2011 Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview

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Table of Contents

Section A: Context - Crime and the Criminal Justice System

Section B: Corrections Administration

Section C: Offender Population

Section D: Conditional Release

Section E: Statistics on Special Applications of Criminal Justice

Section F: Victims of Crime

Section A: Context - Crime and the Criminal Justice System

Police-reported crime rate has been decreasing since 1998

Police-reported crime rate has been decreasing since 1998
Enlarge image

Note:

*Unlike Statistics Canada, the Total Crime Rate in the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview includes traffic offences and offences against federal statutes to provide a measure of all criminal offences. As a result, the Total Crime Rate reported here is higher than that reported by Statistics Canada.

**The definitions for Violent, Property and Other Criminal Code offences have been revised by Statistics Canada to better reflect definitions used by the policing community. As a result of these changes, comparable data are only available starting in 1998 and the data presented in this year's report are not comparable to the data reported in previous versions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview.

These crime statistics are based on crimes that are reported to the police. Since not all crimes are reported to the police, these figures underestimate actual crime. See Figure F1 for rates based on victimization surveys (drawn from the General Social Survey), an alternative method of measuring crime.

Police-reported crime rate has been decreasing since 1998
Year Type of offence
Violent** Property** Traffic Other CCC** Drugs Other Fed. Statutes Total*
1998 1,345 5,696 469 1,051 235 119 8,915
1999 1,440 5,345 388 910 264 128 8,474
2000 1,494 5,189 370 924 287 113 8,376
2001 1,473 5,124 393 989 288 123 8,390
2002 1,441 5,080 379 991 296 128 8,315
2003 1,435 5,299 373 1,037 274 115 8,532
2004 1,404 5,123 379 1,072 306 107 8,391
2005 1,389 4,884 378 1,052 290 97 8,090
2006 1,386 4,808 376 1,049 295 87 8,002
2007 1,352 4,519 402 1,028 307 90 7,697
2008 1,332 4,249 436 1,037 307 99 7,460
2009 1,318 4,111 433 1,015 291 94 7,262
2010 1,282 3,846 410 1,016 318 96 6,969

Source: Uniform Crime Reporting Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Note:

*Unlike Statistics Canada, the Total Crime Rate in the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview includes traffic offences and offences against federal statutes to provide a measure of all criminal offences. As a result, the Total Crime Rate reported here is higher than that reported by Statistics Canada.

**The definitions for Violent, Property and Other Criminal Code offences have been revised by Statistics Canada to better reflect definitions used by the policing community. As a result of these changes, comparable data are only available starting in 1998 and the data presented in this year's report are not comparable to the data reported in previous versions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview.

Rates are based on incidents reported per 100,000 population.

Due to rounding, rates may not add to Totals.

Crime rates are higher in the west and highest in the north

Crime rates are higher in the west and highest in the north
Enlarge image

Note:

*Rates are based on 100,000 population.

Unlike Statistics Canada, the Crime Rate in the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview includes traffic offences and offences against federal statutes to provide a measure of all criminal offences. As a result, the Crime Rate reported here is higher than that reported by Statistics Canada. In addition, the definitions for Violent, Property and Other Criminal Code offences have been revised by Statistics Canada to better reflect definitions used by the policing community. As a result of these changes, comparable data are only available starting in 1998 and the data presented in this year's report are not comparable to the data reported in previous versions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview.

Crime rates are higher in the west and highest in the north
Province/Territory Crime Rate *
2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
Newfoundland & Labrador 6,664 7,052 7,146 7,386 7,696
Prince Edward Island 7,510 6,791 6,895 7,072 7,078
Nova ,Scotia 8,747 8,218 7,751 7,742 7,830
New Brunswick 6,701 6,307 6,506 6,402 6,314
Quebec 6,133 5,891 5,952 5,845 5,618
Ontario 5,969 5,683 5,457 5,283 5,023
Manitoba 12,318 11,658 10,634 11,257 10,863
Saskatchewan 15,266 15,124 14,553 14,437 14,293
Alberta 10,173 10,059 10,058 9,578 9,012
British Columbia 12,375 11,702 10,800 10,180 9,621
Yukon 21,496 22,982 24,203 25,422 23,050
Northwest Territories 43,699 46,508 47,971 45,733 50,668
Nunavut 33,053 31,974 37,253 39,852 41,231
Canada 8,002 7,697 7,460 7,262 6,969

Source: Uniform Crime Reporting Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Note:

*Rates are based on 100,000 population.

Unlike Statistics Canada, the Crime Rate in the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview includes traffic offences and offences against federal statutes to provide a measure of all criminal offences. As a result, the Crime Rate reported here is higher than that reported by Statistics Canada. In addition, the definitions for Violent, Property and Other Criminal Code offences have been revised by Statistics Canada to better reflect definitions used by the policing community. As a result of these changes, comparable data are only available starting in 1998 and the data presented in this year's report are not comparable to the data reported in previous versions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview.

Canada's incarceration rate is high relative to most western European countries

Canada's incarceration rate is high relative to most western European countries
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Note:

The incarceration rate, in this figure, is a measure of the number of people (i.e., adults and youth) in custody per 100,000 people in the general population. Incarceration rates from the World Prison Population List are based on the most recently available data at the time the list was compiled. Due to variations in the availability of information, the 2006 and 2008 dates reported in Figure A3 refer to when the World Prison Population Lists (Seventh and Eighth Editions respectively) were published, but may not necessarily correspond to the date the data were obtained. For 2011, the data was retrieved online on October 7, 2011 from www.prisonstudies.org/info/worldbrief/index.php which contains the most up-to-date information available. These data reflect incarceration rates based on the country's population in 2011 except where noted. Additionally, different practices and variations in measurement in different countries limit the comparability of these figures.

Canada's incarceration rate is high relative to most western European countries
  1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 20061* 20082* 20113*
United States 682 682 699 700 701 714 723 738 756 743b
New Zealand 150 149 149 145 155 168 168 186 185 199
England & Wales 125 125 124 125 141 142 141 148 153 155
Scotland 119 118 115 120 129 132 136 139 152 155
Australia 110 108 108 110 115 117 120 126 129 133a
Canada 123 118 116 116 116 108 107 107 116 117c
Italy 85 89 94 95 100 98 96 104 92 110
Austria 86 85 84 85 100 106 110 105 95 104a
France 88 91 89 80 93 91 91 85 96 102
Germany 96 97 97 95 98 96 98 95 89 87
Switzerland 85 81 79 90 68 81 81 83 76 79a
Sweden 60 59 64 65 73 75 81 82 74 78a
Denmark 64 66 61 60 64 70 70 77 63 74
Norway 57 56 - 60 59 65 65 66 69 73
Finland 54 46 52 50 70 71 66 75 64 59

Source: International Centre for Prison Studies: 1 World Prison Population List (Seventh Edition); 2 World Prison Population List (Eighth Edition); 3 World Prison Population List online (retrieved October 7, 2011 at www.prisonstudies.org/info/worldbrief/index.php).

Note:

*Incarceration rates from the World Prison Population List are based on the most recently available data at the time the list was compiled. Due to variations in the availability of information, the 2006 and 2008 dates reported in Table A3 refer to when the World Prison Population Lists (Seventh and Eighth Editions respectively) were published, but may not necessarily correspond to the date the data were obtained. For 2011, the data was retrieved online on October 7, 2011 from www.prisonstudies.org/info/worldbrief/index.php which contains the most up to date information available. These data reflect incarceration rates based on the country's population in 2011 except where noted: a indicates the estimate was based on the country's population in 2010, b based on the 2009 population, and c based on the 2008 population. Additionally, different practices and variations in measurement in different countries limit the comparability of these figures. Rates are based on 100,000 population.

-- Figures not available.

The rate of adults charged has declined since 2001

The rate of adults charged has declined since 2001
Enlarge image

Note:

*Unlike Statistics Canada, the Total Crime Rate in the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview includes traffic offences and offences against federal statutes to provide a measure of all criminal offences. As a result, the Total Crime Rate reported here is higher than that reported by Statistics Canada.

**The definitions for Violent, Property and Other Criminal Code offences have been revised by Statistics Canada to better reflect definitions used by the policing community. As a result of these changes, comparable data are only available starting in 1998 and the data presented in this year's report are not comparable to the data reported in previous versions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview.

Violent crimes include homicide, attempted murder, assault, sexual offences, abduction, extortion, robbery, firearms, and other violent offences such as uttering threats and criminal harassment.

Property crimes include break and enter, motor vehicle thefts, other thefts, possession of stolen property, fraud, mischief and arson.

The rate of adults charged has declined since 2001
Year Type of offence
Violent** Property** Traffic Other CCC** Drugs Other Fed. Statutes Total Charged*
1998 563 677 374 430 168 24 2,236
1999 590 632 371 396 185 30 2,203
2000 615 591 349 411 198 26 2,190
2001 641 584 349 451 202 28 2,256
2002 617 569 336 460 199 29 2,211
2003 598 573 326 476 172 23 2,168
2004 584 573 314 490 187 30 2,180
2005 589 550 299 479 185 29 2,131
2006 593 533 300 498 198 27 2,149
2007 576 499 298 520 208 28 2,128
2008 574 485 306 538 207 31 2,142
2009 582 488 309 530 200 33 2,143
2010 572 469 293 540 210 31 2,114

Source: Uniform Crime Reporting Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Note:

*Unlike Statistics Canada, the Total Crime Rate in the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview includes traffic offences and offences against federal statutes to provide a measure of all criminal offences. As a result, the Total Crime Rate reported here is higher than that reported by Statistics Canada.

