 837 641 521
Mischief 4,362 4,330 4,253 3,752 3,305
Possession of Stolen Property 3,416 3,258 3,249 3,147 2,679
Other Crimes Against Property 753 696 614 579 420
Administration of Justice 6,327 6,353 6,104 5,702 5,233
Failure to comply with order 3,986 4,175 4,045 3,738 3,508
Other Administration of Justice** 2,341 2,178 2,059 1,964 1,725
Other Criminal Code 3,038 3,064 2,967 2,709 2,428
Weapons / Firearms 2,064 2,083 2,016 1,834 1,662
Prostitution 12 17 10 14 4
Disturbing the Peace 207 232 187 165 119
Residual Criminal Code 755 732 754 696 643
Criminal Code Traffic 1,237 1,170 1,118 963 838
Other Federal Statutes 10,101 10,548 9,605 9,437 9,395
Drug Possession 2,725 2,919 2,556 2,560 2,734
Drug Trafficking 1,475 1,459 1,279 1,220 1,246
Youth Criminal Justice Act*** 5,649 5,917 5,685 5,603 5,326
Residual Federal Statutes 252 253 85 54 89
Total 58,710 58,968 56,859 53,494 48,229

Source: Youth Court Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Note:

*“Other Crimes Against the Person” includes the offences uttering threats and criminal harassment.

**“Other Administration of Justice” includes the offences failure to appear, failure to comply, and breach of recognizance.

***Youth Criminal Justice Act offences include failure to comply with a disposition or undertaking, contempt against youth court, assisting a youth to leave a place of custody and harbouring a youth unlawfully at large. Also included are similar offences under the Young Offenders Act, which preceded the Youth Criminal Justice Act.

The concept of a case has changed to more closely reflect court processing. Statistics from the Youth Court Survey used in this report should not be compared to editions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview prior to 2007. A case is one or more charges against an accused person or corporation, processed by the courts at the same time, and where all of the charges in the case received a final disposition. Where a case has more than one charge, it is necessary to select a charge to represent the case. An offence is selected by applying two rules. First, the “most serious decision” rule is applied. In cases where two or more offences have the same decision, the “most serious offence” rule is applied. All charges are ranked according to an offence seriousness scale.

The Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics continues to make updates to the offence library used to classify offence data sent by the provinces and territories. These improvements have resulted in minor changes in the counts of charges and cases as well as the distributions by type of offence. Data presented have been revised to account for these updates.

The most common sentence for youth is probation

Figure A10

The most common sentence for youth is probation - percentage of youth court sentences

Source: Youth Court Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Note:

*“Other Sentence” includes absolute discharge, restitution, prohibition, seizure, forfeiture, compensation, pay purchaser, essays, apologies, counselling programs and conditional discharge, conditional sentence, intensive support and supervision, attendance at non-residential program(s) and reprimand. This category also includes deferred custody and supervision, intensive support and supervision, attendance at non-residential program(s) and reprimand where sentencing data under the Youth Criminal Justice Act (YCJA) are not available.

Unlike previous years, this data represents the most serious sentence and therefore, sanctions are mutually exclusive. However, each case may receive more than one sentence.

The concept of a case has changed to more closely reflect court processing. Statistics from the Youth Court Survey used in this report should not be compared to editions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview prior to 2007.

Table A10
Type of Sentence Gender Year
2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12
    % % % % %
Probation Female 50.4 52.2 50.0 47.5 47.5
  Male 50.3 49.3 50.0 47.5 48.4
  Total 50.8 50.3 50.3 48.2 48.7
             
Custody Female 12.9 12.4 12.5 12.6 11.6
  Male 17.5 17.0 16.2 17.2 17.0
  Total 15.9 15.4 14.8 15.5 15.2
             
Community Service Order Female 7.9 8.1 9.3 9.4 9.6
  Male 7.2 7.5 8.0 8.5 8.7
  Total 7.6 7.9 8.9 9.1 8.6
             
Fine Female 3.9 3.3 2.8 3.2 2.5
  Male 4.7 5.2 4.1 3.7 3.3
  Total 4.5 4.7 3.7 3.6 3.1
             
Deferred Custody and Supervision Female 3.2 3.0 4.0 4.3 5.1
  Male 3.6 3.8 4.6 4.7 4.5
  Total 3.4 3.5 4.3 4.4 4.3
             
Other Sentence* Female 21.7 21.0 21.4 23.0 23.7
  Male 16.8 17.3 17.0 18.4 18.2
  Total 17.8 18.1 18.0 19.2 19.2

Source: Youth Court Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Note:

*“Other Sentence” includes absolute discharge, restitution, prohibition, seizure, forfeiture, compensation, pay purchaser, essays, apologies, counselling programs and conditional discharge, conditional sentence, intensive support and supervision, attendance at non-residential program(s) and reprimand. This category also includes deferred custody and supervision, intensive support and supervision, attendance at non-residential program(s) and reprimand where sentencing data under the Youth Criminal Justice Act (YCJA) are not available.

Unlike previous years, this data represents the most serious sentence and therefore, sanctions are mutually exclusive. However, each case may receive more than one sentence.

The concept of a case has changed to more closely reflect court processing. Statistics from the Youth Court Survey used in this report should not be compared to editions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview prior to 2007.

Section B: Corrections Administration

Expenditures on corrections increased in 2012-13

Figure B1

Expenditures on corrections increased in 2012-13

Source: Correctional Service Canada; Parole Board of Canada; Office of the Correctional Investigator; Statistics Canada Consumer Price Index.

Note:

Federal expenditures on corrections include spending by the Correctional Service Canada (CSC), the Parole Board of Canada (PBC), and the Office of the Correctional Investigator (OCI). The expenditures for the CSC include both operating and capital costs. CSC expenditures exclude CORCAN (a Special Operating Agency that conducts industrial operations within penitentiaries).

Constant dollars (2002) represent dollar amounts calculated on a one-year base that adjusts for inflation, thus allowing the yearly amounts to be directly comparable. Changes in the Consumer Price Index were used to calculate constant dollars.

Table B1
Year Current Dollars Constant 2002 Dollars
Operating Capital Total Per capita Operating Capital Total Per capita
  $'000     $ $'000     $
2008-09                
CSC 2,024,839 197,992 2,222,831 66.72 1,816,892 177,659 1,994,551 59.86
PBC 48,600 -- 48,600 1.46 43,609   43,609 1.31
OCI 3,854 -- 3,854 0.12 3,458 0 3,458 0.10
Total 2,077,293 197,992 2,275,285 68.29 1,863,959 177,659 2,041,618 61.28
                 
2009-10                
CSC 2,065,085 200,357 2,265,442 67.17 1,878,961 182,299 2,061,261 61.12
PBC 47,300 -- 47,300 1.40 43,037   43,037 1.28
OCI 4,375 -- 4,375 0.13 3,981 0 3,981 0.12
Total 2,116,760 200,357 2,317,117 68.70 1,925,979 182,299 2,108,278 62.51
                 
2010-11                
CSC 2,156,955 22,849 2,379,803 69.73 1,903,834 20,168 2,100,530 61.55
PBC 46,000 -- 46,000 1.35 40,602   40,602 1.19
OCI 4,162 -- 4,162 0.12 3,674 0 3,674 0.11
Total 2,207,117 22,849 2,429,965 71.20 1,948,109 20,168 2,144,806 62.85
                 
2011-12                
CSC 2,313,422 345,327 2,658,750 77.10 2,122,860 316,882 2,439,743 70.75
PBC 52,200 -- 52,200 1.51 47,900   47,900 1.39
OCI 4,936 -- 4,936 0.14 4,529 0 4,529 0.13
Total 2,370,558 345,327 2,715,886 78.76 2,175,290 316,882 2,492,172 72.27
                 
2012-13                
CSC 2,204,005 437,736 2,641,742 75.74 2,040,412 405,245 2,445,658 70.12
PBC 46,500 -- 46,500 1.33 43,049 -- 43,049 1.23
OCI 4,801 -- 4,801 0.14 4,445 -- 4,445 0.13
Total 2,255,306 437,736 2,693,043 77.21 2,087,906 405,245 2,493,152 71.48

Source: Correctional Service Canada; Parole Board of Canada; Office of the Correctional Investigator; Statistics Canada Consumer Price Index.

Note:

Due to rounding, constant dollar amounts may not add to “Total”.

Per capita cost is calculated by dividing the total expenditures by the total Canadian population and thus represents the cost per Canadian for federal correctional services.

Constant dollars represent dollar amounts calculated on a one-year base (2002) that adjusts for inflation allowing the yearly amounts to be directly comparable. Changes in the Consumer Price Index were used to calculate constant dollars.

CSC employees are concentrated in custody centres

Figure B2

CSC employees are concentrated in custody centres - results as of end of fiscal year 2013-14

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

*These parole officers are situated within institutions, with the responsibility of preparing offenders for release.

**The “Other” category represents job classifications such as trades and food services.

***CSC has changed its definition of employee. Previously, the total number of employees included casual employees, employees on leave without pay and suspended employees. These categories have been removed from the total as of 2005-06. These numbers represent Indeterminate and Term equal to, or more than 3 months substantive employment; and Employee Status of Active and Paid Leave as of end of fiscal year 2013-14.

Due to rounding, percentages may not add to 100 percent.

Table B2
Service Area March 31, 2006 March 31, 2014
  # %
Headquarters and Central Services 2,087 14.5 2,752 15.3
Administration 1,699 11.8 2,378 13.2
Health Care 111 0.8 96 0.5
Program Staff 120 0.8 71 0.4
Correctional Officers 28 0.2 13 0.1
Instructors/Supervisors 10 0.1 10 0.1
Parole Officers/Parole Supervisors     2 <0.1
Other* 119 0.8 182 1.0
         
Custody Centres 11,229 77.8 13,783 76.5
Correctional Officers 5,965 41.3 7,654 42.5
Administration 1,914 13.3 1,918 10.6
Health Care 779 5.4 991 5.5
Program Staff 534 3.7 936 5.2
Parole Officers/Parole Supervisors** 648 4.5 705 3.9
Instructors/Supervisors 387 2.7 422 2.3
Other* 1,002 6.9 1,157 6.4
         
Community Supervision 1,125 7.8 1,477 8.2
Parole Officers/Parole Supervisors 581 4.0 728 4.0
Administration 315 2.2 373 2.1
Program Staff 172 1.2 281 1.6
Health Care 34 0.2 84 0.5
Correctional Officers 22 0.2 10 0.1
Other* 1 <0.1 1 <0.1
Total*** 14,441 100.0 18,012 100.0

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

*These parole officers are situated within institutions, with the responsibility of preparing offenders for release.

**The “Other” category represents job classifications such as trades and food services.

***CSC has changed its definition of employee. Previously, the total number of employees included casual employees, employees on leave without pay and suspended employees. These categories have been removed from the total as of 2005-06. These numbers represent Indeterminate and Term equal to, or more than 3 months substantive employment; and Employee Status of Active and Paid Leave as of end of fiscal year 2013-14.

Due to rounding, percentages may not add to 100 percent.

The cost of keeping an inmate incarcerated

Figure B3

The cost of keeping an inmate incarcerated - Federal average daily inmate cost in current dollars

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

The average daily inmate cost includes those costs associated with the operation of the institutions, such as salaries and employee benefit plan contributions, but excludes capital expenditures and expenditures related to CORCAN (a Special Operating Agency that conducts industrial operations within penitentiaries).

In 2001-02, the cost allocation methodology was refined to better reflect expenditures directly related to offenders. In addition, the cost of keeping a woman incarcerated includes the cost of maximum security units for women co-located within institutions for men.

Table B3
Categories Annual Average Costs per Offender (current $)
2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13
Incarcerated Offenders          
Maximum Security (men only) 147,135 150,808 147,418 151,484 148,330
Medium Security (men only) 93,782 98,219 99,519 104,889 99,207
Minimum Security (men only) 93,492 95,038 95,034 91,959 83,910
Women's Facilities 203,061 211,093 214,614 211,618 210,695
Exchange of Services Agreements 87,866 89,800 90,712 97,545 104,828
Incarcerated Average 109,699 113,974 114,364 117,788 112,197
           
Offenders in the Community 29,476 29,537 31,148 35,101 33,799
           
Total Incarcerated and Community 91,498 93,916 96,412 100,622 95,504

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

The average daily inmate cost includes those costs associated with the operation of the institutions, such as salaries and employee benefit plan contributions, but excludes capital expenditures and expenditures related to CORCAN (a Special Operating Agency that conducts industrial operations within penitentiaries).

In 2001-02, the cost allocation methodology was refined to better reflect expenditures directly related to offenders. In addition, the cost of keeping a woman incarcerated includes the cost of maximum security units for women co-located within institutions for men.

The number of Parole Board of Canada employees

Figure B4

The number of Parole Board of Canada employees - Full-time equivalents

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Table B4
  Full-Time Equivalents
2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 2013-14
Strategic Outcome*          
Conditional Release Decisions 299 297 310 311 325
Conditional Release Openness and Accountability 64 57 60 56 53
Record Suspension and Clemency Recommendations 40 38 37 58 79
Internal Services 39 46 54 43 48
Total 442 438 461 468 505
           
Type of Employees          
Full-time Board Members 40 40 43 44 42
Part-time Board Members 25 21 21 20 20
Staff 377 377 397 404 443
Total 442 438 461 468 505

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Note:

*As of 2006-07, the Receiver General and Treasury Board Secretariat reporting requirements have been changed from Business Line to Strategic Outcome. Consequently, data regarding Conditional Release Openness and Accountability is unavailable prior to 2006-07.

The number of employees in the Office of the Correctional Investigator

Figure B5

The number of employees in the Office of the Correctional Investigator - Full-time equivalents

Source: Office of the Correctional Investigator.

Note:

*The Office of the Correctional Investigator (OCI) may commence an investigation on receipt of a complaint by or on behalf of an offender or on its own initiative. Complaints are made by telephone, letter and during interviews with the OCI's investigative staff at federal correctional facilities. The dispositions in response to complaints involve a combination of internal responses (where the information or assistance sought by the offender can generally be provided by the OCI's investigative staff) and investigations (where, further to a review/analysis of law, policies and documentation, OCI investigative staff make an inquiry or several interventions with Correctional Service Canada and submit recommendations to address the complaint). Investigations vary considerably in terms of scope, complexity, duration and resources required.

Table B5
  Full-Time Equivalents
2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 2013-14
Type of Employees          
Correctional Investigator 1 1 1 1 1
Senior Management and Legal Counsel/Advisor 5 5 5 5 5
Investigative Services 20 20 21 25 25
Administrative Services 2 4 5 5 5
Total 28 30 32 36 36

Source: Office of the Correctional Investigator.

Conditions of Confinement is the most common area of offender complaint received by the Office of the Correctional Investigator

Figure B6

Conditions of Confinement is the most common area of offender complaint received by the Office of the Correctional Investigator - Ten most common complaints in 2013-14

Source: Office of the Correctional Investigator.

Note:

*The Office of the Correctional Investigator (OCI) may commence an investigation on receipt of a complaint by or on behalf of an offender or on its own initiative. Complaints are made by telephone, letter and during interviews with the OCI's investigative staff at federal correctional facilities. The dispositions in response to complaints involve a combination of internal responses (where the information or assistance sought by the offender can generally be provided by the OCI's investigative staff) and investigations (where, further to a review/analysis of law, policies and documentation, OCI investigative staff make an inquiry or several interventions with Correctional Service Canada and submit recommendations to address the complaint). Investigations vary considerably in terms of scope, complexity, duration and resources required.

Table B6
Category of Complaint Number of Complaints*
2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 2013-14
  # # # # #
Conditions of Confinement -- ** 469 483 509 628
Health Care (including Dental) 821 797 730 577 613
Staff Performance 370 347 310 368 412
Institutional Transfers 393 369 408 376 403
Administrative Segregation 390 346 428 424 363
Cell Property 388 407 386 399 327
Telephone 165 168 141 135 227
Visits (includes Private Family Visits) 277 205 253 213 225
Grievance Procedures 236 284 255 163 161
File Information 152 202 166 162 140
Financial Matters -- *** 78 108 109 138
Programs/Services 163 188 122 101 107
Security Classification 102 135 92 115 98
Decisions (General) - Implementation -- *** 129 227 372 93
Correspondence -- *** 115 127 84 85
Safety/Security of Offender 137 90 87   56
Mental Health -- *** 112 54 74 50
Harassment -- *** 88 119 64 42
Other**** 1,357 1,087 1,061   957
Outside OCI's Terms of Reference 174 187 232 235 309
Total 5,282 5,914 5,789 5,477 5,434

Source: Office of the Correctional Investigator.

Note:

*The Office of the Correctional Investigator (OCI) may commence an investigation on receipt of a complaint by or on behalf of an offender or on its own initiative. Complaints are made by telephone, letter and during interviews with the OCI's investigative staff at federal correctional facilities. The dispositions in response to complaints involve a combination of internal responses (where the information or assistance sought by the offender can generally be provided by the OCI's investigative staff) and investigations (where, further to a review/analysis of law, policies and documentation, OCI investigative staff make an inquiry or several interventions with Cor rectional Service Canada and submit recommendations to address the complaint). Investigations vary considerably in terms of scope, complexity, duration and resources required.

OCI has updated the categories of complaints to better reflect their corporate priorities and the changing nature of the complaints that they received in the 2010-11 fiscal year. As a result, some categories reported in previous years have been changed or removed.

The number of individual complaints processed by the OCI has decreased in recent years because the OCI has reallocated resources to sharpen its focus on systemic issues and death in custody investigations.

Section C: Offender Population

Offenders under the responsibility of Correctional Service of Canada

Figure C1

Offenders under the responsibility of Correctional Service of Canada - Total offender population

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Definitions:

Total Offender Population includes all active offenders, who are incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, offenders who are temporarily detained, offenders who are actively supervised and offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days.

In Custody includes all active offenders incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, and offenders who are temporarily detained in a CSC facility.

Temporarily Detained includes federal offenders on day parole, full parole, statutory release, or in the community supervised on a long term supervision order, as well as those who are temporarily detained or paroled for deportation.

Actively Supervised includes all active offenders on day parole, full parole or statutory release, as well as those who are in the community on long-term supervision orders.

CSC Facilities include all federal institutions and federally funded healing lodges.

In Community Under Supervision includes all active offenders on day parole, full parole, or statutory release, or in the community supervised on a long term supervision order, offenders who are temporarily detained in a non-CSC facility, and offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days.

In addition to that Total Offender Population, there are excluded groups such as:

Federal jurisdiction offenders incarcerated in a Community Correctional Centre or in a non-CSC facility. Federal jurisdiction offenders deported/extradited including offenders for whom a deportation order has been enforced by Citizenship and Immigration Canada. Federal offenders on bail which includes offenders on judicial interim release; they have appealed their conviction or sentence and have been released to await results of a new trial. Escaped includes offenders who have absconded from either a correctional facility or while on a temporary absence and whose whereabouts are unknown. Unlawfully at Large for 90 days or more. This includes offenders who have been released to the community on day parole, full parole, statutory release, or a long-term supervision order for whom a warrant of suspension has been issued at least 90 day but has not yet been executed.

Note:

*The definition of “Offender Population” changed in the 2014 edition of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview (CCRSO). As such, comparisons to editions of the CCRSO prior to 2014 should be done with caution.

Table C1
Status Offenders under the responsibility of Correctional Service of Canada
  # # # % % %
In Custody Population (CSC Facility) 15,327         66.2
Incarcerated in CSC Facility   14,674     63.4  
Temporarily Detained in CSC Facility   653     2.8  
In Community under Supervision 7,827         33.8
Temporarily Detained in non-CSC Facility   133        
Actively Supervised   7,694     33.2  
Day Parole     1,191 5.1    
Full Parole     3,231 14.0    
Statutory Release     2,929 12.7    
Long Term Supervision Order     343 0.3    
Total 23,154*         100.0

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

**In addition to this total offender population, 137 offenders were on bail, 119 offenders had escaped, 172 offenders were under federal jurisdiction serving their sentence in a non-CSC facility, 313 offenders were unlawfully at large for 90 days or more, and 405 offenders were deported or on immigration hold.

The definition of “Offender Population” changed in the 2014 edition of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview (CCRSO). As such, comparisons to editions of the CCRSO prior to 2014 should be done with caution.

The number of offenders in custody in a CSC facility has increased in the last five years

Figure C2

The number of offenders in custody in a CSC facility has increased in the last five years - results at fiscal year end 2013-14

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

*The data reflect the number of offenders in custody in a CSC facility at the end of each fiscal year. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

The term “In Custody Offenders” includes all active offenders incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, and offenders who are temporarily detained in a CSC facility.

**Source: Corrections Key Indicator Report for Adults and Youth, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada

Table C2
Year In Custody Offenders
In Custody in a CSC Facility*1 Provincial/Territorial2 Total
Sentenced Remand Other/Temporary Detention Total
2004-05 13,378 9,823 9,656 331 19,810 33,188
2005-06** 13,488 9,609 10,908 292 20,809 34,297
2006-07 13,960 10,032 12,169 300 22,500 34,460
2007-08 14,362 9,799 12,973 335 23,107 37,469
2008-09 13,950 9,931 13,548 331 23,810 37,760
2009-10 14,185 10,045 13,739 322 24,106 38,291
2010-11 14,824 10,922 13,086 436 24,443 39,267
2011-12 15,136 11,138 13,069 315 24,822 39,958
2012-13 15,313 -- -- -- -- --
2013-14 15,327 -- -- -- -- --

Source: 1Correctional Service Canada.; 2Corrections Key Indicator Report for Adults and Youth, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada

Note:

*Data reflects the number of offenders in custody at the end of each fiscal year. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

The term “In Custody in a CSC Facility” includes all active offenders incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, and offenders who are temporarily detained in a CSC facility.

**Data is unavailable from Prince Edward Island in 2005-06.

The figures for provincial and territorial offenders reflect annual average counts.

-- Data not available.

The number of admissions to federal jurisdiction has fluctuated

Figure C3

The number of admissions to federal jurisdiction has fluctuated

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

*“Other” includes transfers from other jurisdictions (exchange of services), terminations, transfers from foreign countries, and admissions where a release is interrupted as a consequence of a new conviction.

These numbers refer to the federal jurisdiction admissions during each fiscal year and may be greater than the actual number of offenders admitted, since an individual offender may be admitted more than once in a given year. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

Table C3
  2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 2013-14
Women Men Women Men Women Men Women Men Women Men
Warrant of Committal                    
1st Federal Sentence 281 3,562 294 3,703 303 3,494 229 3,535 287 3,582
All Others 31 1,346 39 1,389 43 1,268 45 1,302 40 1,237
Subtotal 312 4,908 333 5,092 346 4,762 274 4,837 327 4,819
Total 5,220 5,425 5,108 5,111 5,146
                     
Revocations 178 2,862 153 2,630 135 2,546 140 2,829 121 2,709
Total 3,040 2,783 2,681 2,969 2,830
                     
Other* 5 96 8 125 17 116 15 127 6 123
Total 101 133 133 142 129
                     
  495 7,866 494 7,847 498 7,424 429 7,793 454 7,651
Total Admissions 8,361 8,341 7,922 8,222 8,105

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

*“Other” includes transfers from other jurisdictions (exchange of services), terminations, transfers from foreign countries, and admissions where a release is interrupted as a consequence of a new conviction.

These numbers refer to the federal jurisdiction admissions during each fiscal year and may be greater than the actual number of offenders admitted, since an individual offender may be admitted more than once in a given year. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

The number of women admitted from the courts to federal Jurisdiction increased in 2013-14

Figure C4

The number of women admitted from the courts to federal Jurisdiction increased in 2013-14 - Number of warrant of committal admissions for women

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

A warrant of committal is a new admission to federal jurisdiction from the courts.

Table C4
Year Warrant of Committal Admissions Total
  Women   Men
  # % # %  
2004-05 236 5.2 4,318 94.8 4,554
2005-06 274 5.7 4,512 94.3 4,786
2006-07 318 6.2 4,791 93.8 5,109
2007-08 309 6.2 4,693 93.8 5,002
2008-09 315 6.5 4,513 93.5 4,828
2009-10 312 6.0 4,908 94.0 5,220
2010-11 333 6.1 5,092 93.9 5,425
2011-12 346 6.8 4,762 93.2 5,108
2012-13 274 5.4 4,837 94.6 5,111
2013-14 327 6.4 4,819 93.6 5,146

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

A warrant of committal is a new admission to federal jurisdiction from the courts.

Over half of total offender population in CSC facilities are serving a sentence of less than 5 years

Figure C5

Over half of total offender population in CSC facilities are serving a sentence of less than 5 years - sentence length of total offender population

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

Total Offender Population includes all active offenders who are incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, offenders who are temporarily detained, offenders who are actively supervised, and offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days.

Offenders serving a sentence less than 2 years includes offenders transferred from foreign countries or offenders under a long term supervision order who received a new sentence of less than 2 years.

Table C5
Sentence Length 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 2013-14
  # % # % # % # % # %
< than 2 years 309 1.4 277 1.2 262 1.1 280 1.2 294 1.3
2 years to < 3 years 5,713 25.9 5,927 26.2 5,785 25.3 5,467 23.8 5,298 22.9
3 years to < 4 years 3,338 15.1 3,519 15.5 3,626 15.8 3,729 16.2 3,767 16.3
4 years to < 5 years 2,113 9.7 2,202 9.7 2,290 10.0 2,363 10.3 2,447 10.6
5 years to < 6 years 1,490 6.7 1,516 6.7 1,577 6.9 1,598 7.0 1,635 7.1
6 years to < 7 years 951 4.3 996 4.4 999 4.4 1,083 4.7 1,099 4.7
7 years to < 10 years 1,525 6.9 1,580 7.0 1,656 7.2 1,722 7.5 1,790 7.7
10 years to < 15 years 1,003 4.5 988 4.4 978 4.3 961 4.2 955 4.1
15 years and more 721 3.3 674 3.0 630 2.8 608 2.6 611 2.6
Indeterminate 4,897 22.2 4,984 22.0 5,098 22.3 5,167 22.5 5,258 22.7
Total 22,080 100 22,663 100 22,901 100 22,978 100 23,154 100

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

Total Offender Population includes all active offenders who are incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, offenders who are temporarily detained, offenders who are actively supervised, and offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days.

Offenders serving a sentence less than 2 years includes offenders transferred from foreign countries or offenders under a long term supervision order who received a new sentence of less than 2 years.

Offender age at admission to federal jurisdiction is increasing

Figure C6

Offender age at admission to federal jurisdiction is increasing - percentage of warrant of committal admissions

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

A warrant of committal is a new admission to federal jurisdiction from the courts.

Due to rounding, percentages may not add to 100 percent.

Table C6
Age at Admission 2004-05 2013-14
Women Men Total Women Men Total
  # % # % # % # % # % # %
Under 18 0 0.0 5* 0.1 5 0.1 0 0.0 6** 0.1 6 0.1
18 and 19 9 3.8 194 4.5 203 4.5 6 1.8 112 2.3 118 2.3
20 to 24 30 12.7 842 19.5 872 19.1 61 18.7 849 17.6 910 17.7
25 to 29 41 17.4 727 16.8 768 16.9 58 17.7 890 18.5 948 18.4
30 to 34 42 17.8 674 15.6 716 15.7 53 16.2 736 15.3 789 15.3
35 to 39 37 15.7 624 14.5 661 14.5 41 12.5 552 11.5 593 11.5
40 to 44 35 14.8 571 13.2 606 13.3 45 13.8 495 10.3 540 10.5
45 to 49 21 8.9 300 6.9 321 7.0 24 7.3 429 8.9 453 8.8
50 to 59 18 7.6 263 6.1 281 6.2 25 7.6 514 10.7 539 10.5
60 to 69 3 1.3 100 2.3 103 2.3 10 3.1 177 3.7 187 3.6
70 and over 0 0.0 18 0.4 18 0.4 4 1.2 59 1.2 63 1.2
Total 236   4,318   4,554   327   4,819   5,146  

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

*These five offenders include two offenders in a youth custody centre and three offenders who at 17 years of age, were at the Regional Reception Centre sentenced and admitted to federal jurisdiction by the courts.

**These six offenders were admitted to a youth correctional centre.

A warrant of committal is a new admission to federal jurisdiction from the courts.

Due to rounding, percentages may not add to 100 percent.

The average age at admission is lower for Aboriginal offenders than for non-Aboriginal offenders

Figure C7

The average age at admission is lower for Aboriginal offenders than for non-Aboriginal offenders - percentage of warrant of committal admissions

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

A warrant of committal is a new admission to federal jurisdiction from the courts.

Due to rounding, percentages may not add to 100 percent.

Table C7
Age at Admission 2004-05 2013-14
Aboriginal Non- Aboriginal Total Aboriginal Non- Aboriginal Total
  # % # % # % # % # % # %
Under 18 2 0.2 3 0.1 5 0.1 4 0.4 2 0.0 6 0.1
18 and 19 61 7.0 142 3.9 203 4.5 40 3.9 78 1.9 118 2.3
20 to 24 191 22.0 681 18.5 872 19.1 240 23.7 670 16.2 910 17.7
25 to 29 177 20.4 591 16.0 768 16.9 210 20.7 738 17.9 948 18.4
30 to 34 147 17.0 569 15.4 716 15.7 154 15.2 635 15.4 789 15.3
35 to 39 115 13.3 546 14.8 661 14.5 104 10.3 489 11.8 593 11.5
40 to 44 96 11.1 510 13.8 606 13.3 100 9.9 440 10.6 540 10.5
45 to 49 40 4.6 281 7.6 321 7.0 71 7.0 382 9.2 453 8.8
50 to 59 25 2.9 256 6.9 281 6.2 73 7.2 466 11.3 539 10.5
60 to 69 10 1.2 93 2.5 103 2.3 13 1.3 174 4.2 187 3.6
70 and over 3 0.3 15 0.4 18 0.4 4 0.4 59 1.4 63 1.2
Total 867   3,687   4,554   1,013   4,133   5,146  

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

A warrant of committal is a new admission to federal jurisdiction from the courts.

Due to rounding, percentages may not add to 100 percent.

23% of the in custody offender population is aged 50 or over

Figure C8

23% of the in custody offender population is aged 50 or over - percentage of In Custody offender population

Source: Correctional Service Canada; Statistics Canada.

Note:

*In Custody Population includes all active offenders incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, and offenders who are temporarily detained in a CSC facility.

**2013 Postcensal Estimates, Demography Division, Statistics Canada and include only those age 18 and older.

In Community Under Supervision Population includes all active offenders on day parole, full parole, statutory release, or in the community supervised on a long term supervision order, offenders who are temporarily detained in a non-CSC facility, and offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days.

Due to rounding, percentages may not add to 100 percent.