**The definitions for Violent, Property and Other Criminal Code offences have been revised by Statistics Canada to better reflect definitions used by the policing community. As a result of these changes, comparable data are only available starting in 1998 and the data presented in this year's report are not comparable to the data reported in previous versions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview.

Rates are based on 100,000 population, 18 years of age and older.

Due to rounding, rates may not add to Totals.

Violent crimes include homicide, attempted murder, assault, sexual offences, abduction, extortion, robbery, firearms, and other violent offences such as uttering threats and criminal harassment.

Property crimes include break and enter, motor vehicle thefts, other thefts, possession of stolen property, fraud, mischief and arson.

Administration of justice cases account for 21% of cases* in adult courts

Administration of justice charges account for 21% of charges in adult courts
Enlarge image

Note:

*Cases completed in adult criminal courts.

The concept of a case has changed to more closely reflect court processing. Statistics from the Adult Criminal Court Survey used in this report should not be compared to editions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview prior to 2007. A case is one or more charges against an accused person or corporation, processed by the courts at the same time, and where all of the charges in the case received a final disposition. Where a case has more than one charge, it is necessary to select a charge to represent the case. An offence is selected by applying two rules. First, the “most serious decision” rule is applied. In cases where two or more offences have the same decision, the “most serious offence” rule is applied. All charges are ranked according to an offence seriousness scale.

Superior Court data are not reported to the Adult Criminal Court Survey for Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba and Saskatchewan. In addition, information from Quebec's municipal courts (which account for approximately 25% of Criminal Code charges in the provinces) is not collected.

The graph excludes Youth Criminal Justice Act / Young Offenders Act offences. The Adult Criminal Court Survey groups these offences under “Other Federal Statutes”.

The Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics continues to make updates to the offence library used to classify offence data sent by the provinces and territories. These improvements have resulted in minor changes in the counts of charges and cases as well as the distributions by type of offence. Data presented have been revised to account for these updates.

Administration of justice cases account for 21% of cases* in adult courts
Type of Charge Criminal Code and Other Federal Statute Charges
  2007-2008   2008-2009   2009-2010
  # % # % # %
Crimes Against the Person 94,063 23.92 95,114 23.86 95,345 23.64
Homicide and Related 301 0.08 275 0.07 263 0.07
Attempted Murder 235 0.06 167 0.04 193 1.08
Robbery 4,486 1.14 4,466 1.12 4,360 0.99
Sexual Assault 4,137 1.05 4,145 1.04 4,008 0.50
Other Sexual Offences 1,908 0.49 2,046 0.51 2,023 5.34
Major Assault (Levels 2 & 3) 20,863 5.31 21,509 5.39 21,549 9.49
Common Assault (Level 1) 37,630 9.57 37,496 9.40 38,276 4.55
Uttering Threats 18,196 4.63 18,578 4.66 18,337 0.78
Criminal Harassment 3,099 0.79 3,185 0.80 3,150 0.79
Other Crimes Against Persons 3,208 0.82 3,247 0.81 3,186 24.02
Crimes Against Property 94,570 24.05 93,056 23.34 96,863 10.42
Theft 39,042 9.93 38,802 9.73 42,010 2.83
Break and Enter 11,889 3.02 11,722 2.94 11,422 3.71
Fraud 15,188 3.86 14,656 3.68 14,957 3.65
Mischief 13,616 3.46 13,952 3.50 14,716 2.93
Possession of Stolen Property 12,674 3.22 11,921 2.99 11,822 0.48
Other Property Crimes 2,161 0.55 2,003 0.50 1,936 20.71
Administration of Justice 82,106 20.88 83,499 20.94 83,530 1.15
Fail to Appear 5,293 1.35 5,123 1.28 4,627 7.75
Breach of probation 30,091 7.65 30,581 7.67 31,243 0.62
Unlawfully at large 2,661 0.68 2,552 0.64 2,496 9.01
Fail to Comply with Order 35,361 8.99 36,298 9.10 36,321 2.19
Other Admin. Justice 8,700 2.21 8,945 2.24 8,843 4.73
Other Criminal Code 19,295 4.91 19,048 4.78 19,085 2.46
Weapons 9,916 2.52 9,933 2.49 9,911 0.42
Prostitution 1,811 0.46 1,632 0.41 1,704 0.42
Disturbing the Peace 2,069 0.53 1,823 0.46 1,741 0.43
Residual Criminal Code 5,499 1.40 5,660 1.42 5,729 1.42
Criminal Code Traffic 55,520 14.12 58,282 14.62 59,668 14.79
Impaired Driving 44,240 11.25 46,268 11.60 48,111 11.93
Other CC Traffic 11,280 2.87 12,014 3.01 11,557 2.87
Other Federal Statutes 47,639 12.12 49,698 12.47 48,849 12.11
Drug Possession 15,340 3.90 15,713 3.94 15,272 3.79
Drug Trafficking 12,243 3.11 12,974 3.25 12,709 3.15
Residual Federal Statutes 18,877 4.80 19,785 4.96 19,470 4.83
Total Offences 393,193 100.00 398,697 100.00 403,340 100.0

Source: Adult Criminal Court Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Note:

*Cases completed in adult criminal courts.

The concept of a case has changed to more closely reflect court processing. Statistics from the Adult Criminal Court Survey used in this report should not be compared to editions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview prior to 2007.

The table excludes Youth Criminal Justice Act / Young Offenders Act offences. The Adult Criminal Court Survey groups these offences under “Other Federal Statutes”.

Superior Court data are not reported to the Adult Criminal Court Survey for Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba and Saskatchewan. In addition, information from Quebec's municipal courts (which account for approximately 25% of Criminal Code charges in the provinces) is not collected.

The Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics continues to make updates to the offence library used to classify offence data sent by the provinces and territories. These improvements have resulted in minor changes in the counts of charges and cases as well as the distributions by type of offence. Data presented have been revised to account for these updates.

Due to rounding, percentages may not add to 100 percent.

Most adult custodial sentences ordered by the court are short

Most adult custodial sentences ordered by the court are short
Enlarge image

Note:

*The type of decision group “guilty” includes guilty of the offence, of an included offence, of an attempt of the offence, or of an attempt of an included offence. This category also includes cases where an absolute or conditional discharge has been imposed.

The concept of a case has changed to more closely reflect court processing. Statistics from the Adult Criminal Court Survey used in this report should not be compared to editions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview prior to 2007.

Excludes Youth Criminal Justice Act / Young Offenders Act offences, cases where length of prison sentence and/or sex was not known, data for Manitoba as information on both sentence length and gender were not available, and data on corporations.

Superior Court data are not reported to the Adult Criminal Court Survey for Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba and Saskatchewan. In addition, information from Quebec's municipal courts (which account for approximately 25% of Criminal Code charges in the provinces) is not collected.

The Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics continues to make updates to the offence library used to classify offence data sent by the provinces and territories. These improvements have resulted in minor changes in the counts of charges and cases as well as the distributions by type of offence. Data presented have been revised to account for these updates.

Due to rounding, totals may not add to 100 percent.

Most adult custodial sentences ordered by the court are short
Length of Prison Sentence 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10
  % % % % %
1 Month or Less          
Women 68.8 69.6 69.6 67.7 68.1
Men 52.4 52.7 53.4 53.9 53.9
Total 54.1 54.6 55.3 55.5 55.4
           
More Than 1 Month to 6 Months          
Women 23.0 22.2 22.3 24.2 23.1
Men 32.6 32.1 31.6 31.4 31.5
Total 31.6 31.0 30.6 30.6 30.6
           
More Than 6 Months to 12 Months          
Women 4.1 4.1 4.3 4.2 4.3
Men 6.9 7.0 7.0 6.9 6.6
Total 6.6 6.6 6.7 6.6 6.3
           
More Than 1 Year to Less Than 2 Years          
Women 2.0 2.1 1.9 1.9 2.2
Men 3.8 3.7 3.7 3.7 3.7
Total 3.6 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5
           
2 Years or More          
Women 2.1 2.1 1.9 2.1 2.3
Men 4.3 4.6 4.2 4.0 4.4
Total 4.1 4.3 4.0 3.8 4.2

Source: Adult Criminal Court Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Note:

The concept of a case has changed to more closely reflect court processing. Statistics from the Adult Criminal Court Survey used in this report should not be compared to editions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview prior to 2007.

Excludes Youth Criminal Justice Act / Young Offenders Act offences, cases where length of prison sentence and/or sex was not known, data for Manitoba as information on both sentence length and gender were not available, and data on corporations.

Superior Court data are not reported to the Adult Criminal Court Survey for Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba and Saskatchewan. In addition, information from Quebec's municipal courts (which account for approximately 25% of Criminal Code charges in the provinces) is not collected.

The Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics continues to make updates to the offence library used to classify offence data sent by the provinces and territories. These improvements have resulted in minor changes in the counts of charges and cases as well as the distributions by type of offence. Data presented have been revised to account for these updates.

Due to rounding, totals may not add to 100 percent.

Relatively few crimes result in sentences to federal penitentiaries

Relatively few crimes result in sentences to federal penitentiaries
Enlarge image

Note:

*The type of decision group “guilty” includes guilty of the offence, of an included offence, of an attempt of the offence, or of an attempt of an included offence. This category also includes cases where an absolute or conditional discharge has been imposed.

**This figure only includes cases in provincial court and partial data from Superior Court. Superior Court data are not reported to the Adult Criminal Court Survey for Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba and Saskatchewan. In addition, information from Quebec's municipal courts (which account for approximately 25% of Criminal Code charges in the provinces) is not collected.

The concept of a case has changed to more closely reflect court processing. Statistics from the Adult Criminal Court Survey used in this report should not be compared to editions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview prior to 2007. A case is one or more charges against an accused person or corporation, processed by the courts at the same time, and where all of the charges in the case received a final disposition.

Police data are reported on a calendar year basis whereas court and prison data are reported on a fiscal year basis (April 1 through March 31).

Relatively few crimes result in sentences to federal penitentiaries
  2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11
Total Number of Offences Reported to Police1 2,606,887 2,534,730 2,485,207 2,448,805 2,377,171
Cases with guilty* findings in Adult Criminal Court1** 247,509 255,487 263,948 262,616 Not available
Sentenced Admissions to Provincial/Territorial Custody1*** 79,862 79,724 80,387 Not available Not available
Warrant of Committal Admissions to Federal Facilities2 5,109 5,002 4,827 5,434 5,434

Source: 1 Uniform Crime Reporting Survey, Adult Criminal Court Survey, and Adult Correctional Services Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada; 2 Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

*The type of decision group “guilty” includes guilty of the offence, of an included offence, of an attempt of the offence, or of an attempt of an included offence. This category also includes cases where an absolute or conditional discharge has been imposed.

**This figure only includes cases convicted in provincial court and partial data from Superior Court. Superior Court data are not reported to the Adult Criminal Court Survey for Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba and Saskatchewan. In addition, information from Quebec's municipal courts (which account for approximately 25% of Criminal Code charges in the provinces) is not collected.

The concept of a case has changed to more closely reflect court processing. Statistics from the Adult Criminal Court Survey used in this report should not be compared to editions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview prior to 2007. A case is one or more charges against an accused person or corporation, processed by the courts at the same time, and where all of the charges in the case received a final disposition.

***In order to make comparisons, data exclude Prince Edward Island and Nunavut.

Police data are reported on a calendar year basis whereas court and prison data are reported on a fiscal year basis (April 1 through March 31).

The rate of youth charged has fluctuated over the past five years

The rate of youth charged has fluctuated over the past five years
Enlarge image

Note:

*Unlike Statistics Canada, the Total Crime Rate in the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview includes traffic offences and offences against federal statutes to provide a measure of all criminal offences. As a result, the Total Crime Rate reported here is higher than that reported by Statistics Canada. In addition, the definitions for Violent, Property and Other Criminal Code offences have been revised by Statistics Canada to better reflect definitions used by the policing community. As a result of these changes, comparable data are only available starting in 1998 and the data presented in this year's report are not comparable to the data reported in previous versions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview.

**For criminal justice purposes, youth are defined under Canadian law as persons aged 12 to 17 years.

***Rates for females are based on the number of female youth charged per 100,000 female youth population (12 to 17 years) and rates for males are based on the number of male youth charged per 100,000 male youth population (12 to 17 years).

Violent crimes include homicide, attempted murder, assault, sexual offences, abduction, extortion, robbery, firearms, and other violent offences such as uttering threats and criminal harassment.

Property crimes include break and enter, motor vehicle thefts, other thefts, possession of stolen property, fraud, mischief and arson.

The rate of youth charged has fluctuated over the past five years
Year Type of Offence
Violent* Property* Traffic Other CCC* Drugs Other Fed. Statutes Total Charged*
1998 994 2,500 - 870 226 184 4,775
1999 1,060 2,237 - 728 266 209 4,500
2000 1,136 2,177 - 760 317 198 4,589
2001 1,157 2,119 - 840 343 195 4,656
2002 1,102 2,009 - 793 337 235 4,476
2003 953 1,570 - 726 208 204 3,662
2004 918 1,395 - 691 230 222 3,457
2005 924 1,276 - 660 214 212 3,287
2006 917 1,217 - 680 240 216 3,270
2007 945 1,214 75 733 261 239 3,467
2008 915 1,137 75 734 269 260 3,390
2009 898 1,156 69 706 241 263 3,333
2010 872 1,058 63 679 271 275 3,217

Source: Uniform Crime Reporting Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Note:

*Unlike Statistics Canada, the Total Crime Rate in the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview includes traffic offences and offences against federal statutes to provide a measure of all criminal offences. As a result, the Total Crime Rate reported here is higher than that reported by Statistics Canada. In addition, the definitions for Violent, Property and Other Criminal Code offences have been revised by Statistics Canada to better reflect definitions used by the policing community. As a result of these changes, comparable data are only available starting in 1998 and the data presented in this year's report are not comparable to the data reported in previous versions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview.

**Data for Youth Charged and Youth Not Charged for Impaired Driving are not available prior to 2007. As a result, comparisons to Total Charged and Other CCC (including traffic) over time should be made with caution.

For criminal justice purposes, youth are defined under Canadian law as persons aged 12 to 17 years.

Rates for “Total” are based on 100,000 youth population (12 to 17 years).

Violent crimes include homicide, attempted murder, assault, sexual offences, abduction, extortion, robbery, firearms, and other violent offences such as uttering threats and criminal harassment.

Property crimes include break and enter, motor vehicle thefts, other thefts, possession of stolen property, fraud, mischief and arson.

The most common youth court case is theft

The most common youth court case is theft
Enlarge image

Note:

*“Administration of Justice” includes the offences failure to appear, failure to comply, and breach of recognizance.

**Youth Criminal Justice Act offences include failure to comply with a disposition or undertaking, contempt against youth court, assisting a youth to leave a place of custody and harbouring a youth unlawfully at large. Also included are similar offences under the Young Offenders Act, which preceded the Youth Criminal Justice Act.

***“Drug Offences” includes possession and trafficking.

****The data exclude cases where gender is unknown. In Manitoba, gender is unknown for all cases.

The concept of a case has changed to more closely reflect court processing. Statistics from the Youth Court Survey used in this report should not be compared to editions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview prior to 2007. A case is one or more charges against an accused person or corporation, processed by the courts at the same time, and where all of the charges in the case received a final disposition. Where a case has more than one charge, it is necessary to select a charge to represent the case. An offence is selected by applying two rules. First, the “most serious decision” rule is applied. In cases where two or more offences have the same decision, the “most serious offence” rule is applied. All charges are ranked according to an offence seriousness scale.

The Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics continues to make updates to the offence library used to classify offence data sent by the provinces and territories. These improvements have resulted in minor changes in the counts of charges and cases as well as the distributions by type of offence. Data presented have been revised to account for these updates.

The most common youth court case is theft
Type of Case Number of Youth Court Cases
2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10
Crimes Against the Person 14,838 14,793 15,395 15,614 14,633
Homicide and Attempted Murder 68 70 70 76 70
Robbery 2,112 2,377 2,637 2,768 2,496
Sexual Assault / Other Sexual Offences 1,367 1,254 1,140 1,283 1,231
Major Assault 3,657 3,618 3,845 3,729 3,500
Common Assault 4,871 4,575 4,696 4,767 4,458
Other Crimes Against the Person* 2,763 2,899 3,007 2,991 2,878
Crimes Against Property 22,808 22,517 22,612 22,219 22,015
Theft 7,992 8,079 8,026 8,262 8,389
Break and Enter 5,734 5,162 5,203 4,855 4,750
Fraud 840 830 852 818 825
Mischief 3,944 4,159 4,362 4,330 4,226
Possession of Stolen Property 3,531 3,586 3,416 3,258 3,217
Other Crimes Against Property 767 701 753 696 608
Administration of Justice 6,053 6,230 6,327 6,353 6,054
Escape / Unlawfully at Large 615 566 592 527 417
Other Administration of Justice** 5,438 5,664 5,735 5,826 5,637
Other Criminal Code 3,117 3,187 3,038 3,064 2,910
Weapons / Firearms 2,000 2,164 2,064 2,083 1,985
Prostitution 25 19 12 17 10
Disturbing the Peace 226 233 207 232 186
Residual Criminal Code 866 771 755 732 729
Criminal Code Traffic 1,088 1,112 1,237 1,170 1,085
Impaired Driving / Other CC traffic 1,088 1,112 1,237 1,170 1,085
Other Federal Statutes 9,563 9,643 10,101 10,548 9,537
Drug Possession 2,252 2,445 2,725 2,919 2,540
Drug Trafficking 1,304 1,339 1,475 1,459 1,267
Youth Criminal Justice Act*** 5,777 5,605 5,649 5,917 5,647
Residual Federal Statutes 230 254 252 253 83
Total 57,467 57,482 58,710 58,968 56,234

Source: Youth Court Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Note:

*“Other Crimes Against the Person” includes the offences uttering threats and criminal harassment.