Table C8
Age In Custody In Community Under Supervision Total % of Canadian Adult Population*
  # % # % # % %
Under 18 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0.0
18 and 19 62 0.4 4 0.1 66 0.3 3.3
20 to 24 1,718 11.2 561 7.2 2,279 9.8 8.7
25 to 29 2,407 15.7 968 12.4 3,375 14.6 8.5
30 to 34 2,340 15.3 970 12.4 3,310 14.3 8.6
35 to 39 1,861 12.1 865 11.1 2,726 11.8 8.2
40 to 44 1,770 11.5 838 10.7 2,608 11.3 8.4
45 to 49 1,689 11.0 844 10.8 2,533 10.9 9.1
50 to 54 1,359 8.9 839 10.7 2,198 9.5 9.8
55 to 59 932 6.1 663 8.5 1,595 6.9 8.9
60 to 64 588 3.8 482 6.2 1,070 4.6 7.5
65 to 69 350 2.3 370 4.7 720 3.1 6.2
70 and over 251 1.6 423 5.4 674 2.9 12.9
Total 15,327 100.0 7,827 100.0 23,154 100.0 100.0

Source: Correctional Service Canada; Statistics Canada.

Note:

*2013 Postcensal Estimates, Demography Division, Statistics Canada and include only those age 18 and older.

In Custody Population includes all active offenders incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, and offenders who are temporarily detained in a CSC facility.

In Community Under Supervision Population includes all active offenders on day parole, full parole, statutory release, or in the community supervised on a long term supervision order, offenders who are temporarily detained in a non-CSC facility, and offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days.

Due to rounding, percentages may not add to 100 percent.

61% of federal offenders are Caucasian

Figure C9

61% of federal offenders are Caucasian - percentage of total offender population

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

The offenders themselves identify to which race they belong. The list of categories may not fully account for all races and the race groupings information has changed; therefore, the comparisons between 2009-10 and 2013-14 should be done with caution.

“Aboriginal” includes offenders who are Inuit, Innu, Métis and North American Indian.

“Asian” includes offenders who are Arab, Arab/West Asian, Asian-East and Southeast, Asian-South, Asian West, Asiatic, Chinese, East Indian, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, South East Asian and South Asian.

“Hispanic” includes offenders who are Hispanic and Latin American.

“Black” includes offenders who are Black, British Isles, Caribbean and Sub-Saharan Africa.

“Other/Unknown” includes offenders who are European French, European-Eastern, European-Northern, European-Southern, European-Western, Multiracial/Ethnic, Oceania, offenders unable to identify to one race, Other, and unknown.

The data reflects the total offender population, which includes all active offenders who are incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, and offenders who are temporarily detained, offenders who are actively supervised, and offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days.

The data reflect the number of offenders active at the end of each fiscal year. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

Due to rounding, percentages may not add to 100 percent.

Table C9
  Total Offender Population
    2009-10   2013-14
  # % # %
Aboriginal 4,019 18.2 4,860 21.0
Inuit 187 0.8 219 0.9
Métis 1,017 4.6 1,316 5.7
North American Indian 2,815 12.7 3,325 14.4
Asian 1,041 4.7 1,348 5.8
Arab/West Asian 233 1.1 350 1.5
Asiatic 57 0.3 197 0.9
Chinese 120 0.5 143 0.6
East Indian 23 0.1 15 0.1
Filipino 58 0.3 66 0.3
Japanese 3 0.0 6 0.0
Korean 12 0.1 19 0.1
South East Asian 352 1.6 327 1.4
South Asian 183 0.8 225 1.0
Black 1,641 7.4 1,988 8.6
Caucasian 14,561 65.9 14,076 60.8
Hispanic 187 0.8 251 1.1
Hispanic 9 0.0 7 0.0
Latin American 178 0.8 244 1.1
Other/Unknown 631 2.9 631 2.7
Total 22,080 100.0 23,154 100.0

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

*Due to changes in categorization of races, 2013-14 “Asiatic” category includes Asian-East and Southeast/Asian South/Asian West/Asiatic.

The offenders themselves identify to which race they belong. The list of categories may not fully account for all races and the race groupings information has changed; therefore, the comparisons between 2009-10 and 2013-14 should be done with caution.

“Aboriginal” includes offenders who are Inuit, Innu, Métis and North American Indian.

“Asian” includes offenders who are Arab, Arab/West Asian, Asian-East and Southeast, Asian-South, Asian West, Asiatic, Chinese, East Indian, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, South East Asian and South Asian.

“Hispanic” includes offenders who are Hispanic and Latin American.

“Black” includes offenders who are Black, British Isles, Caribbean and Sub-Saharan Africa.

“Other/Unknown” includes offenders who are European French, European-Eastern, European-Northern, European-Southern, European-Western, Multiracial/Ethnic, Oceania, offenders unable to identify to one race, Other, and unknown.

The data reflects the total offender population, which includes all active offenders who are incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, and offenders who are temporarily detained, offenders who are actively supervised, and offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days.

The data reflect the number of offenders active at the end of each fiscal year. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

Due to rounding, percentages may not add to 100 percent.

The religious identification of the offender population is diverse

Figure C10

The religious identification of the offender population is diverse - percentage of total offender population

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

Religious identification is self-declared by offenders while they are incarcerated, and the categories are not comprehensive; therefore, the reader should interpret these data with caution.

“Catholic” includes offenders who are Catholic, Roman-Catholic, Greek-Catholic, Native-Catholic and Ukrainian-Catholic.

“Orthodox” includes offenders who are Greek Orthodox, Russian Orthodox and Ukrainian Orthodox.

“Protestant” includes offenders who are Anglican, Baptist, Christian Missionary, Christian Reform, Church of Science, Hutterite, Lutheran, Mennonite, Moravian, Native Spirit, Nazarene Christ, Pentecostal, Philadelphia Church of God, Presbyterian, Protestant, Salvation Army, Seventh Day Adventist, United Church, Christ Methodist, Christ Wesleyan and Worldwide Church.

“Buddhist” includes offenders who are Buddhist, Mahayana Buddhist and Theravadan Buddhist.

“Other” includes other declared identifications such as Agnostic, Asatruar Pagan, Atheist, Baha’i, Christian non specified, Christian Science, Church of Christ Scientist, Druidry Pagan, Hindu, Independent Spirit, Jehovah’s Witness, Krishna, Mormon, Pagan, Quaker (Society of Friends), Rastafarian, Scientology, Siddha Yoga, Sufiism, Taoism, Unitarian, Wicca, and Zoroastrian.

The data reflect the total offender population which includes all active offenders who are incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on a temporary absence from a CSC facility, offenders who are temporarily detained, offenders who are actively supervised, and offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days.

The data reflect the number of offenders active at the end of each fiscal year. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

Due to rounding, percentages may not add to 100 percent.

Table C10
  Total Offender Population
    2009-10   2013-14
  # % # %
Catholic 8,472 38.4 8,378 36.2
Protestant 4,369 19.8 3,129 13.5
Muslim 909 4.1 1,228 5.3
Native Spirituality 835 3.8 1,176 5.1
Buddhist 439 2.0 475 2.1
Jewish 151 0.7 177 0.8
Orthodox 105 0.5 85 0.4
Sikh 120 0.5 180 0.8
Other 1,460 6.6 2,712 11.7
None 3,465 15.7 3,534 15.3
Unknown 1,755 7.9 2,080 9.0
Total 22,080 100.0 23,154 100.0

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

Religious identification is self-declared by offenders while they are incarcerated, and the categories are not comprehensive; therefore, the reader should interpret these data with caution.

“Catholic” includes offenders who are Catholic, Roman-Catholic, Greek-Catholic, Native-Catholic and Ukrainian-Catholic.

“Orthodox” includes offenders who are Greek Orthodox, Russian Orthodox and Ukrainian Orthodox.

“Protestant” includes offenders who are Anglican, Baptist, Christian Missionary, Christian Reform, Church of Science, Hutterite, Lutheran, Mennonite, Moravian, Native Spirit, Nazarene Christ, Pentecostal, Philadelphia Church of God, Presbyterian, Protestant, Salvation Army, Seventh Day Adventist, United Church, Christ Methodist, Christ Wesleyan and Worldwide Church.

“Buddhist” includes offenders who are Buddhist, Mahayana Buddhist and Theravadan Buddhist.

“Other” includes other declared identifications such as Agnostic, Asatruar Pagan, Atheist, Baha’i, Christian non specified, Christian Science, Church of Christ Scientist, Druidry Pagan, Hindu, Independent Spirit, Jehovah’s Witness, Krishna, Mormon, Pagan, Quaker (Society of Friends), Rastafarian, Scientology, Siddha Yoga, Sufiism, Taoism, Unitarian, Wicca, and Zoroastrian.

The data reflect the total offender population which includes all active offenders who are incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on a temporary absence from a CSC facility, offenders who are temporarily detained, offenders who are actively supervised, and offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days.

The data reflect the number of offenders active at the end of each fiscal year. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

Due to rounding, percentages may not add to 100 percent.

The proportion of Aboriginal offenders in custody is higher than for non-Aboriginal offenders

Figure C11

The proportion of Aboriginal offenders in custody is higher than for non-Aboriginal offenders - percentage of In Custody offender population

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

*2006 Census, Statistics Canada.

Total Offender Population includes all active offenders who are incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on a temporary absence from a CSC facility, offenders who are temporarily detained, offenders who are actively supervised, and offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days.

In Custody includes all active offenders incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, and offenders who are temporarily detained in a CSC facility.

In Community Under Supervision includes all active offenders on day parole, full parole, statutory release, or in the community supervised on a long term supervision order, offenders who are temporarily detained in a non-CSC facility, and offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days.

The data reflect the number of offenders active at the end of each fiscal year. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

Table C11
    In Custody Population In Community Under
Supervision
Total
    # % # %  
Men            
2010-11 Aboriginal 2,998 75.1 993 24.9 3,991
  Non-Aboriginal 11,238 63.9 6,339 36.1 17,577
  Total 14,236 66.0 7,332 34.0 21,568
2011-12 Aboriginal 3,163 75.9 1,006 24.1 4,169
  Non-Aboriginal 11,344 64.5 6,247 35.5 17,591
  Total 14,507 66.7 7,253 33.3 21,760
2012-13 Aboriginal 3,361 74.8 1,135 25.2 4,496
  Non-Aboriginal 11,336 65.2 6,046 34.8 17,832
  Total 14,697 67.2 7,181 32.8 21,878
2013-14 Aboriginal 3,324 73.5 1,200 26.5 4,524
  Non-Aboriginal 11,372 65.0 6,135 35.0 17,507
  Total 14,696 66.7 7,335 33.3 22,031
             
Women            
2010-11 Aboriginal 196 66.7 98 33.3 294
  Non-Aboriginal 392 48.9 409 51.1 801
  Total 588 53.7 507 46.3 1,095
2011-12 Aboriginal 216 67.7 103 32.3 319
  Non-Aboriginal 413 50.2 409 49.8 822
  Total 629 55.1 512 44.9 1,141
2012-13 Aboriginal 205 66.3 104 33.7 309
  Non-Aboriginal 411 52.0 380 48.0 791
  Total 616 56.0 484 44.0 1,100
2013-14 Aboriginal 218 64.9 118 35.1 336
  Non-Aboriginal 413 52.5 374 47.5 787
  Total 631 56.2 492 43.8 1,123

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

Total Offender Population includes all active offenders who are incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on a temporary absence from a CSC facility, offenders who are temporarily detained, offenders who are actively supervised, and offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days.

In Custody includes all active offenders incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, and offenders who are temporarily detained in a CSC facility.

In Community Under Supervision includes all active offenders on day parole, full parole, statutory release, or in the community supervised on a long term supervision order, offenders who are temporarily detained in a non-CSC facility, and offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days.

The data reflect the number of offenders active at the end of each fiscal year. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

The majority of in custody offenders are classified as medium security risk

Figure C12

The majority of in custody offenders are classified as medium security risk - percentage of classified In Custody offenders

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

The data represent the offender security level decision as of end of fiscal year 2013-14.

In Custody Population includes all active offenders incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on a temporary absence from a CSC facility, and offenders who are temporarily detained in a CSC facility.

Table C12
Security Risk Level Aboriginal Non-Aboriginal Total
  # % # % # %
Minimum 520 15.4 2,569 23.5 3,089 21.6
Medium 2,294 68.1 6,907 63.2 9,201 64.3
Maximum 554 16.4 1,458 13.3 2,012 14.1
Total 3,368 100.0 10,934 100.0 14,302 100.0
             
Not Yet Determined* 174   851   1,025  
             
Total 3,542   11,785   15,327  

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

*The “Not Yet Determined” category includes offenders who have not yet been classified.

The data represent the offender security level decision, as of end of fiscal year 2013-14.

In Custody Population includes all active offenders incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on a temporary absence from a CSC facility, and offenders who aretemporarily detained in a CSC facility.

Admissions with a life or indeterminate sentence were stable in 2013-14

Figure C13

Admissions with a life or indeterminate sentence were stable in 2013-14 - number of warrant of committal admissions

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

*Although life sentences and indeterminate sentences both may result in imprisonment for life, they are different. A life sentence is a sentence of life imprisonment, imposed by a judge at the time of sentence, for example, for murder. An indeterminate sentence is a result of a designation, where an application is made to the court to declare an offender a Dangerous Offender, and the consequence of this designation is imprisonment for an indeterminate period. This table combines offenders serving life sentences and offenders serving indeterminate sentences.

A warrant of committal is a new admission to federal jurisdiction from the courts.

Table C13
Year Aboriginal Offenders Non-Aboriginal Offenders Total
Women Men Total Women Men Total Women Men Total
2004-05 1 30 31 5 113 118 6 143 149
2005-06 4 41 45 9 122 131 13 163 176
2006-07 4 32 36 10 122 132 14 154 168
2007-08 4 34 38 4 133 137 8 167 175
2008-09 4 34 38 2 131 133 6 165 171
2009-10 6 44 50 7 136 143 13 180 193
2010-11 3 35 38 6 131 137 9 166 175
2011-12 8 41 49 9 119 128 17 160 177
2012-13 6 46 52 1 119 120 7 165 172
2013-14 7 36 43 7 124 131 14 160 174

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

This table combines offenders serving life sentences and offenders serving indeterminate sentences.

Although life sentences and indeterminate sentences both may result in imprisonment for life, they are different. A life sentence is a sentence of life imprisonment, imposed by a judge at the time of sentence, for example, for murder. An indeterminate sentence is a result of a designation, where an application is made to the court to declare an offender a Dangerous Offender, and the consequence of this designation is imprisonment for an indeterminate period. A warrant of committal is a new admission to federal jurisdiction from the courts.

Offenders with Life or Indeterminate sentences represent 23% of the total offender population

Figure C14

Offenders with Life or Indeterminate sentences represent 23% of the total offender population - sentence imposed for the total offender population

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

*Although life sentences and indeterminate sentences may both result in imprisonment for life, they are different. A life sentence is a sentence of life imprisonment, imposed by a judge at the time of sentence, for example, for murder. An indeterminate sentence is a result of a designation, where an application is made to the court to declare an offender a Dangerous Offender, and the consequence of this designation is imprisonment for an indeterminate period. The Dangerous Sexual Offender and Habitual Offender designations were replaced with Dangerous Offender Legislation in 1977.

Table C14
  Total Offender
Population
Current Status
In Custody
in a CSC Facility
In Community Under Supervision
Incarcerated Day Parole Full Parole Other***
  # %        
Offenders with a life sentence for:            
1st Degree Murder 1,114 4.8 920 40 154 0
2nd Degree Murder 3,385 14.6 1,969 190 1,226 0
Other Offences* 210 0.9 130 6 74 0
Total 4,709 20.3 3,019 236 1,454 0
             
Offenders with indeterminate sentences resulting from the special designation of:
Dangerous Offender 503 2.2 487 7 9 0
Dangerous Sexual Offender 22 0.1 11 0 11 0
Habitual Offenders 3 0.0 0 0 3 0
Total 528 2.3 498 7 23 0
             
Offenders serving an indeterminate sentence (due to a special designation) and a life sentence (due to an offence):
  21 0.1 19 0 2 0
Total offenders with Life and/or Indeterminate sentence 5,258 22.7 3,536 243 1,479 0
Offenders Serving Determinate sentences** 17,896 77.3 11,791 968 1,760 3,377
Total 23,154 100.0 15,327 1,211 3,239 3,377

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

*“Other offences” include Schedule 1, Schedule 2 and Non-Schedule types of offences.

**This includes 50 offenders designated as Dangerous Offenders who are serving determinate sentences.

***“Other” in the Community Under Supervision includes offenders on statutory release or on a long term supervision order.

Among the 21 offenders serving an indeterminate sentence (due to a special designation) and a life sentence (due to an offence), there was one Habitual Offender.

68% of offenders are serving a sentence for a violent offence*

Figure C15

68% of offenders are serving a sentence for a violent offence* - percentage of total offender population 2013-14

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

*Violent offences include Murder I, Murder II and Schedule I offences.

Schedule I is comprised of sexual offences and other violent crimes excluding first and second degree murder (see the Corrections and Conditional Release Act).

Schedule II is comprised of serious drug offences or conspiracy to commit serious drug offences (see the Corrections and Conditional Release Act).

In cases where the offender is serving a sentence for more than one offence, the data reflect the most serious offence.

Table C15
Offence Category Aboriginal Non-Aboriginal Total
Women Men Total Women Men Total Women Men Total
Murder I 9 192 201 33 898 931 42 1,090 1,132
Percent 2.7 4.2 4.1 4.2 5.1 5.1 3.7 4.9 4.9
                   
Murder II 55 620 675 107 2,623 2,730 162 3,243 3,405
Percent 16.4 13.7 13.9 13.6 15.0 14.9 14.4 14.7 14.7
                   
Schedule I 187 2,734 2,921 255 8,147 8,402 442 10,881 11,323
Percent 55.7 60.4 60.1 32.4 46.5 45.9 39.4 49.4 48.9
                   
Schedule II 46 381 427 239 3,257 3,496 285 3,638 3,923
Percent 13.7 8.4 8.8 30.4 18.6 19.1 25.4 16.5 16.9
                   
Non-Schedule 39 597 636 153 2,582 2,735 192 3,179 3,371
Percent 11.6 13.2 13.1 19.4 14.7 15.0 17.1 14.4 14.6
  336 4,524   787 17,507   1,123 22,031  
Total 4,860   18,294   23,154  

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

*Violent offences include Murder I, Murder II and Schedule I offences.

Schedule I is comprised of sexual offences and other violent crimes excluding first and second degree murder (see the Corrections and Conditional Release Act).

Schedule II is comprised of serious drug offences or conspiracy to commit serious drug offences (see the Corrections and Conditional Release Act).

In cases where the offender is serving a sentence for more than one offence, the data reflect the most serious offence.

The data reflect the total offender population, which includes all active offenders who are incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, offenders who are temporarily detained, offenders who are actively supervised, and offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days.

These figures are based on the Total Offender Population as of end of fiscal year 2013-14.

The number of Aboriginal offenders has increased

Figure C16

The number of Aboriginal offenders has increased - Aboriginal offender population

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

In Custody Population includes all active offenders incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, and offenders who are temporarily detained in a CSC facility.

In Community Under Supervision Population includes all active offenders on day parole, full parole, statutory release, or in the community supervised on a long term supervision order, offenders who are temporarily detained in a non-CSC facility, and offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days.

Table C16
Aboriginal Offenders   Fiscal Year
2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 2013-14
In Custody            
Atlantic Region Men 114 116 131 153 181
  Women 9 10 17 15 14
Quebec Region Men 282 330 375 382 420
  Women 12 11 12 11 15
Ontario Region Men 415 438 488 495 440
  Women 25 41 37 36 36
Prairie Region Men 1,475 1,633 1,665 1,778 1,682
  Women 105 104 118 110 114
Pacific Region Men 463 481 504 553 601
  Women 19 30 32 33 39
National Total Men 2,749 2,998 3,163 3,361 3,324
  Women 170 196 216 205 218
  Total 2,919 3,194 3,379 3,566 3,542
             
In Community Under Supervision            
Atlantic Region Men 49 44 32 42 50
  Women 6 9 8 12 11
Quebec Region Men 85 88 116 121 134
  Women 1 5 2 2 7
Ontario Region Men 148 153 138 157 181
  Women 17 20 24 20 20
Prairie Region Men 500 502 492 582 584
  Women 52 50 52 55 63
Pacific Region Men 224 206 228 233 251
  Women 18 14 17 15 17
National Total Men 1,006 993 1,006 1,135 1,200
  Women 94 98 103 104 118
  Total 1,100 1,091 1,109 1,239 1,318
             
Total In Custody & In Community Under Supervision 4,019 4,285 4,488 4,805 4,860

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

In Custody Population includes all active offenders incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, and offenders who are temporarily detained in a CSC facility.

In Community Under Supervision Population includes all active offenders on day parole, full parole, statutory release, or in the community supervised on a long term supervision order, offenders who are temporarily detained in a non-CSC facility, and offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days.

Regional statistics for the Correctional Service of Canada account for data relating to the northern territories in the following manner: data for Nunavut are reported in the Ontario Region, data for the Northwest Territories are reported in the Prairies region, and data for the Yukon Territories are reported in the Pacific Region.

The total number of admissions to administrative segregation has fluctuated

Figure C17

The total number of admissions to administrative segregation has fluctuated - number of admissions to administrative segregation

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

These reports count admissions, not offenders. Offenders admitted multiple times to segregation are counted once for each admission. Offenders segregated under paragraph (f), subsection 44(1) of the Corrections and Conditional Release Act (Disciplinary Segregation) are not included.

Administrative segregation is the involuntary or voluntary separation, when specific legal requirements are met, of an inmate from the general population, other than pursuant to a disciplinary decision.

Voluntary administrative segregation is when the inmate requests placement in administrative segregation, and the Institutional Head believes, on reasonable grounds, that the continued presence of the inmate in the general population would jeopardize the inmate's own safety and that there is no reasonable alternative to placement in administrative segregation.

Involuntary administrative segregation is when the placement meets the requirements of subsection 31(3) of the Corrections and Conditional Release Act and the placement in administrative segregation is not voluntary.

Table C17
Year and Type of Administrative Segregation By Gender By Race
Women Men Total Aboriginal Non-Aboriginal Total
2009-10            
Involuntary 333 5,885 6,218 1,592 4,626 6,218
Voluntary 18 1,272 1,290 379 911 1,290
Total 351 7,157 7,508 1,971 5,537 7,508
             
2010-11            
Involuntary 384 6,293 6,677 1,816 4,861 6,677
Voluntary 12 1,402 1,414 450 964 1,414
Total 396 7,695 8,091 2,266 5,825 8,091
             
2011-12            
Involuntary 393 6,548 6,941 1,832 5,109 6,941
Voluntary 24 1,358 1,382 436 946 1,382
Total 417 7,906 8,323 2,268 6,055 8,323
             
2012-13            
Involuntary 390 6,322 6,712 1,929 4,783 6,712
Voluntary 26 1,483 1,509 513 996 1,509
Total 416 7,805 8,221 2,442 5,779 8,221
             
2013-14            
Involuntary 331 6,249 6,580 1,839 4,741 6,580
Voluntary 16 1,541 1,557 536 1,021 1,557
Total 347 7,790 8,137 2,375 5,762 8,137

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

These reports count admissions, not offenders. Offenders admitted multiple times to segregation are counted once for each admission. Offenders segregated under paragraph (f), subsection 44(1) of the Corrections and Conditional Release Act (Disciplinary Segregation) are not included.

Administrative segregation is the involuntary or voluntary separation, when specific legal requirements are met, of an inmate from the general population, other than pursuant to a disciplinary decision.

Voluntary administrative segregation is when the inmate requests placement in administrative segregation, and the Institutional Head believes, on reasonable grounds, that the continued presence of the inmate in the general population would jeopardize the inmate's own safety and that there is no reasonable alternative to placement in administrative segregation.

Involuntary administrative segregation is when the placement meets the requirements of subsection 31(3) of the Corrections and Conditional Release Act and the placement in administrative segregation is not voluntary.

Almost half of admissions to administrative segregation stay for less than 30 days

Figure C18

Almost half of admissions to administrative segregation stay for less than 30 days - length of stay in administrative segregation

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

These reports count admissions, not offenders. Offenders admitted multiple times to segregation are counted once for each admission. Offenders segregated under paragraph (f), subsection 44(1) of the Corrections and Conditional Release Act (Disciplinary Segregation) are not included.

Administrative segregation is the involuntary or voluntary separation, when specific legal requirements are met, of an inmate from the general population, other than pursuant to a disciplinary decision.

Table C18
Length of Stay in Administrative Segregation By Gender By Race  
Women Men Aboriginal Non-Aboriginal Total
  # % # % # % # % # %
2013-14                    
< 30 days 13 92.9 354 46.6 121 48.4 246 46.9 367 47.4
30-60 days 0 0 142 18.7 38 15.2 104 19.8 142 18.3
61-90 days 0 0 76 10.0 21 8.4 55 10.5 76 9.8
91-120 days 0 0 50 6.6 13 5.2 37 7.1 50 6.5
> 120 days 1 7.1 138 18.2 57 22.8 82 15.6 139 18.0
Total 14 100.0 760 100.0 250 100.0 524 100.0 774 100.0

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

These reports count admissions, not offenders. Offenders admitted multiple times to segregation are counted once for each admission. Offenders segregated under paragraph (f), subsection 44(1) of the Corrections and Conditional Release Act (Disciplinary Segregation) are not included.

Administrative segregation is the involuntary or voluntary separation, when specific legal requirements are met, of an inmate from the general population, other than pursuant to a disciplinary decision.

The number of offender deaths while in custody has fluctuated

Figure C19

The number of offender deaths while in custody has fluctuated - number of offender deaths

Source: Adult Correctional Services Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada

Note:

*Other causes of death include: natural causes, accidental deaths, death as a result of a legal intervention, other causes of death and where cause of death was not stated.

**For the calculation of rates, the total actual in-count numbers between 2001-02 and 2010-11 was used as the denominator.

The data on cause of death are subject to change following an official review or investigation, and should be used/interpreted with caution. The data presented were provided by the Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics at Statistics Canada, and may not reflect the outcome of recent reviews or investigations on cause of death.

Table C19
Year Type of Death
  Homicide   Suicide   Other* Total
  # % # % # % #
Federal              
2001-02 1 2.0 13 25.5 37 72.5 51
2002-03 2 4.1 12 24.5 35 71.4 49
2003-04 8 11.9 11 16.4 48 71.6 67
2004-05 3 6.1 9 18.4 37 75.5 49
2005-06 3 6.1 10 20.4 36 73.5 49
2006-07 3 4.9 10 16.4 48 78.7 61
2007-08 1 2.5 5 12.5 34 85.0 40
2008-09 2 3.1 9 13.8 54 83.1 65
2009-10 1 2.0 9 18.4 39 79.6 49
2010-11 5 10.0 4 8.0 41 82.0 50
Total 29 5.5 92 17.4 409 77.2 530
               
Provincial              
2001-02 0 0.0 17 41.5 24 58.5 41
2002-03 2 7.1 14 50.0 12 42.9 28
2003-04 0 0.0 7 38.9 11 61.1 18
2004-05 0 0.0 12 25.0 36 75.0 48
2005-06 2 4.0 20 40.0 28 56.0 50
2006-07 0 0.0 8 23.5 26 76.5 34
2007-08 0 0.0 6 20.7 23 79.3 29
2008-09 1 3.0 7 21.2 25 75.8 33
2009-10 0 0.0 0 0.0 24 100.0 24
2010-11 0 0.0 1 4.3 22 95.7 23
Total 5 1.5 92 28.1 231 70.3 328
               
Total Federal and Provincial Offender Deaths 34 4.0 184 21.5 640 74.6 858

Source: Adult Correctional Services Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada

Note:

*Other causes of death include: natural causes, accidental deaths, death as a result of a legal intervention, other causes of death and where cause of death was not stated.

Percent calculation include deaths where the cause was unknown. Between 1999-00 and 2010-11, there were 29 deaths in federal custody and 83 deaths in provincial custody where the cause was unknown.

The data on cause of death are subject to change following an official review or investigation, and should be used/interpreted with caution. The data presented were provided by the Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics at Statistics Canada, and may not reflect the outcome of recent reviews or investigations on cause of death.

The number of escapes has declined

Figure C20

The number of escapes has declined - number of escapees from Federal institutions

Source: Security, Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

The data represent the number of escape incidents from federal facilities during each fiscal year. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

An escape incident can involve more than one offender.

Table C20
Type of Escapes 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 2013-14
Escapes from Multi-level Institutions 0 0 0 0 0
Number of Escapees 0 0 0 0 0
Escapes from Maximum Security Level Institutions 0 0 0 0 0
Number of Escapees 0 0 0 0 0
Escapes from Medium Security Level Institutions 1 0 0 0 1
Number of Escapees 1 0 0 0 1
Escapes from Minimum Security Level Institutions 28 14 15 18 10
Number of Escapees 30 17 16 24 12
Total Number of Escape Incidents 29 14 15 18 11
Total Number of Escapees 31 17 16 24 13

Source: Security, Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

The data represent the number of escape incidents from federal facilities during each fiscal year. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

An escape incident can involve more than one offender.

The population of offenders in the community under supervision has decreased in the past 5 years

Figure C21

The population of offenders in the community under supervision has decreased in the past 5 years - results at fiscal year end 2013-14

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

*A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

The data presented above reflect the offender population in the community under supervision which includes all active offenders on day parole, full parole, statutory release, offenders who are temporarily detained in a non-CSC facility, and offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days.

Day parole is a type of conditional release granted by the Parole Board of Canada whereby offenders are permitted to participate in community-based activities in preparation for full parole or statutory release. The conditions require offenders to return nightly to an institution or half-way house unless otherwise authorized by the Parole Board of Canada.

Full parole is a type of conditional release granted by the Parole Board of Canada whereby the remainder of the sentence is served under supervision in the community.

Statutory release refers to a conditional release that is subject to supervision after the offender has served two-thirds of the sentence.

Table C21
Year Supervision Type of Offenders
Day Parole Full Parole Statutory Release Totals % change*
Women Men Women Men Women Men Women Men Both Both
2004-05 105 969 284 3,488 83 2,313 472 6,770 7,242 -4.4
2005-06 85 1,096 306 3,407 79 2,298 470 6,801 7,271 0.4
2006-07 108 1,071 319 3,493 80 2,426 507 6,990 7,497 3.1
2007-08 114 1,062 326 3,477 112 2,395 552 6,934 7,486 -0.1
2008-09 106 1,017 343 3,421 113 2,682 562 7,120 7,682 2.6
2009-10 108 1,084 329 3,419 94 2,612 531 7,115 7,646 -0.5
2010-11 79 1,017 314 3,443 109 2,601 502 7,061 7,563 -1.1
2011-12 123 1,123 257 3,155 127 2,668 507 6,946 7,453 -1.5
2012-13 116 1,108 225 2,932 137 2,805 478 6,845 7,323 -1.7
2013-14 106 1,105 225 3,014 153 2,874 484 6,993 7,477 2.1

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

*Percent change is measured from the previous year.

A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

The data presented above reflect the offender population in the community under supervision which includes all active offenders on day parole, full parole, statutory release, offenders who are temporarily detained in a non-CSC facility, and offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days.