**“Other Administration of Justice” includes the offences failure to appear, failure to comply, and breach of recognizance.

***Youth Criminal Justice Act offences include failure to comply with a disposition or undertaking, contempt against youth court, assisting a youth to leave a place of custody and harbouring a youth unlawfully at large. Also included are similar offences under the Young Offenders Act, which preceded the Youth Criminal Justice Act.

The concept of a case has changed to more closely reflect court processing. Statistics from the Youth Court Survey used in this report should not be compared to editions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview prior to 2007. A case is one or more charges against an accused person or corporation, processed by the courts at the same time, and where all of the charges in the case received a final disposition. Where a case has more than one charge, it is necessary to select a charge to represent the case. An offence is selected by applying two rules. First, the “most serious decision” rule is applied. In cases where two or more offences have the same decision, the “most serious offence” rule is applied. All charges are ranked according to an offence seriousness scale.

The Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics continues to make updates to the offence library used to classify offence data sent by the provinces and territories. These improvements have resulted in minor changes in the counts of charges and cases as well as the distributions by type of offence. Data presented have been revised to account for these updates.

The most common sentence for youth is probation

The most common sentence for youth is probation
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Note:

*“Other Sentence” includes absolute discharge, restitution, prohibition, seizure, forfeiture, compensation, pay purchaser, essays, apologies, counselling programs and conditional discharge, conditional sentence, intensive support and supervision, attendance at non-residential program(s) and reprimand. This category also includes deferred custody and supervision, intensive support and supervision, attendance at non-residential program(s) and reprimand where sentencing data under the Youth Criminal Justice Act (YCJA) are not available.

Each case may receive more than one sentence. Therefore, sanctions are not mutually exclusive and will not add to 100%.

The concept of a case has changed to more closely reflect court processing. Statistics from the Youth Court Survey used in this report should not be compared to editions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview prior to 2007.

Excludes data on corporations and where sex of accused was unknown.

The most common sentence for youth is probation
Type of Sentence Gender Year
2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10
    % % % % %
Probation Female 59.8 57.6 58.1 59.7 58.4
  Male 61.6 60.1 61.6 60.8 61.7
  Total 60.9 59.2 60.8 60.3 60.6
             
Custody Female 15.1 13.4 13.0 12.4 12.5
  Male 20.0 18.1 17.5 17.1 16.2
  Total 18.4 16.6 15.9 15.4 14.7
             
Community Service Order Female 23.7 21.9 21.6 22.6 24.1
  Male 26.0 25.1 25.6 25.7 27.3
  Total 24.6 23.8 24.0 24.1 25.9
             
Fine Female 4.1 4.1 4.3 3.8 3.2
  Male 5.8 5.8 5.8 6.2 4.8
  Total 5.5 5.4 5.4 5.6 4.3
             
Deferred Custody and Supervision Female 3.0 2.6 3.4 3.2 4.3
  Male 3.7 3.5 3.9 4.1 5.0
  Total 3.5 3.2 3.6 3.8 4.6
             
Other Sentence* Female 36.4 36.2 38.1 38.7 42.7
  Male 40.2 39.8 41.3 43.4 45.1
  Total 37.8 37.5 39.0 40.5 42.3

Source: Youth Court Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Note:

*“Other Sentence” includes absolute discharge, restitution, prohibition, seizure, forfeiture, compensation, pay purchaser, essays, apologies, counselling programs and conditional discharge, conditional sentence, intensive support and supervision, attendance at non-residential program(s) and reprimand. This category also includes deferred custody and supervision, intensive support and supervision, attendance at non-residential program(s) and reprimand where sentencing data under the Youth Criminal Justice Act (YCJA) are not available.

Each case may receive more than one sentence. Therefore, sanctions are not mutually exclusive and will not add to 100%.

The concept of a case has changed to more closely reflect court processing. Statistics from the Youth Court Survey used in this report should not be compared to editions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview prior to 2007.

Excludes data on corporations and where sex of accused was unknown.

Section B: Corrections Administration

Federal expenditures on corrections increased in 2009-10

Federal expenditures on corrections increased in 2009-10
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Note:

Federal expenditures on corrections include spending by the Correctional Service Canada (CSC), the Parole Board of Canada (PBC), and the Office of the Correctional Investigator (OCI). The expenditures for the CSC include both operating and capital costs. CSC expenditures exclude CORCAN (a Special Operating Agency that conducts industrial operations within penitentiaries).

Constant dollars represent dollar amounts calculated on a one-year base that adjusts for inflation, thus allowing the yearly amounts to be directly comparable. Changes in the Consumer Price Index were used to calculate constant dollars.

Federal expenditures on corrections increased in 2009-10
Year Current Dollars Constant 2002 Dollars
Operating Capital Total Per capita Operating Capital Total Per capita
  $'000     $ $'000     $
2005-06                
CSC 1,533,498 116,843 1,650,341 51.18 1,440,716 109,774 1,550,489 48.08
PBC 42,800 -- 42,800 1.33 40,210 -- 40,210 1.25
OCI 3,115 -- 3,115 0.10 2,927 -- 2,927 0.09
Total 1,579,413 116,843 1,696,256 52.60 1,483,853 109,774 1,593,626 49.42
                 
2006-07                
CSC 1,743,847 124,538 1,868,386 57.35 1,608,418 114,866 1,723,285 52.90
PBC 43,400 -- 43,400 1.33 40,030 -- 40,030 1.23
OCI 3,156 -- 3,156 0.10 2,911 -- 2,911 0.09
Total 1,790,403 124,538 1,914,942 58.78 1,651,359 114,866 1,766,226 54.22
                 
2007-08                
CSC 1,827,839 140,641 1,968,480 59.78 1,650,717 127,013 1,777,730 53.99
PBC 43,400 -- 43,400 1.32 39,194 -- 39,194 1.19
OCI 3,132 -- 3,132 0.10 2,829 -- 2,829 0.09
Total 1,874,371 140,641 2,015,012 61.20 1,692,740 127,013 1,819,753 55.27
                 
2008-09                
CSC 2,024,839 197,992 2,222,831 66.72 1,822,015 178,160 2,000,175 60.04
PBC 48,600 -- 48,600 1.46 43,732 -- 43,732 1.31
OCI 3,854 -- 3,854 0.12 3,468 -- 3,468 0.10
Total 2,077,293 197,992 2,275,285 68.29 1,869,215 178,160 2,047,375 61.45
                 
2009-10                
CSC 2,065,085 200,357 2,265,442 67.18 1,859,112 180,373 2,039,486 60.48
PBC 47,300 -- 47,300 1.40 42,582 -- 1.26 1.26
OCI 4,375 -- 4,375 0.13 3,939 -- 3,939 0.12
Total 2,116,760 200,357 2,317,117 68.72 1,905,633 180,373 2,086,007 61.86

Source: Correctional Service Canada; Parole Board of Canada; Office of the Correctional Investigator; Statistics Canada Consumer Price Index.

Note:

Due to rounding, constant dollar amounts may not add to "Total".

Per capita cost is calculated by dividing the total expenditures by the total Canadian population and thus represents the cost per Canadian for federal correctional services.

Constant dollars represent dollar amounts calculated on a one-year base (2002) that adjusts for inflation allowing the yearly amounts to be directly comparable. Changes in the Consumer Price Index were used to calculate constant dollars.

CSC employees are concentrated in custody centres

CSC employees are concentrated in custody centres
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Note:

*These parole officers are situated within institutions, with the responsibility of preparing offenders for release.

**The “Other” category represents job classifications such as trades and food services.

***CSC has changed its definition of employee. Previously, the total number of employees included casual employees, employees on leave without pay and suspended employees. These categories have been removed from the total as of 2005-06. These numbers represent active employees and employees on leave with pay as of March 31, 2011.

Due to rounding, percentages may not add to 100 percent.

CSC employees are concentrated in custody centres
Service Area Number of Staff Percent
Headquarters and Central Services 2,979 16.6
Administration 2,530 14.1
Health Care 130 0.7
Program Staff 102 0.6
Correctional Officers 41 0.2
Instructors/Supervisors 14 0.1
Parole Officers/Parole Supervisors 1 0.0
Other* 161 0.9
     
Custody Centres 13,469 75.2
Correctional Officers 7,194 40.2
Administration 2,079 11.6
Health Care 973 5.4
Parole Officers/Parole Supervisors** 942 5.3
Program Staff 708 4.0
Instructors/Supervisors 400 2.2
Other* 1,173 6.6
     
Community Supervision 1,456 8.1
Parole Officers/Parole Supervisors 771 4.3
Administration 362 2.0
Program Staff 222 1.2
Health Care 76 0.4
Correctional Officers 14 0.1
Instructor/Supervisor 1 0.0
Other* 10 0.1
Total*** 17,904 100.0

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

*The “Other” category represents job classifications such as trades and food services.