Day parole is a type of conditional release granted by the Parole Board of Canada whereby offenders are permitted to participate in community-based activities in preparation for full parole or statutory release. The conditions require offenders to return nightly to an institution or half-way house unless otherwise authorized by the Parole Board of Canada.

Day parole is a type of conditional release granted by the Parole Board of Canada whereby the remainder of the sentence is served under supervision in the community.

Statutory release refers to a conditional release that is subject to supervision after the offender has served two-thirds of the sentence.

Provincial/territorial community corrections population decreased in 2011-12

Figure C22

Provincial/territorial community corrections population decreased in 2011-12 - average monthly offender counts

Source: Corrections Key Indicator Report for Adults and Youth, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Note:

A conditional sentence is a disposition of the court where the offender serves a term of imprisonment in the community under specified conditions. This type of sentence can only be imposed in cases where the term of imprisonment would be less than two years. Conditional sentences have been a provincial and territorial sentencing option since September 1996.

To allow for comparisons, the numbers exclude information from Newfoundland & Labrador, Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia, Northwest Territories, and Nunavut, as complete statistics for these jurisdictions were not available. As a result of these changes, the data presented in this year’s report may not be comparable to the data reported in previous versions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview.

Table C22
Year Average Monthly Offender
Counts on Probation
Average Monthly Offender
Counts on Conditional Sentence
Total
2002-03 98,280 12,688 110,968
2003-04 94,162 13,050 107,212
2004-05 91,991 13,319 105,309
2005-06 91,663 13,401 105,063
2006-07 92,835 12,907 105,741
2007-08 94,709 12,605 107,314
2008-09 95,874 13,186 109,060
2009-10 99,427 13,363 112,790
2010-11 99,907 12,987 112,894
2011-12 96,643 12,572 109,215

Source: Corrections Key Indicator Report for Adults and Youth, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Note:

A conditional sentence is a disposition of the court where the offender serves a term of imprisonment in the community under specified conditions. This type of sentence can only be imposed in cases where the term of imprisonment would be less than two years. Conditional sentences have been a provincial and territorial sentencing option since September 1996.

To allow for comparisons, the numbers exclude information from Newfoundland & Labrador, Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia, Northwest Territories, and Nunavut, as complete statistics for these jurisdictions were not available. As a result of these changes, the data presented in this year’s report may not be comparable to the data reported in previous versions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview.

The number of offenders on provincial parole has decreased over the past decade

Figure C23

The number of offenders on provincial parole has decreased over the past decade - number of offenders on provincial parole (average monthly counts)

Source: Corrections Key Indicator Report for Adults and Youth, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Note:

Provincial parole boards operate in Quebec and Ontario. On April 1, 2007, the Parole Board of Canada assumed responsibility for parole decisions relating to offenders serving sentences in British Columbia’s provincial correctional facilities. The Parole Board of Canada has jurisdiction over granting parole to provincial offenders in the Atlantic and Prairie provinces, British Columbia, and to territorial offenders in the Yukon, Nunavut and Northwest Territories.

Table C23
Year Average Monthly Counts on Provincial Parole
Provincial Boards Parole Board of Canada** Total Percent Change
Quebec Ontario British Columbia* Total
2002-03 581 210 223 1,014 195 1,209 -25,1
2003-04 550 146 189 885 190 1,075 -11,1
2004-05 517 127 166 810 176 986 -8,3
2005-06 628 152 147 926 163 1,089 10.4
2006-07 593 142 120 855 136 991 -9.0
2007-08 581 205 n/a 785 237 1,022 3.1
2008-09 533 217 n/a 750 190 940 -8.0
2009-10 506 194 n/a 700 168 868 -7.7
2010-11 482 171 n/a 653 151 804 -7.4
2011-12 481 179 n/a 660 130 790 -1.8

Source: Corrections Key Indicator Report for Adults and Youth, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Note:

*On April 1, 2007, the Parole Board of Canada assumed responsibility for parole decisions relating to offenders serving sentences in British Columbia’s provincial correctional facilities.

**The data represent the number of provincial offenders who are released from custody on the authority of the Parole Board of Canada and supervised by the Correctional Service of Canada.

Provincial parole boards operate in Quebec and Ontario. The Parole Board of Canada has jurisdiction over granting parole to provincial offenders in the Atlantic and Prairie provinces, British Columbia, and to territorial offenders in the Yukon, Nunavut and Northwest Territories.

Section D: Conditional Release

The percentage of offenders released from federal penitentiaries at statutory release is increasing

Figure D1

The percentage of offenders released from federal penitentiaries at statutory release is increasing - percentage of offenders released on statutory release

Source: Correctional Service of Canada.

Note:

The data includes all releases from federal penitentiaries in a given fiscal year excluding offenders with quashed sentences, offenders who died in custody LTSO releases, offenders released at warrant expiry and offenders transferred to foreign countries. An offender may be released more than once a year in cases where a previous release was subject to revocation, suspension, temporary detention , or interruption.

Statutory release refers to a conditional release that is subject to supervision after the offender has served two-thirds of the sentence.

A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

Table D1
  Aboriginal Non-Aboriginal Total Offender Population
Year Statutory Release Total Releases Percent* Statutory Release Total Releases Percent* Statutory Release Total Releases Percent*
2004-05 1,121 1,486 75.4% 3,971 6,029 65.9% 5,092 7,515 67.8%
2005-06 1,196 1,589 75.3% 4,021 6,245 64.4% 5,217 7,834 66.6%
2006-07 1,203 1,540 78.1% 4,047 6,165 65.6% 5,250 7,705 68.1%
2007-08 1,362 1,696 80.3% 4,124 6,283 65.6% 5,486 7,979 68.8%
2008-09 1,419 1,698 83.6% 4,346 6,441 67.5% 5,765 8,139 70.8%
2009-10 1,362 1,671 81.5% 4,190 6,196 67.6% 5,552 7,867 70.6%
2010-11 1,268 1,526 83.1% 3,826 5,777 66.2% 5,094 7,303 69.8%
2011-12 1,387 1,678 82.7% 3,940 5,626 70.0% 5,327 7,304 72.9%
2012-13 1,520 1,838 82.7% 4,033 5,688 70.9% 5,553 7,526 73.8%
2013-14 1,620 1,916 84.6% 4,015 5,795 69.3% 5,635 7,711 73.1%

Source: Correctional Service of Canada.

Note:

*Percentage is calculated based on the number of statutory releases compared to the total releases for each offender group.

The data includes all releases from federal penitentiaries in a given fiscal year excluding offenders with quashed sentences, offenders who died in custody LTSO releases, offenders released at warrant expiry and offenders transferred to foreign countries. An offender may be released more than once a year in cases where a previous release was subject to revocation, suspension, temporary detention , or interruption.

Statutory release refers to a conditional release that is subject to supervision after the offender has served two-thirds of the sentence.

A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

The percentage of offenders released from federal penitentiaries on day and full parole is decreasing

Figure D2

The federal full parole grant rate for Aboriginal offenders increased for the third consecutive year - percentage of offenders released

Source: Correctional Service of Canada.

Note:

Percentage is calculated based on the number of day and full paroles compared to the total releases for each offender group.

The data includes all releases from federal penitentiaries in a given fiscal year excluding offenders with quashed sentences, offenders who died in custody LTSO releases, offenders released at warrant expiry and offenders transferred to foreign countries. An offender may be released more than once a year in cases where a previous release was subject to revocation, suspension, temporary detention, or interruption.

Day parole is a type of conditional release granted by the Parole Board of Canada whereby offenders are permitted to participate in community-based activities in preparation for full parole or statutory release. The conditions require offenders to return nightly to an institution or half-way house unless otherwise authorized by the Parole Board of Canada.

Full parole is a type of conditional release granted by the Parole Board of Canada whereby the remainder of the sentence is served under supervision in the community.

A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

Table D2
    Aboriginal Non-Aboriginal Total Offender Population
Year   Day Parole Full Parole Total Releases Day Parole Full Parole Total Releases Day Parole Full Parole Total Releases
2004-05 # 335 30 1,486 1,858 200 6,029 2,193 230 7,515
  % 22.5% 2.0%   30.8% 3.3%   29.2% 3.1%  
2005-06 # 370 23 1,589 1,990 234 6,245 2,360 257 7,834
  % 23.3% 1.4%   31.9% 3.7%   30.1% 3.3%  
2006-07 # 322 15 1,540 1,937 181 6,165 2,259 196 7,705
  % 20.9% 1.0%   31.4% 2.9%   29.3% 2.5%  
2007-08 # 316 18 1,696 1,984 175 6,283 2,300 193 7,979
  % 18.6% 1.1%   31.6% 2.8%   28.8% 2.4%  
2008-09 # 263 16 1,698 1,877 218 6,441 2,140 234 8,139
  % 15.5% 0.9%   29.1% 3.4%   26.3% 2.9%  
2009-10 # 296 13 1,671 1,842 164 6,196 2,138 177 7,867
  % 17.7% 0.8%   29.7% 2.6%   27.2% 2.2%  
2010-11 # 247 11 1,526 1,812 139 5,777 2,059 150 7,303
  % 16.2% 0.7%   31.4% 2.4%   28.2% 2.1%  
2011-12 # 278 13 1,678 1,570 116 5,626 1,848 129 7,304
  % 16.6% 0.8%   27.9% 2.1%   25.3% 1.8%  
2012-13 # 309 9 1,838 1,545 110 5,688 1,854 119 7,526
  % 16.8% 0.5%   27.2% 1.9%   24.6% 1.6%  
2013-14 # 279 17 1,916 1,633 147 5,795 1,912 164 7,711
  % 14.6% 0.9%   28.2% 2.5%   24.8% 2.1%  

Source: Correctional Service of Canada.

Note:

Percentage is calculated based on the number of day and full paroles compared to the total releases for each offender group.

The data includes all releases from federal penitentiaries in a given fiscal year excluding offenders with quashed sentences, offenders who died in custody LTSO releases, offenders released at warrant expiry and offenders transferred to foreign countries. An offender may be released more than once a year in cases where a previous release was subject to revocation, suspension, temporary detention , or interruption.

Day parole is a type of conditional release granted by the Parole Board of Canada whereby offenders are permitted to participate in community-based activities in preparation for full parole or statutory release. The conditions require offenders to return nightly to an institution or half-way house unless otherwise authorized by the Parole Board of Canada.

Full parole is a type of conditional release granted by the Parole Board of Canada whereby the remainder of the sentence is served under supervision in the community.

A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

The federal day and full parole grant rates increased in 2013-14

Figure D3

The federal day and full parole grant rates increased in 2013-14 - Federal parole grant rate (%)

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Note:

The grant rate represents the percentage of pre-release reviews resulting in a grant by the Parole Board of Canada.

Day parole is a type of conditional release granted by the Parole Board of Canada in which offenders are permitted to participate in community-based activities in preparation for full parole or statutory release. The conditions require offenders to return nightly to an institution or half-way house unless otherwise authorized by the Parole Board of Canada. Not all offenders apply for day parole, and some apply more than once before being granted day parole.

Full parole is a type of conditional release granted by the Parole Board of Canada in which the remainder of the sentence is served under supervision in the community. The Parole Board of Canada must review the cases of all offenders for full parole at the time prescribed by legislation, unless the offender advises the Parole Board of Canada in writing that he/she does not wish to be considered for full parole.

On March 28, 2011, Bill C-59 (Abolition of Early Parole Act) eliminated the accelerated parole review (APR) process, affecting first-time non-violent offenders serving sentences for schedule II and non-scheduled offences, who in 2011-12 were no longer eligible for an APR review. These offenders are now assessed on general reoffending as compared to the APR risk assessment, which considered the risk of committing a violent offence only. To better illustrate historical trends, APR decisions were excluded.

Grant rates should be read with caution. Even though comparisons were made between federal regular day parole and full parole grant rates only, they nevertheless contain an APR residual effect between 2011-12 and 2013-14. A sufficiently large proportion of APR-affected population were granted regular federal day parole and full parole, perhaps inflating the grant rates.

Table D3
Type of Release Year Granted Denied Grant Rate (%) APR*
Women Men Women Men Women Men Total Directed Total
Day Parole 2004-05 169 2,062 23 723 88.0 74.0 74.9 846 1,152
  2005-06 128 2,111 25 719 83.7 74.6 75.1 970 1,345
  2006-07 143 2,039 31 876 82.2 69.9 70.6 984 1,428
  2007-08 162 2,001 22 776 88.0 72.1 73.0 977 1,482
  2008-09 135 1,908 24 825 84.9 69.8 70.6 1,000 1,525
  2009-10 151 1,959 40 967 79.1 67.0 67.7 947 1,491
  2010-11 134 1,856 40 1,151 77.0 61.7 62.6 970 1,591
  2011-12 248 2,492 64 1,443 79.5 63.3 64.5 0 0
  2012-13 287 2,823 71 1,416 80.2 66.6 67.7 14 21
  2013-14 244 2,828 52 1,272 82.4 69.0 69.9 39 47
Full Parole 2004-05 56 545 71 1,724 44.1 24.0 25.1 916 920
  2005-06 38 533 67 1,924 36.2 21.7 22.3 1,057 1,066
  2006-07 41 523 81 2,035 33.6 20.4 21.0 1,038 1,042
  2007-08 40 490 70 1,990 36.4 19.8 20.5 1,030 1,036
  2008-09 43 495 61 2,017 41.3 19.7 20.6 1,097 1,100
  2009-10 32 459 89 2,077 26.4 18.1 18.5 1,004 1,010
  2010-11 20 435 85 2,206 19.0 16.5 16.6 1,046 1,059
  2011-12 76 643 126 2,317 37.6 21.7 22.7 0 0
  2012-13 90 913 141 2,328 39.0 28.2 28.9 26 26
  2013-14 84 901 103 2,200 29.1 29.1 30.0 126 142

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Note:

The grant rate represents the percentage of pre-release reviews resulting in a grant by the Parole Board of Canada.

Day parole is a type of conditional release granted by the Parole Board of Canada in which offenders are permitted to participate in community-based activities in preparation for full parole or statutory release. The conditions require offenders to return nightly to an institution or half-way house unless otherwise authorized by the Parole Board of Canada. Not all offenders apply for day parole, and some apply more than once before being granted day parole.

Full parole is a type of conditional release granted by the Parole Board of Canada in which the remainder of the sentence is served under supervision in the community. The Parole Board of Canada must review the cases of all offenders for full parole at the time prescribed by legislation, unless the offender advises the Parole Board of Canada in writing that he/she does not wish to be considered for full parole.

*On March 28, 2011, Bill C-59 (Abolition of Early Parole Act) eliminated the accelerated parole review (APR) process, affecting first-time non-violent offenders serving sentences for schedule II and non-scheduled offences, who in 2011-12 were no longer eligible for an APR review. These offenders are now assessed on general reoffending as compared to the APR risk assessment, which considered the risk of committing a violent offence only. To better illustrate historical trends, APR decisions were excluded from grant rates. However information on APR (those who were directed and total eligible) is included separately in the table for the reader. Grant rates should be read with caution. Even though comparisons were made between federal regular day parole and full parole grant rates only, they nevertheless contain an APR residual effect between 2011-12 and 2013-14. A sufficiently large proportion of APR-affected population were granted regular federal day parole and full parole, perhaps inflating the grant rates.

The federal full parole grant rate for Aboriginal offenders increased for the fourth consecutive year

Figure D4

The federal full parole grant rate for Aboriginal offenders Increased for the fourth consecutive year - Federal parole grant rate (%)

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Note:

The grant rate represents the percentage of pre-release reviews resulting in a grant by the Parole Board of Canada.

Day parole is a type of conditional release granted by the Parole Board of Canada in which offenders are permitted to participate in community-based activities in preparation for full parole or statutory release. The conditions require offenders to return nightly to an institution or half-way house unless otherwise authorized by the Parole Board of Canada. Not all offenders apply for day parole, and some apply more than once before being granted day parole.

Full parole is a type of conditional release granted by the Parole Board of Canada in which the remainder of the sentence is served under supervision in the community. The Parole Board of Canada must review the cases of all offenders for full parole at the time prescribed by legislation, unless the offender advises the Parole Board of Canada in writing that he/she does not wish to be considered for full parole.

On March 28, 2011, Bill C-59 (Abolition of Early Parole Act) eliminated the accelerated parole review (APR) process, affecting first-time non-violent offenders serving sentences for schedule II and non-scheduled offences, who in 2011-12 were no longer eligible for an APR review. These offenders are now assessed on general reoffending as compared to the APR risk assessment, which considered the risk of committing a violent offence only. To better illustrate historical trends, APR decisions were excluded. Grant rates should be read with caution. Even though comparisons were made between federal regular day parole and full parole grant rates only, they nevertheless contain an APR residual effect between 2011-12 and 2013-14. A sufficiently large proportion of APR-affected population were granted regular federal day parole and full parole, perhaps inflating the grant rates.

Table D4
Type of Release Year Aboriginal Non-Aboriginal Total Number Granted/Denied
Number Granted Number Denied Grant Rate (%) Number Granted Number Denied Grant Rate (%)
Day Parole 2004-05 429 101 80.9 1,802 645 73.6 2,977
  2005-06 488 120 80.3 1,751 624 73.7 2,983
  2006-07 444 169 72.4 1,738 738 70.2 3,089
  2007-08 403 126 76.2 1,760 672 72.4 2,961
  2008-09 377 156 70.7 1,666 693 70.6 2,892
  2009-10 395 196 66.8 1,715 811 67.9 3,117
  2010-11 361 276 56.7 1,629 915 64.0 3,181
  2011-12 447 326 57.8 2,293 1,181 66.0 4,247
  2012-13 544 314 63.4 2,566 1,173 68.6 4,597
  2013-14 504 277 64.5 2,568 1,047 71.0 4,396
Full Parole 2004-05 114 305 27.2 487 1,490 24.6 2,396
  2005-06 105 383 21.5 466 1,608 22.5 2,562
  2006-07 76 394 16.2 488 1,722 22.1 2,680
  2007-08 81 348 18.9 449 1,712 20.8 2,590
  2008-09 73 378 16.2 465 1,700 21.5 2,616
  2009-10 50 386 11.5 441 1,780 19.9 2,657
  2010-11 70 458 13.3 385 1,833 17.4 2,746
  2011-12 74 445 14.3 645 1,998 24.4 3,162
  2012-13 98 468 17.3 905 2,001 31.1 3,472
  2013-14 117 398 22.7 868 1,905 31.3 3,288

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Note:

The grant rate represents the percentage of pre-release reviews resulting in a grant by the Parole Board of Canada.

Day parole is a type of conditional release granted by the Parole Board of Canada in which offenders are permitted to participate in community-based activities in preparation for full parole or statutory release. The conditions require offenders to return nightly to an institution or half-way house unless otherwise authorized by the Parole Board of Canada. Not all offenders apply for day parole, and some apply more than once before being granted day parole.

Full parole is a type of conditional release granted by the Parole Board of Canada in which the remainder of the sentence is served under supervision in the community. The Parole Board of Canada must review the cases of all offenders for full parole at the time prescribed by legislation, unless the offender advises the Parole Board of Canada in writing that he/she does not wish to be considered for full parole.

On March 28, 2011, Bill C-59 (Abolition of Early Parole Act) eliminated the accelerated parole review (APR) process, affecting first-time non-violent offenders serving sentences for schedule II and non-scheduled offences, who in 2011-12 were no longer eligible for an APR review. These offenders are now assessed on general reoffending as compared to the APR risk assessment, which considered the risk of committing a violent offence only. To better illustrate historical trends, APR decisions were excluded. Grant rates should be read with caution. Even though comparisons were made between federal regular day parole and full parole grant rates only, they nevertheless contain an APR residual effect between 2011-12 and 2013-14. A sufficiently large proportion of APR-affected population were granted regular federal day parole and full parole, perhaps inflating the grant rates.

Federal parole hearings involving an Aboriginal Cultural Advisor decreased

Figure D5

Federal parole hearings involving an Aboriginal Cultural Advisor decreased - Number of Federal parole hearings held with an Aboriginal Cultural Advisor

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Note:

The presence of an Aboriginal Cultural Advisor is an alternative approach to the traditional parole hearing, and was introduced by the Parole Board of Canada to ensure that conditional release hearings were sensitive to Aboriginal cultural values and traditions. This type of hearing is available to both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal offenders.

Table D5
Year Hearings held with an Aboriginal Cultural Advisor
Aboriginal Offenders Non-Aboriginal Offenders All Offenders
Total Hearings With Cultural Advisor Total Hearings With Cultural Advisor Total Hearings With Cultural Advisor
  # # % # # % # # %
2004-05 1,355 614 45.3 5,025 98 2.0 6,380 712 11.2
2005-06 1,410 642 45.5 5,169 100 1.9 6,579 742 11.3
2006-07 1,367 606 44.3 5,269 79 1.5 6,636 685 10.3
2007-08 1,252 471 37.6 4,749 50 1.1 6,001 521 8.7
2008-09 1,204 425 35.3 4,416 53 1.2 5,620 478 8.5
2009-10 1,160 361 31.1 4,520 59 1.3 5,680 420 7.4
2010-11 1,193 437 36.6 4,387 52 1.2 5,580 489 8.8
2011-12 1,209 423 35.0 4,702 47 1.0 5,911 470 8.0
2012-13 1,275 424 33.3 4,685 45 1.0 5,960 469 7.9
2013-14 878 340 38.7 3,724 35 0.9 4,602 375 8.1

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Note:

The presence of an Aboriginal Cultural Advisor is an alternative approach to the traditional parole hearing, and was introduced by the Parole Board of Canada to ensure that conditional release hearings were sensitive to Aboriginal cultural values and traditions. This type of hearing is available to both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal offenders.

Proportion of sentence served prior to being released on parole decreased

Figure D6

Proportion of sentence served prior to being released on parole decreased - Timing of first parole supervision in the sentence

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Note:

Timing of parole in the sentence refers to the percentage of the sentence served at the time the first day parole or full parole starts during the sentence. In most cases a full parole is preceded by a day parole.

These calculations are based on sentences under federal jurisdiction, excluding life sentences and indeterminate sentences.

Offenders (other than those serving life or indeterminate sentences or subject to judicial determination) normally become eligible for full parole after serving 1/3 of their sentence or seven years, whichever is less. Eligibility for day parole is normally at 6 months before full parole eligibility.

The increases in the average proportion of time served after 2010-11 are in part due to the effect of Bill C-59 and were driven primarily by offenders serving sentences for schedule II and non-scheduled offences (some of whom were former APR-eligible offenders).

Table D6
Year Type of Supervision
First Day Parole First Full Parole
Women Men Total Women Men Total
  Percentage of sentence incarcerated
2004-05 28.8 33.3 32.9 37.2 39.6 39.4
2005-06 28.5 32.9 32.5 36.1 39.3 38.9
2006-07 27.4 33.2 32.6 37.2 39.3 39.1
2007-08 30.3 32.3 32.1 37.9 38.4 38.4
2008-09 28.2 32.4 31.9 36.6 38.7 38.4
2009-10 29.5 33.2 32.8 36.1 38.5 38.2
2010-11 29.2 31.8 31.6 36.6 38.0 37.9
2011-12 35.0 38.1 37.8 40.3 41.7 41.6
2012-13 38.9 38.3 38.4 45.4 46.8 46.7
2013-14 34.8 38.2 37.9 44.0 46.8 46.4

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Note:

Timing of parole in the sentence refers to the percentage of the sentence served at the time the first day parole or full parole starts during the sentence. In most cases a full parole is preceded by a day parole.

These calculations are based on sentences under federal jurisdiction, excluding life sentences and indeterminate sentences.

Offenders (other than those serving life or indeterminate sentences or subject to judicial determination) normally become eligible for full parole after serving 1/3 of their sentence or seven years, whichever is less. Eligibility for day parole is normally at 6 months before full parole eligibility.

The increases in the average proportion of time served after 2010-11 are in part due to the effect of Bill C-59 and were driven primarily by offenders serving sentences for schedule II and non-scheduled offences (some of whom were former APR-eligible offenders).

Aboriginal offenders serve a higher proportion of their sentences before being released on parole

Figure D7

Aboriginal offenders serve a higher proportion of their sentences before being released on parole - Timing of first parole supervision in the sentence (%)

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Note:

Timing of parole in the sentence refers to the percentage of the sentence served at the time the first day parole or full parole starts during the sentence. In most cases a full parole is preceded by a day parole.

These calculations are based on sentences under federal jurisdiction, excluding life sentences and indeterminate sentences.

Offenders (other than those serving life or indeterminate sentences or subject to judicial determination) normally become eligible for full parole after serving 1/3 of their sentence or seven years, whichever is less. Eligibility for day parole is normally at 6 months before full parole eligibility.

The increases in the average proportion of time served after 2010-11 are in part due to the effect of Bill C-59 and were driven primarily by offenders serving sentences for schedule II and non-scheduled offences (some of whom were former APR-eligible offenders).

Table D7
Year Type of Supervision
First Day Parole First Full Parole
Aboriginal Non-Aboriginal Total Aboriginal Non-Aboriginal Total
  Percentage of sentence incarcerated
2004-05 37.2 32.1 32.9 42.2 39.0 39.4
2005-06 36.5 31.8 32.5 42.2 38.5 38.9
2006-07 37.4 31.9 32.6 41.1 38.9 39.1
2007-08 38.4 31.1 32.1 41.1 38.1 38.4
2008-09 38.2 31.0 31.9 41.1 38.2 38.4
2009-10 38.7 31.9 32.8 41.2 37.9 38.2
2010-11 37.2 30.8 31.6 41.3 37.5 37.9
2011-12 41.8 37.1 37.8 44.0 41.3 41.6
2012-13 42.1 37.7 38.4 48.7 46.5 46.7
2013-14 42.8 37.2 37.9 49.2 46.0 46.4

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Note:

Timing of parole in the sentence refers to the percentage of the sentence served at the time the first day parole or full parole starts during the sentence. In most cases a full parole is preceded by a day parole.

These calculations are based on sentences under federal jurisdiction, excluding life sentences and indeterminate sentences.

Offenders (other than those serving life or indeterminate sentences or subject to judicial determination) normally become eligible for full parole after serving 1/3 of their sentence or seven years, whichever is less. Eligibility for day parole is normally at 6 months before full parole eligibility.

The increases in the average proportion of time served after 2010-11 are in part due to the effect of Bill C-59 and were driven primarily by offenders serving sentences for schedule II and non-scheduled offences (some of whom were former APR-eligible offenders).

The majority of federal day paroles are successfully completed

Figure D8

The majority of federal day paroles are successfully completed - Day parole outcomes

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Note:

*Revocation for Breach of Conditions includes revocation with outstanding charges.

A day parole is considered successful if it was completed without a return to prison for a breach of conditions or for a new offence.

Table D8
Federal Full Parole Outcomes* 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2013-14 2013-14
  # % # % # % # % # %
Successful Completion                    
Regular 1,720 86.0 1,750 86.8 1,911 87.4 2,737 88.6 2,759 89.5
Accelerated 808 86.4 871 90.2 364 89.2 21 95.5 27 100.0
Total 2,528 86.1 2,621 87.9 2,275 87.7 2,758 88.7 2,786 89.6
Revocation for Breach of Conditions**                    
Regular 223 11.2 215 10.7 232 10.6 287 9.3 285 9.3
Accelerated 102 10.9 72 7.5 35 8.6 1 4.5   0.0
Total 325 11.1 287 9.6 267 10.3 288 9.3 285 9.2
Revocation with Non-Violent Offence                    
Regular 42 2.1 40 2.0 37 1.7 58 1.9 32 1.0
Accelerated 23 2.5 23 2.4 8 2.0 0 0.0 0 0.0
Total 65 2.2 63 2.1 45 1.7 58 1.9 32 1.0
Revocation with Violent Offence***                    
Regular 15 0.8 10 0.5 7 0.3 6 0.2 5 0.2
Accelerated 2 0.2 0 0.0 1 0.2 0 0.0   0.0
Total 17 0.6 10 0.3 8 0.3 6 0.2 5 0.2
Total                    
Regular 2,000 68.1 2,015 67.6 2,187 84.3 3,088 99.3 3,081 99.1
Accelerated 935 31.9 966 32.4 408 15.7 22 0.7 27 0.9
Total 2,935 100.0 2,981 100.0 2,595 100.0 3,110 100.0 3,108 100.0

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Note:

*Revocation for Breach of Conditions includes revocation with outstanding charges.

**Violent offences include murder and Schedule I offences (listed in the Corrections and Conditional Release Act) such as assaults, sexual offences, arson, abduction, robbery and some weapon offences.

A day parole is considered successful if it was completed without a return to prison for a breach of conditions or for a new offence.

The majority of federal full paroles are successfully completed

Figure D9

The majority of federal full paroles are successfully completed - Full parole outcomes

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Note:

*Excludes offenders serving indeterminate sentences because they do not have a warrant expiry date and can only successfully complete full parole upon [their] death.

**Revocation for Breach of Conditions includes revocation with outstanding charges.

A full parole is considered successful if it was completed without a return to prison for a breach of conditions or for a new offence.

Table D9
Federal Full Parole Outcomes* 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 2013-14
  # % # % # % # % # %
Successful Completion                
Regular 351 79.1 360 80.2 335 82.5 425 80.0 576 81.9
Accelerated 625 73.2 663 74.4 688 76.9 589 89.0 245 93.2
Total 976 75.2 1,023 76.3 1,023 78.6 1,014 85.0 821 85.0
Revocation for Breach of Conditions**                    
Regular 53 11.9 55 12.2 54 13.3 78 14.7 99 14.1
Accelerated 162 19.0 168 18.9 145 16.2 50 7.6 15 5.7
Total 215 16.6 223 16.6 199 15.3 128 10.7 114 11.8
Revocation with Non-Violent Offence                    
Regular 33 7.4 26 5.8 15 3.7 22 4.1 25 3.6
Accelerated 63 7.4 54 6.1 57 6.4 22 3.3 3 1.1
Total 96 7.4 80 6.0 72 5.5 44 3.7 28 2.9
Revocation with Violent Offence***                    
Regular 7 1.6 8 1.8 2 0.5 6 1.1 3 0.4
Accelerated 4 0.5 6 0.7 5 0.6 1 0.2 0 0.0
Total 11 0.8 14 1.0 7 0.5 7 0.6 3 0.3
Total                    
Regular 444 34.2 449 33.5 406 31.2 531 44.5 703 72.8
Accelerated 854 65.8 891 66.5 895 68.8 662 55.5 263 27.2
Total 1,298 100.0 1,340 100.0 1,301 100.0 1,193 100.0 966 100.0

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Note:

*Excludes offenders serving indeterminate sentences because they do not have a warrant expiry date and can only successfully complete full parole upon [their] death.

**Revocation for Breach of Conditions includes revocation with outstanding charges.

***Violent offences include murder and Schedule I offences (listed in the Corrections and Conditional Release Act) such as assaults, sexual offences, arson, abduction, robbery and some weapon offences.

A full parole is considered successful if it was completed without a return to prison for a breach of conditions or for a new offence.