**These parole officers are situated within institutions, with the responsibility of preparing offenders for release.

***CSC has changed its definition of employee. Previously, the total number of employees included casual employees, employees on leave without pay and suspended employees. These categories have been removed from the total as of 2005-06. These numbers represent active employees and employees on leave with pay as of March 31, 2011.

Due to rounding, percentages may not add to 100 percent.

The cost of keeping an inmate incarcerated has increased

The cost of keeping an inmate incarcerated has increased
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Note:

The average daily inmate cost includes those costs associated with the operation of the institutions, such as salaries and employee benefit plan contributions, but excludes capital expenditures and expenditures related to CORCAN (a Special Operating Agency that conducts industrial operations within penitentiaries).

In 2001-02, the cost allocation methodology was refined to better reflect expenditures directly related to offenders. In addition, the cost of keeping a woman incarcerated includes the cost of maximum security units for women co-located within institutions for men.

The cost of keeping an inmate incarcerated has increased
Categories Annual Average Costs per Offender (current $)
2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10
Incarcerated Offenders          
Maximum Security (males only) 113,645 121,294 135,870 147,135 150,808
Medium Security (males only) 75,251 80,545 87,498 93,782 98,219
Minimum Security (males only) 82,676 83,297 89,377 93,492 95,038
Women's Facilities 170,684 166,830 182,506 203,061 211,093
Exchange of Services Agreements 71,605 77,428 77,762 87,866 89,800
Incarcerated Average 88,067 93,030 101,664 109,699 113,974
           
Offenders in the Community 23,105 23,076 24,825 29,476 29,537
           
Total Incarcerated and Community 71,004 74,261 81,932 91,498 93,916

Source: Accountability and Financial Reports, Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

The average daily inmate cost includes those costs associated with the operation of the institutions, such as salaries and employee benefit plan contributions, but excludes capital expenditures and expenditures related to CORCAN (a Special Operating Agency that conducts industrial operations within penitentiaries).

In 2001-02, the cost allocation methodology was refined to better reflect expenditures directly related to offenders. In addition, the cost of keeping a woman incarcerated includes the cost of maximum security units for women co-located within institutions for men.

The number of Parole Board of Canada employees

The number of Parole Board of Canada employees
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Note:

Section 103 of the Corrections and Conditional Release Act limits the Parole Board of Canada to 45 full-time members.

The number of Parole Board of Canada employees
  Full-Time Equivalents
2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11
Strategic Outcome* 278 288 291 299 297
Conditional Release Decisions 57 53 58 64 57
Conditional Release Openness and Accountability 32 36 39 40 38
Pardon Decisions and Clemency Recommendations 49 39 40 39 46
Corporate Management 416 416 428 442 438
Total          
           
Type of Employees 40 41 37 40 40
Full-time Board Members 19 22 25 25 21
Part-time Board Members 357 353 366 377 377
Staff 416 416** 428 442 438
Total          

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Note:

*As of 2006-07, the Receiver General and Treasury Board Secretariat reporting requirements have been changed from Business Line to Strategic Outcome. Consequently, data regarding Conditional Release Openness and Accountability is unavailable prior to 2006-07.

**The Parole Board of Canada transferred the Information Technology function to the Correctional Service of Canada effective April 1st, 2007. This represented a reduction of 23 full-time equivalents.

Section 103 of the Corrections and Conditional Release Act limits the Parole Board of Canada to 45 full-time members.

The number of employees in the Office of the Correctional Investigator

The number of employees in the Office of the Correctional Investigator
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Note:

*The Office of the Correctional Investigator (OCI) may commence an investigation on receipt of a complaint by or on behalf of an offender or on its own initiative. Complaints are made by telephone, letter and during interviews with the OCI's investigative staff at federal correctional facilities. The dispositions in response to complaints involve a combination of internal responses (where the information or assistance sought by the offender can generally be provided by the OCI's investigative staff) and investigations (where, further to a review/analysis of law, policies and documentation, OCI investigative staff make an inquiry or several interventions with Correctional Service Canada and submit recommendations to address the complaint). Investigations vary considerably in terms of scope, complexity, duration and resources required.

The number of employees in the Office of the Correctional Investigator
  Full-Time Equivalents
2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11
Type of Employees          
Correctional Investigator 1 1 1 1 1
Senior Management and Legal Counsel/Advisor 5 5 5 5 5
Investigative Services 13 13 16 20 20
Administrative Services 4 4 2 2 4
Total 23 23 24 28 30

Source: Office of the Correctional Investigator.

Health care is the most common area of offender complaint received by the Office of the Correctional Investigator

Health care is the most common area of offender complaint received by the Office of the Correctional Investigator
Enlarge image

Note:

*The Office of the Correctional Investigator (OCI) may commence an investigation on receipt of a complaint by or on behalf of an offender or on its own initiative. Complaints are made by telephone, letter and during interviews with the OCI's investigative staff at federal correctional facilities. The dispositions in response to complaints involve a combination of internal responses (where the information or assistance sought by the offender can generally be provided by the OCI's investigative staff) and investigations (where, further to a review/analysis of law, policies and documentation, OCI investigative staff make an inquiry or several interventions with Correctional Service Canada and submit recommendations to address the complaint). Investigations vary considerably in terms of scope, complexity, duration and resources required.

Health care is the most common area of offender complaint received by the Office of the Correctional Investigator
Category of Complaint Number of Complaints*
2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11
  # # # # #
Health Care (including Dental) 916 849 851 821 797
Conditions of Confinement 374 350 373 -- ** 469
Cell Property 686 520 416 388 407
Institutional Transfers 610 555 447 393 369
Staff Performance 452 316 357 370 347
Administrative Segregation 453 406 423 390 346
Grievance Procedures 296 264 209 236 284
Visits (includes Private Family Visits) 357 315 311 277 205
File Information 343 297 253 152 202
Programs/Services 239 180 186 163 188
Telephone 180 189 195 165 168
Security Classification 193 172 138 102 135
Decisions (General) - Implementation -- *** -- *** -- *** -- *** 129
Correspondence -- *** -- *** -- *** -- *** 115
Mental Health -- *** -- *** -- *** -- *** 112
Case Preparation for Decisions 429 379 257 157 111
Safety/Security of Offender 167 176 165 137 90
Other**** 1,155 852 978 1,357 1,253
Outside OCI's Terms of Reference 290 203 216 174 187
Total 7,140 6,023 5,775 5,282 5,914

Source: Office of the Correctional Investigator.

Note:

*The Office of the Correctional Investigator (OCI) may commence an investigation on receipt of a complaint by or on behalf of an offender or on its own initiative. Complaints are made by telephone, letter and during interviews with the OCI's investigative staff at federal correctional facilities. The dispositions in response to complaints involve a combination of internal responses (where the information or assistance sought by the offender can generally be provided by the OCI's investigative staff) and investigations (where, further to a review/analysis of law, policies and documentation, OCI investigative staff make an inquiry or several interventions with Correctional Service Canada and submit recommendations to address the complaint). Investigations vary considerably in terms of scope, complexity, duration and resources required.

OCI has updated the categories of complaints to better reflect their corporate priorities and the changing nature of the complaints that they received in the 2010-11 fiscal year. As a result, some categories reported in previous years have been changed or removed.

The number of individual complaints processed by the OCI has decreased in recent years because the OCI has reallocated resources to sharpen its focus on systemic issues and death in custody investigations.

Section C: Offender Population

Federal offenders under the jurisdiction of the Correctional Service of Canada

Federal offenders under the jurisdiction of the Correctional Service of Canada
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Definitions:

Total Offender Population includes male and female federal offenders who are incarcerated (serving their sentences in federal or provincial institutions and those on temporary absence), offenders who are temporarily detained, actively supervised and those that have been deported.

Incarcerated includes male and female federal offenders serving their sentences in federal or provincial institutions.

Community Supervision includes federal offenders on day parole, full parole, statutory release, or in the community supervised on a long term supervision order, as well as those who are temporarily detained or paroled for deportation.

Actively Supervised includes federal offenders on day parole, full parole or statutory release, as well as those who are in the community on long term supervision orders.

Temporarily Detained includes offenders who are physically held in a provincial detention centre or a federal institution after being suspended for a breach of a parole condition or to prevent a breach of parole conditions.

Deported includes offenders for whom a deportation order has been enforced by Citizenship and Immigration Canada.

In addition to that total offender population, there are excluded groups such as:

On Bail includes offenders on a judicial interim release; they have appealed their conviction or sentence and have been released to await the results of a new trial.

Escaped includes offenders who have absconded from either a correctional facility or while on a temporary absence and whose whereabouts are unknown.

Unlawfully at Large includes offenders who have been released to the community on day parole, full parole, statutory release or a long term supervision order for whom a warrant for suspension has been issued, but has not yet been executed.

Note:

*The definition of “Offender Population” changed in the 2010 edition of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview (CCRSO). As such, comparisons to editions of the CCRSO prior to December 2010 should be done with caution.