Statutory releases have the lowest rates of successful completion

Figure D10

Statutory releases have the lowest rates of successful completion - Statutory release outcomes

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Note:

*Revocation for Breach of Conditions includes revocation with outstanding charges.

A statutory release is considered successful if it was completed without a return to prison for a breach of conditions or for a new offence.

An offender serving a determinate sentence, if he/she is not detained, will be subject to statutory release after serving 2/3 of his/her sentence if he/she is not on full parole at that time. On statutory release, an offender is subject to supervision until the end of his/her sentence.

Table D10
Statutory Release Outcomes 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 2013-14
  # % # % # % # % # %
Successful Completion 3,706 60.8 3,454 61.8 3,429 61.3 3,745 60.2 3,816 62.1
Revocation for Breach of Conditions* 1,663 27.3 1,479 26.5 1,554 27.8 1,849 29.7 1,800 29.3
Revocation with Non-Violent Offence 579 9.5 530 9.5 486 8.7 501 8.1 454 7.4
Revocation with Violent Offence** 149 2.4 122 2.2 122 2.2 123 2.0 70 1.1
Total 6,097 100 5,585 100 5,591 100 6,218 100 6,140 100

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Note:

*Revocation for Breach of Conditions includes revocation with outstanding charges.

**Violent offences include murder and Schedule I offences (listed in the Corrections and Conditional Release Act) such as assaults, sexual offences, arson, abduction, robbery and some weapon offences.

A statutory release is considered successful if it was completed without a return to prison for a breach of conditions or for a new offence.

An offender serving a determinate sentence, if he/she is not detained, will be subject to statutory release after serving 2/3 of his/her sentence if he/she is not on full parole at that time. On statutory release, an offender is subject to supervision until the end of his/her sentence.

Over the past decade, the rate of violent conviction for offenders while under supervision has declined

Figure D11

Over the past decade, the rate of violent conviction for offenders while under supervision has declined - per 1,000 supervised offenders

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

*Supervised offenders include offenders who are on parole, statutory release, those temporarily detained in federal institutions, and those who are unlawfully at large.

**Violent offences include murder and Schedule I offences (listed in the Corrections and Conditional Release Act) such as assaults, sexual offences, arson, abduction, robbery and some weapon offences.

Day and full parole include those offenders serving determinate and indeterminate sentences.

The dotted line between 2012-13 and 2013-14 is intended to signify that due to delays in the court process, these numbers under-represent the actual number of convictions, as verdicts may not have been reached by year-end.

Table D11
Year # of Offenders Convicted for Violent Offences Rate per 1,000 Supervised Offenders*
Day Parole Full Parole Statutory Release Total Day Parole Full Parole Statutory Release
2004-05 32 36 201 269 26 9 67
2005-06 16 28 178 222 12 7 58
2006-07 25 21 213 259 19 6 67
2007-08 18 22 213 253 14 6 68
2008-09 22 17 152 191 18 4 45
2009-10 17 16 149 182 13 4 46
2010-11 10 19 122 151 8 5 38
2011-12 8 10 122 140 6 3 35
2012-13 6 11 123 140 5 3 35
2013-14** 5 3 70 78 4 1 20

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Note:

*Supervised offenders include offenders who are on parole, statutory release, those temporarily detained in federal institutions, and those who are unlawfully at large.

**Due to delays in the court processes, the numbers under-represent the actual number of convictions, as verdicts may not have been reached by year-end.

Day and full parole include those offenders serving determinate and indeterminate sentences.

Violent offences include murder and Schedule I offences (listed in the Corrections and Conditional Release Act) such as assaults, sexual offences, arson, abduction, robbery and some weapon offences.

The number of offenders granted temporary absences has been stable in the last three years

Figure D12

The number of offenders granted temporary absences has been stable in the last three years

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

A temporary absence is permission given to an eligible offender to be away from the normal place of confinement for medical, administrative, community service, family contact, personal development for rehabilitative purposes, or compassionate reasons, including parental responsibilities.

A work release is a structured program of release of specified duration for work or community service outside the penitentiary, under the supervision of a staff member or other authorized person or organization.

These numbers depict the number of offenders who received at least one temporary absence permit (excluding those for medical purposes) or at least one work release. An offender may be granted more than one temporary absence permit or work release over a period of time.

Table D12
Year Temporary Absences Work Releases
Escorted Unescorted
  # of Offenders # of Permits # of Offenders # of Permits # of Offenders # of Permits
2004-05 2,502 35,082 519 3,500 333 769
2005-06 2,558 36,959 498 2,939 355 997
2006-07 2,519 39,421 499 4,122 340 727
2007-08 2,500 41,473 464 3,679 301 615
2008-09 2,321 36,116 431 3,649 239 654
2009-10 2,207 35,769 386 3,280 250 1,051
2010-11 2,288 40,031 351 3,095 321 1,303
2011-12 2,686 44,366 414 3,851 406 816
2012-13 2,745 47,794 441 3,677 424 752
2013-14 2,711 49,141 446 3,930 318 476

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

A temporary absence is permission given to an eligible offender to be away from the normal place of confinement for medical, administrative, community service, family contact, personal development for rehabilitative purposes, or compassionate reasons, including parental responsibilities.

A work release is a structured program of release of specified duration for work or community service outside the penitentiary, under the supervision of a staff member or other authorized person or organization.

These numbers depict the number of offenders who received at least one temporary absence permit (excluding those for medical purposes) or at least one work release. An offender may be granted more than one temporary absence permit or work release over a period of time.

Section E: Statistics on Special Applications of Criminal Justice

The number of initial detention reviews decreased in 2013-14

Figure E1

The number of initial detention reviews decreased in 2013-14 - number of initial detention reviews

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Note:

According to the Corrections and Conditional Release Act, an offender entitled to statutory release after serving two-thirds of the sentence may be held in custody until warrant expiry if it is established that the offender is likely to commit, before the expiry of his/her sentence, an offence causing death or serious harm, a serious drug offence or a sex offence involving a child.

Table E1
Year Outcome of Initial Detention Reviews Total
Detained Statutory Release Total
Abor. Non - Abor. Total % Abor. Non - Abor. Total % Abor. Non - Abor.
1999-00 82 126 208 93.7 3 11 14 6.3 85 137 222
2000-01 69 146 215 93.9 6 8 14 6.1 75 154 229
2001-02 75 182 257 94.5 2 13 15 5.5 77 195 272
2002-03 82 163 245 86.3 14 25 39 13.7 96 188 284
2003-04 72 207 279 92.1 8 16 24 7.9 80 223 303
2004-05 69 156 225 91.1 6 16 22 8.9 75 172 247
2005-06 75 158 233 89.3 11 17 28 10.7 86 175 261
2006-07 64 158 222 88.8 4 24 28 11.2 68 182 250
2007-08 85 162 247 93.2 7 11 18 6.8 92 173 265
2008-09 104 152 256 95.9 5 6 11 4.1 109 158 267
2009-10 95 166 261 93.9 2 15 17 6.1 97 181 278
2010-11 112 127 239 94.5 4 10 14 5.5 116 137 253
2011-12 88 119 207 96.7 3 4 7 3.3 91 123 214
2012-13 90 142 232 98.3 4 0 4 1.7 94 142 236
2013-14 84 116 200 96.2 4 4 8 3.8 88 120 208
Total 1,246 2,280 3,526 93.1 83 180 263 6.9 1,329 2,460 3,789

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Note:

According to the Corrections and Conditional Release Act, an offender entitled to statutory release after serving two-thirds of the sentence may be held in custody until warrant expiry if it is established that the offender is likely to commit, before the expiry of his/her sentence, an offence causing death or serious harm, a serious drug offence or a sex offence involving a child.

78% of judicial review hearings result in earlier parole eligibility

Figure E2

78% of judicial review hearings result in earlier parole eligibility

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

*Of the 50 offenders no longer under active supervision, 19 were in custody, 26 were deceased, four were deported, and one was unlawfully at large.

Judicial review is an application to the court for a reduction in the time required to be served before being eligible for parole. Judicial review procedures apply to offenders who have been sentenced to imprisonment for life without eligibility for parole until more than fifteen years of their sentence has been served.

Offenders can apply when they have served at least 15 years of their sentence.

Judicial reviews are conducted in the province where the conviction took place.

Table E2
Province/Territory of Judicial Review Parole Ineligibility Reduced by Court Reduction Denied by Court Total
1st degree murder 2nd degree murder 1st degree murder 2nd degree murder 1st degree murder 2nd degree murder
Northwest Territories 0 0 0 0 0 0
Nunavut 0 0 0 0 0 0
Yukon 0 0 0 0 0 0
Newfoundland & Labrador 0 0 0 0 0 0
Prince Edward Island 0 0 0 0 0 0
Nova Scotia 1 1 1 0 2 1
New Brunswick 1 0 0 0 1 0
Quebec 65 15 4 2 69 17
Ontario 22 0 20 1 42 1
Manitoba 8 3 1 0 9 3
Saskatchewan 6 0 3 0 9 0
Alberta 19 0 7 0 26 0
British Columbia 20 1 6 0 26 1
Sub-total 142 20 42 3 184 23
Total 162 45 207

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

These numbers represent total decisions as of end of fiscal year 2013-14.

Judicial reviews are conducted in the province where the conviction took place.

The number of dangerous offender designations

Figure E3

The number of dangerous offender designations per year

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

*The number of Dangerous Offenders designated per year does not include overturned decisions.

Offenders who have died since receiving designations are no longer classified as “active”; however, they are still represented in the above graph, which depicts the total number of offenders “designated”.

Dangerous Offender legislation came into effect in Canada on October 15, 1977, replacing the Habitual Offender and Dangerous Sexual Offender provisions that were abolished. A Dangerous Offender (DO) is an individual given an indeterminate or determinate sentence on the basis of a particularly violent crime or pattern of serious violent offences where it is judged that the offender’s behaviour is unlikely to be inhibited by normal standards of behavioural restraint (see section 753 of the Criminal Code of Canada). Determinate sentences for Dangerous Offenders must be a minimum punishment of imprisonment for a term of two years and have an order that the offender be subject to a long-term supervision period that does not exceed 10 years.

In addition to the DOs, there were 22 Dangerous Sexual Offenders and four Habitual Offenders.

Table E3
Province/Territory
of Designation
All Designations (# designated since 1978) Active Dangerous Offenders
# of Indeterminate Offenders # of Determinate Offenders Total
Newfoundland & Labrador 11 8 0 8
Nova Scotia 19 16 0 16
Prince Edward Island 0 0 0 0
New Brunswick 8 7 0 7
Quebec 84 66 12 78
Ontario 280 212 22 234
Manitoba 20 18 1 19
Saskatchewan 63 46 9 55
Alberta 55 45 2 47
British Columbia 125 94 3 97
Yukon 2 1 1 2
Northwest Territories 9 9 0 9
Nunavut 2 1 0 1
Total 678 523 50 573

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

Numbers presented are as of end of fiscal year 2013-14.

The number of Dangerous Offenders declared per year does not include overturned decisions.

Offenders who have died since receiving designations are no longer classified as “active”; however, they are still represented in the total number of offenders “designated”.

Most long term supervision orders are for a 10-year period

Figure E4

Most long term supervision orders are for a 10-year period - number of long term supervision orders imposed

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

Long Term Supervision Order (LTSO) legislation, which came into effect in Canada on August 1, 1997, allows the court to impose a sentence of two years or more for the predicate offence and order that the offender be supervised in the community for a further period not exceeding 10 years.

Forty-four offenders under these provisions have died and 91 offenders have completed their long term supervision period.

Table E4
Province or Territory of Order Length of Supervision Order (years) Current Status
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Total Incarcerated DP, FP or SR* LTSO period LTSO** interrupted Total
Newfoundland & Labrador 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 7 7 0 1 4 0 5
Nova Scotia 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 1 0 12 18 3 1 10 0 14
Prince Edward Island 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 2 0 0 0 0 0
New Brunswick 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 7 10 4 0 4 0 8
Quebec 1 1 3 2 53 12 27 10 1 187 297 98 14 128 5 245
Ontario 0 0 0 4 12 8 16 17 0 191 248 65 15 112 13 205
Manitoba 0 0 0 0 1 1 2 1 0 28 33 6 2 18 0 26
Saskatchewan 0 1 0 1 11 9 8 9 1 40 80 37 11 14 7 69
Alberta 0 0 0 0 7 1 0 1 0 55 64 19 4 29 1 53
British Columbia 0 0 0 1 10 4 5 6 0 93 119 31 11 51 3 96
Yukon 0 0 0 0 1 0 3 0 0 8 12 2 0 7 1 10
Northwest Territories 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 2 3 1 0 1 0 2
Nunavut 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 1 0 3 6 0 0 4 0 4
Total 1 2 4 8 105 35 61 47 2 634 899 266 59 382 30 737

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

*This category includes offenders whose current status is either supervised on day parole (DP), full parole (FP) or statutory release (SR).

**This category includes offenders convicted of a new offence while on the supervision portion of an LTSO. When this occurs, the LTSO supervision period is interrupted until the offender has served the new sentence to its warrant expiry date. At that time, the LTSO supervision period resumes where it left off.

These numbers are as of end of fiscal year 2013-14.

Forty-four offenders under these provisions have died and 91 offenders have completed their long term supervision period.

The number of record suspension applications received has decreased

Figure E5

The number of record suspension applications received has decreased

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Note:

*Refers to record suspension applications received between March 13 and March 31, 2012.

The number of record suspension applications received and accepted in 2012-13 should be considered with caution as the Record Suspension program, formerly the Pardon Program, underwent substantial changes between 2010-11 and 2012-13.

**Source: Royal Canadian Mounted Police Criminal Records Division, 2009.

On March 13, 2012, Bill C-10 amended the CRA by replacing the term “pardon” with the term “record suspension”. The Record Suspension and Clemency program involves the review of record suspension applications, the ordering of record suspensions and the making of clemency recommendations. The amendments to the CRA increased the waiting periods for a record suspension to five years for all summary convictions and to ten years for all indictable offences. Individuals convicted of sexual offences against minors (with certain exceptions) and those who have been convicted of more than three indictable offences, each with a sentence of two or more years, became ineligible for a record suspension.

Table E5
Applications Processed 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 2013-14
Applications Received     1,039* 19,523 14,253
Applications Accepted     793 11,291 9,632
Percentage Accepted     76.3 57.8 67.6
Type of Record Suspension Decision          
Ordered       6,030 8,515
Refused       208 777
Total Record Suspension Applications Ordered/Refused       6,238 9,292
Percentage Ordered       96.7 91.6
Type of Pardon Decision          
Granted 16,250 9,393 3,270 612 8,278
Issued 7,889 2,693
Denied 437 293 276 130 588
Total Pardon Applications Granted/Issued/Denied 24,576 12,379 3,546 742** 8,866**
Percentage Granted/Issued 98.2 97.6 92.2 82.5 93.4
Total Pardon/Record Suspension Revocations/Cessations          
Revocations*** 194 71 1,132 991 669
Cessations 727 1,055 907 706 588
Total Revocations/Cessations 921 1,126 2,039 1,697 1,257
Cumulative Granted/Issued**** 441,244 453,330 456,600 463,242 480,035
Cumulative Revocations/Cessations**** 16,213 17,339 19,378 21,075 22,332

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Note:

*Refers to record suspension applications received between March 13 and March 31, 2012.

**Refers to pardon applications received on or before March 12, 2012.

The number of record suspension applications received and accepted in 2012-13 should be considered with caution as the Record Suspension program, formerly the Pardon Program, underwent substantial changes between 2010-11 and 2012-13. The grant/issued rate for pardon applications processed in 2012/13 should be considered with caution. The Record Suspension program, formerly the Pardon Program, underwent substantial changes between 2010/11 and 2012/13.