Federal offenders under the jurisdiction of the Correctional Service of Canada
Status Federal Offenders
  #     %    
Incarcerated 14,221     62.2    
             
Community Supervision 8,642     37.8    
Actively Supervised   7,369     32.2  
Day Parole     1,012     4.4
Full Parole     3,633     15.9
Statutory Release     2,455     10.7
Long Term Supervision Order     269     1.2
Temporarily Detained, while on:   913     4.0  
Day Parole     104     0.5
Full Parole     124     0.5
Statutory Release     658     2.9
Long Term Supervision Order     27     0.1
Deported   360     1.6  
Total 22,863*     100.0    

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

*In addition to this total offender population, 72 offenders were on bail, 122 offenders had escaped, and 497 offenders were unlawfully at large.

It is possible for an offender under federal jurisdiction to serve his or her sentence in a provincial institution. The data presented include these offenders as they are still under federal jurisdiction.

The definition of “Offender Population” changed in the 2010 edition of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview (CCRSO). As such, comparisons to editions of the CCRSO prior to December 2010 should be done with caution.

The number of incarcerated federal offenders increased in 2010-11

The number of incarcerated federal offenders increased in 2010-11
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Note:

*The data reflect the number of offenders incarcerated at the end of each fiscal year. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

The term “Incarcerated Federal Offenders” includes male and female offenders and refers to those offenders who are currently serving a sentence of two years or more in a federal or provincial correctional facility. These numbers include those offenders who are in the community on some form of temporary absence at the time of the count. These numbers do not include those offenders who have had their supervision period suspended and are temporarily detained.

**Source: Corrections Key Indicator Report for Adults and Youth, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada

The number of incarcerated federal offenders increased in 2009-10
Year Incarcerated,Offenders
Federal1 Provincial/Territorial2 Total
Sentenced Remand Other/Temporary Detention Total
2001-02 12,663 10,850 7,933 316 19,099 31,762
2002-03 12,652 10,499 8,686 332 19,516 32,168
2003-04 12,413 9,750 9,118 336 19,204 31,617
2004-05 12,624 9,727 9,587 339 19,653 32,277
2005-06 12,671 9,560 10,875 301 20,736 33,407
2006-07 13,171 9,915 12,104 302 22,321 35,492
2007-08 13,581 9,665 12,914 340 22,919 36,500
2008-09 13,286 9,815 13,486 334 23,635 36,921
2009-10 13,531 9,836 13,600 325 23,762 37,293
2010-11 14,221 -- -- -- -- --

Source: 1Correctional Service Canada.; 2Corrections Key Indicator Report for Adults and Youth, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada

Note:

Incarcerated includes male and female federal offenders who are currently serving a sentence of two years or more in a federal or provincial correctional facility. These numbers include those offenders who are in the community on some form of temporary absence at the time of the count. These numbers do not include those offenders who have had their supervision period suspended and are temporarily detained.

The figures for federal offenders reflect yearly snapshots as of the last day of each fiscal year. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

The figures for provincial and territorial offenders reflect annual average counts. Provincial and territorial data exclude Prince Edward Island and Nunavut.

-- Data not available.

The number of admissions to federal jurisdiction has fluctuated

The number of admissions to federal jurisdiction has fluctuated
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Note:

*“Other” includes transfers from other jurisdictions (exchange of services), terminations, transfers from foreign countries, and admissions where a release is interrupted as a consequence of a new conviction.

These numbers refer to the federal jurisdiction admissions during each fiscal year and may be greater than the actual number of offenders admitted, since an individual offender may be admitted more than once in a given year. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

The number of admissions to federal jurisdiction has fluctuated
  2006-07 2007-08 2007-08 2009-10 2010-11
Women Men Women Men Women Men Women Men Women Men
Warrant of Committal                    
1st Federal Sentence 276 3,401 275 3,346 279 3,269 282 3,566 292 3,712
All Others 42 1,390 35 1,346 35 1,244 31 1,350 38 1,392
Subtotal 318 4,791 310 4,692 314 4,513 313 4,916 330 5,104
Total 5,109 5,002 4,827 5,229 5,434
                     
Revocations 156 3,219 147 3,237 167 3,098 179 2,864 152 2,618
Total 3,375 3,384 3,265 3,043 2,770
                     
Other* 8 116 11 156 20 151 5 96 8 124
Total 124 167 171 101 132
                     
  482 8,126 468 8,085 501 7,762 497 7,876 490 7,846
Total Admissions 8,608 8,553 8,263 8,373 8,336

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

*“Other” includes transfers from other jurisdictions through exchange of services, terminations, transfers from foreign countries, and admissions where a release is interrupted as a consequence of a new conviction.

These numbers refer to the federal jurisdiction admissions during each fiscal year and may be greater than the actual number of offenders admitted, since an individual offender may be admitted more than once in a given year. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

The number of women admitted from the courts to federal jurisdiction has increased over the past decade

The number of women admitted from the courts to federal jurisdiction has increased over the past decade
Enlarge image

Note:

A warrant of committal is a new admission to federal jurisdiction from the courts.

The number of women admitted from the courts to federal jurisdiction has increased over the past decade
Year Warrant of Committal Admissions Total
  Women   Men
  # % # %  
2001-02 202 4.9 3,914 95.1 4,116
2002-03 204 4.8 4,070 95.2 4,274
2003-04 237 5.6 3,990 94.4 4,227
2004-05 236 5.2 4,316 94.8 4,552
2005-06 274 5.7 4,509 94.3 4,783
2006-07 318 6.2 4,791 93.8 5,109
2007-08 310 6.2 4,692 93.8 5,002
2008-09 314 6.5 4,513 93.5 4,827
2009-10 313 6.0 4,916 94.0 5,229
2010-11 330 6.1 5,104 93.9 5,434

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

A warrant of committal is a new admission to federal jurisdiction from the courts.

Offender age at admission to federal jurisdiction is increasing

Offender age at admission to federal jurisdiction is increasing
Enlarge image

Note:

A warrant of committal is a new admission to federal jurisdiction from the courts.

Due to rounding, percentages may not add to 100 percent.

Offender age at admission to federal jurisdiction is increasing
Age at Admission 2001-02 2010-11
Women Men Total Women Men Total
  # % # % # % # % # % # %
Under 18 0 0.0 6 0.2 6 0.1 0 0.0 4 0.1 4 0.1
18 and 19 6 3.0 197 5.0 203 4.9 12 3.6 184 3.6 196 3.6
20 to 24 36 17.8 771 19.7 807 19.6 50 15.2 943 18.5 993 18.3
25 to 29 32 15.8 664 17.0 696 16.9 66 20.0 977 19.1 1 043 19.2
30 to 34 42 20.8 644 16.5 686 16.7 57 17.3 756 14.8 813 15.0
35 to 39 34 16.8 637 16.3 671 16.3 42 12.7 615 12.0 657 12.1
40 to 44 26 12.9 435 11.1 461 11.2 42 12.7 556 10.9 598 11.0
45 to 49 14 6.9 245 6.3 259 6.3 30 9.1 445 8.7 475 8.7
50 to 59 8 4.0 241 6.2 249 6.0 26 7.9 461 9.0 487 9.0
60 to 69 3 1.5 59 1.5 62 1.5 3 0.9 126 2.5 129 2.4
70 and over 1 0.5 15 0.4 16 0.4 2 0.6 37 0.7 39 0.7
Total 202   3,914   4,116   330   5,104   5,434  

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

A warrant of committal is a new admission to federal jurisdiction from the courts.

Due to rounding, percentages may not add to 100 percent.

The average age at admission is lower for Aboriginal offenders than for non-Aboriginal offenders

The average age at admission is lower for Aboriginal offenders than for non-Aboriginal offenders
Enlarge image

Note:

A warrant of committal is a new admission to federal jurisdiction from the courts.

Due to rounding, percentages may not add to 100 percent.

The average age at admission is lower for Aboriginal offenders than for non-Aboriginal offenders
Age at Admission 2001-02 2010-11
Aboriginal Non- Aboriginal Total Aboriginal Non- Aboriginal Total
  # % # % # % # % # % # %
Under 18 4 0.5 2 0.1 6 0.1 2 0.2 2 0.0 4 0.1
18 and 19 43 5.6 160 4.8 203 4.9 61 5.8 135 3.1 196 3.6
20 to 24 195 25.5 612 18.3 807 19.6 252 23.8 741 16.9 993 18.3
25 to 29 142 18.6 554 16.5 696 16.9 225 21.2 818 18.7 1.043 19.2
30 to 34 147 19.2 539 16.1 686 16.7 143 13.5 670 15.3 813 15.3
35 to 39 121 15.8 550 16.4 671 16.3 139 13.1 518 11.8 657 12.1
40 to 44 56 7.3 405 12.1 461 11.2 118 11.1 480 11.0 598 11.0
45 to 49 31 4.1 228 6.8 259 6.3 58 5.5 417 9.5 475 8.7
50 to 59 23 3.0 226 6.7 249 6.0 53 5.0 434 9.9 487 9.0
60 to 69 2 0.3 60 1.8 62 1.5 6 0.6 123 2.8 129 2.4
70 and over 0 0.0 16 0.5 16 0.4 2 0.2 37 0.8 39 0.7
Total 764   3,352   4,116   1,059   4,375   5,434  

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

A warrant of committal is a new admission to federal jurisdiction from the courts.

Due to rounding, percentages may not add to 100 percent.

20% of the federal incarcerated offender population is aged 50 or over

20% of the federal incarcerated offender population is aged 50 or over
Enlarge image

Note:

*2010 Postcensal Estimates, Demography Division, Statistics Canada.

Incarcerated includes male and female federal offenders serving their sentences in federal or provincial institutions, as well as those on temporary absences.

Community supervision includes federal offenders on day parole, full parole, statutory release, or in the community supervised on a long term supervision order, as well as those who are temporarily detained or paroled for deportation.

The data presented is a snapshot of the offender population as of April 10, 2011.

Due to rounding, percentages may not add to 100 percent.

20% of the federal incarcerated offender population is aged 50 or over
Age Incarcerated Community Total % of Canadian Adult Population*
  # % # % # % %
Under 18 3 0.0 0 0.0 3 0.0 20.3
18 and 19 132 0.9 7 0.1 139 0.6 2.7
20 to 24 1,699 11.9 627 7.3 2,326 10.2 6.9
25 to 29 2,274 16.0 1,134 13.1 3,408 14.9 7.0
30 to 34 2,066 14.5 1,088 12.6 3,154 13.8 6.7
35 to 39 1,769 12.4 963 11.1 2,732 11.9 6.7
40 to 44 1,809 12.7 1,047 1,047 2,856 12.5 7.1
45 to 49 1,675 11.8 1,040 12.0 2,715 11.9 8.2
50 to 54 1,167 8.2 900 10.4 2,067 9.0 7.7
55 to 59 742 5.2 643 7.4 1,385 6.1 6.7
60 to 64 448 3.2 510 5.9 958 4.2 5.8
65 to 69 250 1.8 325 3.8 575 2.5 4.3
70 and over 187 1.3 358 4.1 545 2.4 9.8
Total 14,221 100.0 8,642 100.0 22,863 100.0 100.0

Source: Correctional Service Canada; Statistics Canada.

Note:

*2010 Postcensal Estimates, Demography Division, Statistics Canada.

Incarcerated includes male and female federal offenders serving their sentences in federal or provincial institutions, as well as those on temporary absences.

Community supervision includes federal offenders on day parole, full parole, statutory release, or in the community supervised on a long term supervision order, as well as those who are temporarily detained or paroled for deportation.

The data presented is a snapshot of the offender population as of April 10, 2011.

Due to rounding, percentages may not add to 100 percent.

64% of federal offenders are Caucasian

64% of federal offenders are Caucasian
Enlarge image

Note:

These data are self-identified by offenders while they are incarcerated, and the categories are not comprehensive; therefore, the reader should interpret these data with caution.

“Aboriginal” includes offenders who are Inuit, Innu, Métis and North American Indian.

“Asian” includes offenders who are Arab, Asiatic, Chinese, East Indian, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, South East Asian and South Asian.

“Hispanic” includes offenders who are Hispanic and Latin American.

The data reflects the total offender population, which includes male and female federal offenders who are incarcerated (serving their sentences in federal or provincial institutions, and those on temporary absence) and offenders who are on community supervision. Community supervision includes federal offenders on day parole, full parole, statutory release, or in the community supervised on a long term supervision order, as well as those who are temporarily detained or paroled for deportation.

The data reflect the number of offenders active at the end of each fiscal year. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

Due to rounding, percentages may not add to 100 percent.

64% of federal offenders are Caucasian
  Offender Population
    2005-06   2010-11
  # % # %
Aboriginal 3,514 16.7 4,236 18.5
Inuit 135 0.6 196 0.9
Métis 980 4.7 1,082 4.7
North American Indian 2,399 11.4 2,958 12.9
Asian 860 4.2 1,172 5.1
Arab/West Asian 123 0.6 268 1.2
Asiatic 159 0.8 72 0.3
Chinese 109 0.5 144 0.6
East Indian 37 0.2 24 0.1
Filipino 34 0.2 65 0.3
Japanese 5 0.0 4 0.0
Korean 13 0.1 20 0.1
South East Asian 254 1.2 373 1.6
South Asian 126 0.6 202 0.9
Black 1,327 6.3 1,925 8.4
Caucasian 14,658 69.7 14,646 64.1
Hispanic 133 0.6 234 1.1
Hispanic 22 0.1 14 0.1
Latin American 111 0.5 220 1.0
Other/Unknown 544 2.5 650 2.8
Total 21,036 100.0 22,863 100.0

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

These data are self-identified by offenders while they are incarcerated, and the categories are not comprehensive; therefore, the reader should interpret these data with caution.

“Aboriginal” includes offenders who are Inuit, Innu, Métis and North American Indian.

“Asian” includes offenders who are Arab, Asiatic, Chinese, East Indian, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, South East Asian and South Asian.

“Hispanic” includes offenders who are Hispanic and Latin American.

The data reflects the total offender population, which includes male and female federal offenders who are incarcerated (serving their sentences in federal or provincial institutions, and those on temporary absence) and offenders who are on community supervision. Community supervision includes federal offenders on day parole, full parole, statutory release, or in the community supervised on a long term supervision order, as well as those who are temporarily detained or paroled for deportation.

The data reflect the number of offenders active at the end of each fiscal year. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

Due to rounding, percentages may not add to 100 percent.

The religious identification of the offender population is diverse

The religious identification of the offender population is diverse
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Note:

Religious identification is self-declared by offenders while they are incarcerated, and the categories are not comprehensive; therefore, the reader should interpret these data with caution.

“Catholic” includes offenders who are Catholic, Roman-Catholic, Greek-Catholic, Native-Catholic and Ukrainian-Catholic.

“Orthodox” includes offenders who are Greek Orthodox, Russian Orthodox and Ukrainian Orthodox.

“Protestant” includes offenders who are Anglican, Baptist, Christian Missionary, Christian Reform, Church of Science, Hutterite, Lutheran, Mennonite, Moravian, Native Spirit, Nazarene Christ, Pentecostal, Philadelphia Church of God, Presbyterian, Protestant, Salvation Army, Seventh Day Adventist, United Church, Christ Methodist, Christ Wesleyan and Worldwide Church.

“Other” includes other declared identifications such as Agnostic, Atheist, Baha'i, Christian Science, Hindu, Independent Spirit, Jehovah's Witness, Mormon, Rastafarian, Scientology, Siddha Yoga, Taoism, Unitarian, Pagan, Sufiism, Wicca and Zoroastrian.

The data reflect the total offender population, which includes federal offenders who are incarcerated (serving their sentences in federal or provincial institutions, and those on temporary absence) and federal offenders who are on community supervision. Community supervision includes federal offenders on day parole, full parole, statutory release, or in the community supervised on a long term supervision order, as well as those who are temporarily detained or paroled for deportation.

The data reflect the number of offenders active at the end of each fiscal year. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

Due to rounding, percentages may not add to 100 percent.

The religious identification of the offender population is diverse
  Offender Population
    2005-06   2010-11
  # % # %
Catholic 8,755 41,6 8,571 37,5
Protestant 4,328 20,6 4,446 19,5
Muslim 776 3,7 1,029 4,5
Native Spirituality 765 3,6 909 4,0
Buddhist 380 1,8 468 2,0
Jewish 155 0,7 164 0,7
Orthodox 106 0,5 106 0,5
Sikh 106 0,5 149 0,7
Other 1,363 6,5 1,539 6,7
None 3,257 15,5 3,709 16,2
Unknown 1,045 5,0 1,753 7,7
Total 21,036 100,0 22,863 100,0

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

Religious identification is self-declared by offenders while they are incarcerated, and the categories are not comprehensive; therefore, the reader should interpret these data with caution.

“Catholic” includes offenders who are Catholic, Roman-Catholic, Greek-Catholic, Native-Catholic and Ukrainian-Catholic.

“Orthodox” includes offenders who are Greek Orthodox, Russian Orthodox and Ukrainian Orthodox.

“Protestant” includes offenders who are Anglican, Baptist, Christian Missionary, Christian Reform, Church of Science, Hutterite, Lutheran, Mennonite, Moravian, Native Spirit, Nazarene Christ, Pentecostal, Philadelphia Church of God, Presbyterian, Protestant, Salvation Army, Seventh Day Adventist, United Church, Christ Methodist, Christ Wesleyan and Worldwide Church.

“Other” includes other declared identifications such as Agnostic, Atheist, Baha'i, Christian Science, Hindu, Independent Spirit, Jehovah's Witness, Mormon, Rastafarian, Scientology, Siddha Yoga, Taoism, Unitarian, Pagan, Sufiism, Wicca and Zoroastrian.

The data reflect the total offender population, which includes federal offenders who are incarcerated (serving their sentences in federal or provincial institutions, and those on temporary absence) and federal offenders who are on community supervision. Community supervision includes federal offenders on day parole, full parole, statutory release, or in the community supervised on a long term supervision order, as well as those who are temporarily detained or paroled for deportation.

The data reflect the number of offenders active at the end of each fiscal year. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

Due to rounding, percentages may not add to 100 percent.

The proportion of Aboriginal offenders incarcerated is higher than for non-Aboriginal offenders

The proportion of Aboriginal offenders incarcerated is higher than for non-Aboriginal offenders
Enlarge image

Note:

*2006 Census, Statistics Canada.

Incarcerated includes male and female federal offenders serving their sentences in federal or provincial institutions, as well as those on temporary absence. The data reflect the number of offenders active at the end of each fiscal year. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

The proportion of Aboriginal offenders incarcerated is higher than for non-Aboriginal offenders
    Incarcerated Community Total
    # % # %  
Men            
2007-08 Aboriginal 2,493 70.7 1,031 29.3 3,524
  Non-Aboriginal 10,593 60.8 6,842 39.2 17,435
  Total 13,086 62.4 7,873 37.6 20,959
2008-09 Aboriginal 2,460 69.9 1,058 30.1 3,518
  Non-Aboriginal 10,326 59.3 7,083 40.7 17,409
  Total 12,786 61.1 8,141 38.9 20,927
2009-10 Aboriginal 2,629 70.6 1,097 29.4 3,726
  Non-Aboriginal 10,399 59.6 7,048 40.4 17,447
  Total 13,028 61.5 8,145 38.5 21,173
2010-11 Aboriginal 2,875 72.8 1,072 27.2 3,947
  Non-Aboriginal 10,776 60.5 7,041 39.5 17,817
  Total 13,651 62.7 8,113 37.3 21,764
             
Women            
2007-08 Aboriginal 164 58.8 115 41.2 279
  Non-Aboriginal 331 42.6 446 57.4 777
  Total 495 46.9 561 53.1 1,056
2008-09 Aboriginal 157 58.1 113 41.9 270
  Non-Aboriginal 343 42.6 462 57.4 805
  Total 500 46.5 575 53.5 1,075
2009-10 Aboriginal 164 62.4 99 37.6 263
  Non-Aboriginal 339 42.2 465 57.8 804
  Total 503 47.1 564 52.9 1,067
2010-11 Aboriginal 182 63.0 107 37.0 289
  Non-Aboriginal 388 91.9 422 52.1 810
  Total 570 51.9 529 48.1 1,099

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

Incarcerated includes male and female federal offenders serving their sentences in federal or provincial institutions, as well as those on temporary absence.

Community supervision includes federal offenders on day parole, full parole, statutory release, or in the community supervised on a long term supervision order, as well as those who are temporarily detained or paroled for deportation.

The data reflect the number of offenders active at the end of each fiscal year. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

The majority of incarcerated federal offenders are classified as medium security risk

The majority of incarcerated federal offenders are classified as medium security risk
Enlarge image

Note:

The data represent the offender security level decision, as of April 10, 2011.

Incarcerated offenders include male and female federal offenders serving their sentences in federal or provincial institutions, as well as those on temporary absence.

The majority of incarcerated federal offenders are classified as medium security risk
Security Risk Level Aboriginal Non-Aboriginal Total
  # % # % # %
Minimum 454 15.6 2,216 21.6 2,670 20.3
Medium 1,919 66.1 6,537 63.8 8,456 64.3
Maximum 531 18.3 1,487 14.5 2,018 15.4
Total 2,904 100.0 10,240 100.0 13,144 100.0
             
Not Yet Determined* 153   924   1,077  
             
Total 3,057   11,164   14,221  

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

The data represent the offender security level decision, as of April 10, 2011.

*The “Not Yet Determined” category includes offenders who have not yet been classified.

Incarcerated offenders include male and female federal offenders serving their sentences in federal or provincial institutions, as well as those on temporary absence.

Admissions with a life or indeterminate sentence increased in 2010-11

Admissions with a life or indeterminate sentence increased in 2010-11
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Note:

*Although life sentences and indeterminate sentences both may result in imprisonment for life, they are different. A life sentence is a sentence of life imprisonment, imposed by a judge at the time of sentence, for example, for murder. An indeterminate sentence is a result of a designation, where an application is made to the court to declare an offender a Dangerous Offender, and the consequence of this designation is imprisonment for an indeterminate period.

A warrant of committal is a new admission to federal jurisdiction from the courts.

Admissions with a life or indeterminate sentence increased in 2010-11
Year Aboriginal Offenders Non-Aboriginal Offenders Total
Women Men Total Women Men Total Women Men Total
2001-02 2 36 38 4 116 120 6 152 158
2002-03 1 33 34 3 112 115 4 145 149
2003-04 0 20 20 2 119 121 2 139 141
2004-05 1 24 25 5 119 124 6 143 149
2005-06 4 40 44 9 123 132 13 163 176
2006-07 5 34 39 10 121 131 15 155 170
2007-08 4 30 34 4 138 142 8 168 176
2008-09 4 31 35 2 134 136 6 165 171
2009-10 5 41 46 9 140 149 14 181 195
2010-11 3 24 27 6 135 141 9 159 168

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

This table combines offenders serving life sentences and offenders serving indeterminate sentences.

Although life sentences and indeterminate sentences both may result in imprisonment for life, they are different. A life sentence is a sentence of life imprisonment, imposed by a judge at the time of sentence, for example, for murder. An indeterminate sentence is a result of a designation, where an application is made to the court to declare an offender a Dangerous Offender, and the consequence of this designation is imprisonment for an indeterminate period.

Offenders with life or indeterminate sentences represent 23% of the total offender population

Offenders with life or indeterminate sentences represent 23% of the total offender population
Enlarge image

Note:

*Although life sentences and indeterminate sentences may both result in imprisonment for life, they are different. A life sentence is a sentence of life imprisonment, imposed by a judge at the time of sentence, for example, for murder. An indeterminate sentence is a result of a designation, where an application is made to the court to declare an offender a Dangerous Offender, and the consequence of this designation is imprisonment for an indeterminate period. The Dangerous Sexual Offender and Habitual Offender designations were replaced with Dangerous Offender Legislation in 1977.

Offenders with life or indeterminate sentences represent 23% of the total offender population
  Offenders under
CSC Jurisdiction
Current Status
Custody Community
Incarcerated Day Parole Full Parole Other***
  # %        
Offenders with a life sentence for:            
1st Degree Murder 1,054 4.6 842 35 177 0
2nd Degree Murder 3,364 14.7 1,866 192 1,306 0
Other Offences* 225 1.0 114 14 97 0
Total 4,643 20.3 2,822 241 1,580 0
             
Offenders with indeterminate sentences resulting from the special designation of:
Dangerous Offender 437 1.9 422 3 12 0
Dangerous Sexual Offender 33 0.1 14 3 16 0
Habitual Offenders 3 0.0 1 0 2 0
Total 473 2.1 437 6 30 0
             
Offenders serving an indeterminate sentence (due to a special designation) and a life sentence (due to an offence):
  20 0.1 18 0 2 0
Total offenders with Life and/or Indeterminate sentence 5,136 22.5 3,277 247 1,612 0
Offenders Serving Determinate sentences** 17,727 77.5 10,944 880 2,428 3,475
Total 22,863 100.0 14,221 1,127 4,040 3,475

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

*“Other offences” include Schedule 1, Schedule 2 and Non-Schedule types of offences.

**This includes two offenders designated as Dangerous Offenders who are serving determinate sentences.

***“Other” in the Community includes federal offenders on statutory release or on a long term supervision order.

Among the 20 offenders serving an indeterminate sentence (due to a special designation) and a life sentence (due to an offence), there is one Dangerous Sexual Offender and one Habitual Offender.

67% of federal offenders are serving a sentence for a violent offence*

67% of federal offenders are serving a sentence for a violent offence
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Note:

*Violent offences include Murder I, Murder II and Schedule I offences.

Schedule I is comprised of sexual offences and other violent crimes excluding first and second degree murder (see the Corrections and Conditional Release Act).

Schedule II is comprised of serious drug offences or conspiracy to commit serious drug offences (see the Corrections and Conditional Release Act).

In cases where the offender is serving a sentence for more than one offence, the data reflect the most serious offence.

67% of federal offenders are serving a sentence for a violent offence*
Offence Category Aboriginal Non-Aboriginal Total
Women Men Total Women Men Total Women Men Total
Murder I 7 159 166 31 873 904 38 1,032 1,070
Percent 2.4 4.0 3.9 3.8 4.9 4.9 3.5 4.7 4.7
                   
Murder II 41 559 600 107 2,673 2,780 148 3,232 3,380
Percent 14.2 14.2 14.2 13.2 15.0 14.9 13.5 14.9 14.8
                   
Schedule I 168 2,377 2,545 240 8,095 8,335 408 10,472 10,880
Percent 58.1 60.2 60.1 29.6 45.4 44.7 37.1 48.1 47.6
                   
Schedule II 35 245 280 257 3,128 3,385 292 3,373 3,665
Percent 12.1 6.2 6.6 31.7 17.6 18.2 26.6 15.5 16.0
                   
Non-Schedule 38 607 645 175 3,048 3,223 213 3,655 3,868
Percent 13.1 15.4 15.2 21.6 17.1 17.3 19.4 16.8 16.9
  289 3,947   810 17,817   1,099 21,764  
Total 4,236   18,627   22,863  

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

*Violent offences include Murder I, Murder II and Schedule I offences.

Schedule I is comprised of sexual offences and other violent crimes excluding first and second degree murder (see the Corrections and Conditional Release Act).

Schedule II is comprised of serious drug offences or conspiracy to commit serious drug offences (see the Corrections and Conditional Release Act).

In cases where the offender