***Revocations fluctuate due to resource re-allocation to deal with backlogs.

On June 29, 2010, Bill C-23A amended the CRA by extending the ineligibility periods for certain applications for pardon. Additionally, the bill resulted in significant changes to program operations. The process was modified to include additional inquiries and new, more exhaustive investigations by staff for some applications and required additional review time by Board members. New concepts of merit and disrepute to the administration of justice form part of the statute. As a result of these new changes, application processing time increased. On March 13, 2012, Bill C-10 amended the CRA by replacing the term “pardon” with the term “record suspension”. The Record Suspension and Clemency program involves the review of record suspension applications, the ordering of record suspensions and the making of clemency recommendations. The amendments to the CRA increased the waiting periods for a record suspension to five years for all summary convictions and to ten years for all indictable offences. Individuals convicted of sexual offences against minors (with certain exceptions) and those who have been convicted of more than three indictable offences, each with a sentence of two or more years, became ineligible for a record suspension.

****Cumulative data reflects activity since 1970, when the pardon process was established under the Criminal Records Act.

Section F: Victims of Crime

Victimization rates for theft of personal property have increased

Figure F1

Victimization rates for theft of personal property have increased - per 1,000 population

Source: General Social Survey, Statistics Canada, 1999, 2004 and 2009.

Note:

*Assault data includes incidents of spousal violence. In previous editions of this document, the victimization data excluded incidents of spousal violence.

Rates are based on 1,000 population, 15 years of age and older, across the 10 provinces.

Table F1
Type of Incident Year
1999 2004 2009
Theft of Personal Property 75 93 108
Sexual Assault 21 21 24
Robbery 9 11 13
Assault* 81 75 80

Source: General Social Survey, Statistics Canada, 1999, 2004 and 2009.

Note:

*Assault data includes incidents of spousal violence. In previous editions of this document, the victimization data excluded incidents of spousal violence.

Rates are based on 1,000 population, 15 years of age and older, across the 10 provinces.

The majority of victims of violent crime are under 30

Figure F2

The majority of victims of violent crime are under 30

Source: Incident-based Uniform Crime Reporting Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Note:

*Population estimates are as of July 1, 2010.

The data excludes traffic violations, victims whose age is above 89, victims whose age is unknown and victims whose gender is unknown.

Due to rounding, totals may not add to 100 percent.

Table F2 (2012)
Age of Victim Men Women Total
  # % # % # %
0 to 4 years 1,761 1.0 2,053 1.1 3,814 1.1
5 to 9 years 3,803 2.2 3,724 2.0 7,527 2.1
10 to 14 years 11,716 6.7 12,109 6.5 23,825 6.6
15 to 19 years 25,294 14.4 27,674 14.9 52,968 14.6
20 to 24 years 24,712 14.1 29,380 15.8 54,092 15.0
25 to 29 years 21,477 12.2 23,897 12.9 45,374 12.5
30 to 34 years 17,282 9.8 20,001 10.8 37,283 10.3
35 to 39 years 14,829 8.4 17,403 9.4 32,232 8.9
40 to 44 years 14,607 8.3 15,456 8.3 30,063 8.3
45 to 49 years 13,568 7.7 13,038 7.0 26,606 7.4
50 to 54 years 10,965 6.2 9,051 4.9 20,016 5.5
55 to 59 years 6,983 4.0 5,149 2.8 12,132 3.4
60 to 64 years 4,081 2.3 2,792 1.5 6,873 1.9
65 to 69 years 2,321 1.3 1,605 0.9 3,926 1.1
70 to 74 years 1,128 0.6 977 0.5 2,105 0.6
75 and over 228 0.7 1,507 0.8 2,735 0.8
Total 175,755 100.0 185,816 100.0 361,571 100.0

Source: Incident-based Uniform Crime Reporting Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Note:

The data excludes traffic violations, victims whose age is above 89, victims whose age is unknown and victims whose gender is unknown.

Due to rounding, totals may not add to 100 percent.

The majority of victims receiving services are victims of violent crime

Figure F3

The majority of victims receiving services are victims of violent crime - Number of victims receiving formal assistance on May 24, 2012

Source: Victim Services in Canada, 2011/2012; Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Note:

Victim services are defined as agencies that provide direct services to primary or secondary victims of crime, and that are funded in whole or in part by a ministry responsible for justice matters. Survey respondents included 684 victim service providers.

Table F3
Type of Crime Gender of Victim
Women Men Not Reported Total
Snapshot on May 27, 2010 # % # % # % # %
Homicide 154 2.4 70 3.3 3 0.5 227 2.5
Other offences causing death 95 1.5 77 32.7 8 1.4 180 2.0
Sexual assault 1,922 30.0 379 18.1 160 28.3 2,461 27.1
Other violent offences 3,323 51.8 917 43.8 262 46.4 4,502 49.6
Other criminal offences* 496 7.7 357 17.0 73 12.9 926 10.2
Other Incidents** 421 6.6 295 14.1 59 10.4 775 8.5
Total without unknown 6,411 100.0 2,095 100.0 565 100.0 9,071 100.0
Unknown type of crime 197 81 113 391
Total 6,608   2,176   678   9,462  
Snapshot on May 24, 2012                
Homicide 179 2.6 126 5.3 3 0.9 308 3.2
Other offences causing death 90 1.3 47 2.0 0 0.0 137 1.4
Sexual assault 2,105 30.2 356 15.1 37 11.6 2,498 25.9
Other violent offences 3,461 49.7 1,103 46.8 179 56.1 4,743 49.2
Other criminal offences* 676 9.7 507 21.5 66 20.7 1,249 13.0
Other Incidents** 448 6.4 220 9.3 34 10.7 702 7.3
Total without unknown 6,959 100.0 2,359 100.0 319 100.0 9,637 100.0
Unknown type of crime 310 81 636 1,027
Total 7,269   2,440   955   10,664  

Source: Victim Services in Canada, 2009/2010; Victim Services in Canada 2011/2012; Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Note:

*Other criminal offences include arson, property crimes, traffic offences, and other Criminal Code offences.

**Other incidents include those of a non-criminal nature as well as those that are still under investigation to determine if they are criminal offences.

Victim services are defined as agencies that provide direct services to primary or secondary victims of crime, and that are funded in whole or in part by a ministry responsible for justice matters. Survey respondents included 684 victim service providers.

The number of victims registered with the federal correctional system has increased

Figure F4

The number of victims registered with the federal correctional system has increased - numbers of registered victims

Source: Data Warehouse, Performance Management. Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

*In order to register to receive information under sections 26 and 142 of the Corrections and Conditional Release Act, a person must meet the definition of a victim that appears in section 2, or subsections 26(3) or 142(3) of the Act. Victims can register with the Correctional Service of Canada or the Parole Board of Canada by completing a Victims Request for Information form, though a signed letter of request can be considered as meeting this requirement.

**A notification is a contact with a registered victim, by phone or mail, to provide information to which sections 26 and 142 of the Corrections and Conditional Release Act entitles them. Data is reported by CSC’s data warehouse using a snapshot of data as of April of each year.

Data is reported from the data freeze date in mid-April of each year.

Table F4
Year Number of Offenders with Registered Victims Number of Registered Victims* Number of Notifications** to Registered Victims
2006-07 3,147 4,979 13,829
2007-08 3,295 5,294 16,281
2008-09 3,412 5,816 28,069
2009-10 3,509 6,366 37,471
2010-11 3,726 6,940 41,987
2011-12 3,824 7,322 46,787
2012-13 3,935 7,585 51,344
2013-14 4,017 7,838 51,697

Source: Data Warehouse; Performance Management: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

*In order to register to receive information under sections 26 and 142 of the Corrections and Conditional Release Act, a person must meet the definition of a victim that appears in section 2, or subsections 26(3) or 142(3) of the Act. Victims can register with the Correctional Service of Canada or the Parole Board of Canada by completing a Victims Request for Information form, though a signed letter of request can be considered as meeting this requirement.

**A notification is a contact with a registered victim, by phone or mail, to provide information to which sections 26 and 142 of the Corrections and Conditional Release Act entitles them.

Data is reported by CSC’s data warehouse using a snapshot of data as of April of each year.

Offences causing death are the most common type of offence** that harmed the victims registered* with Correctional Service of Canada

Figure F5

Offences causing death are the most common type of offence** that harmed the victims registered* with Correctional Service of Canada - Offences of victimization 2013-14

Source: Data Warehouse, Performance Management: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

*In order to register to receive information under sections 26 and 142 of the Corrections and Conditional Release Act, a person must meet the definition of a victim that appears in section 2, or subsections 26(3) or 142(3) of the Act. Victims can register with the Correctional Service of Canada or the Parole Board of Canada by completing a Victims Request for Information form, though a signed letter of request can be considered as meeting this requirement.

**Some victims were harmed by more than one offence; therefore the number of Offences of Victimization are higher than the actual number of Registered Victims. The percentages represent the number of registered victims who were harmed by that offence.

Table F5
Type of Offence** That Harmed Victim* 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 2013-14
# % # % # % # % # %
Offences Causing Death 2,936 46.1 3,804 54.8 4,056 55.4 4,292 56.6 4,533 57.8
Sexual Offences 1,579 24.8 2,098 30.2 2,114 28.9 2,169 28.6 2,237 28.5
Assaults 879 13.8 998 14.4 998 13.6 965 12.7 941 12.0
Involving Violence or Threats 525 8.2 680 9.8 707 9.7 710 9.4 720 9.2
Property Crimes 417 6.6 509 7.3 534 7.3 551 7.3 541 6.9
Other Offences 217 3.4 396 5.7 452 6.2 441 5.8 475 6.1
Attempts to Cause Death 182 2.9 233 3.4 241 3.3 246 3.2 283 3.6
Deprivation of Freedom 215 3.4 251 2.6 272 3.7 281 3.7 249 3.2
Driving Offences 100 1.6 123 1.8 125 1.7 152 2.0 153 2.0
Offence Not Recorded 192 3.0 55 0.8 6 0.1 4 0.1 9 0.1
Total Number of Victims** 6,366   6,940   7,322   7,585   7,838  

Source: Data Warehouse, Performance Management. Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

*In order to register to receive information under sections 26 and 142 of the Corrections and Conditional Release Act, a person must meet the definition of a victim that appears in section 2, or subsections 26(3) or 142(3) of the Act. Victims can register with the Correctional Service of Canada or the Parole Board of Canada by completing a Victims Request for Information form, though a signed letter of request can be considered as meeting this requirement.

**Some victims were harmed by more than one offence, therefore the number of Offences of Victimization are higher than the number of Registered Victims.

The percentages in the table represent the number of registered victims who were harmed by that offence and do not add up to 100%.

Temporary Absence information is the most common type of information provided during a notification to registered victims* with Correcional Service of Canada

Figure F6

Temporary Absence information is the most common type of information provided during a notification to registered victims* with Correcional Service of Canada

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

Temporary Absence information includes information on unescorted and escorted temporary absences and work release. Conditional Release information includes information regarding day and full parole, statutory release, suspensions, detention, and long-term supervision orders. Sentencing information includes information on the offender’s sentence, offender information, warrant expiry date, judicial review, and public domain.

Disclosure means a type of information identified in section 26 of the CCRA that has been disclosed to a registered victim during a notification.

As of December 2, 2011 as per Bill S6, Correctional Services Canada now provides information to some victims who are not registered which requires providing information to family members of murdered victims where the offender is still eligible to apply for Judicial Review including when the offender does not apply for a Judicial Review within the allotted time period, as well as the next date the offender can apply. Notification to unregistered victims are excluded for the data.

*In order to register to receive information under section 26 and 142 of the Corrections and Conditional Release Act, a person must meet the definition of a victim that appears in section 2 or subsection 26(3) or 142(3) of the Act. Victims can register with the Correctional Service of Canada or the Parole Board of Canada by completing a Victims Request for Information form, though a signed letter of request can be considered as meeting this requirement.

***New type of information now released to victims as of June 13, 2012 as per Bill C10.

Table F6
Year 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 2013-14
Temporary Absences 49,614 62,702 75,848 93,609 100,945
Travel Permits 9,345 10,136 10,877 28,763 34,296
Institutional Location 5,616 6,993 6,859 14,434 17,546
Program & Disciplinary Offence Information**       11,208 14,780
Conditional Release 6,944 10,353 10,870 11,803 12,313
Sentencing Information 7,758 13,770 16,268 12,813 10,336
Custody 1,862 2,192 2,414 2,569 2,476
Total 81,139 106,146 123,136 175,199 192,692

Source: Data Warehouse, Performance Management: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

Temporary Absence information includes information on unescorted and escorted temporary absences and work release. Conditional Release information includes information regarding day and full parole, statutory release, suspensions, detention, and long-term supervision orders. Sentencing information includes information on the offender’s sentence, offender information, warrant expiry date, judicial review, and public domain.

Disclosure means a type of information identified in section 26 of the CCRA that has been disclosed to a registered victim during a notification.

As of December 2, 2011 as per Bill S6, Correctional Services Canada now provides information to some victims who are not registered which requires providing information to family members of murdered victims where the offender is still eligible to apply for Judicial Review including when the offender does not apply for a Judicial Review within the allotted time period, as well as the next date the offender can apply. Notification to unregistered victims are excluded for the data.

*In order to register to receive information under section 26 and 142 of the Corrections and Conditional Release Act, a person must meet the definition of a victim that appears in section 2 or subsection 26(3) or 142(3) of the Act. Victims can register with the Correctional Service of Canada or the Parole Board of Canada by completing a Victims Request for Information form, though a signed letter of request can be considered as meeting this requirement.

***New type of information now released to victims as of June 13, 2012 as per Bill C10.

Parole Board of Canada contacts with victims have decreased

Figure F7

Parole Board of Canada contacts with victims have decreased

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Note:

*A victim contact refers to each time the Parole Board of Canada has contact with a victim by mail, fax, or by telephone.

**Bill C-10 (Safe Streets and Communities Act) , which came into force on June 13, 2012, resulted in changes to the categories of victims defined in section 2 of the CCRA. An actual victim is a person who survived a crime 2(1). If the person is dead, ill or otherwise incapacitated, a) a spouse/common law 2(1)(a), b) a relative/dependant 2(1)(b), c) anyone who is responsible for the care of the person 2(1)(c), d) anyone who is responsible for the care of a dependant of the person 2(1)(d) are considered as victims. If physical or emotional harm was done to a person as a result of the offender's act, whether or not the offender is prosecuted or convicted of the act, and if the person made a complaint to the police or the Crown attorney, the person is recognized as a victim per CCRA 26 (3) and 142(3).

Table F7
Year Total Number of Contacts*
2004-05 15,479
2005-06 16,711
2006-07 21,434
2007-08 20,457
2008-09 20,039
2009-10 22,181
2010-11 22,483
2011-12 21,449
2012-13 22,475
2013-14 22,323

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Note:

*A victim contact refers to each time the Parole Board of Canada has contact with a victim by mail, fax, or by telephone.

Bill C-10 (Safe Streets and Communities Act), which came into force on June 13, 2012, resulted in changes to the categories of victims defined in section 2 of the CCRA. An actual victim is a person who survived a crime 2(1). If the person is dead, ill or otherwise incapacitated, a) a spouse/common law 2(1)(a), b) a relative/dependant 2(1)(b), c) anyone who is responsible for the care of the person 2(1)(c), d) anyone who is responsible for the care of a dependant of the person 2(1)(d) are considered as victims. If physical or emotional harm was done to a person as a result of the offender's act, whether or not the offender is prosecuted or convicted of the act, and if the person made a complaint to the police or the Crown attorney, the person is recognized as a victim per CCRA 26(3) and 142(3).

Date modified: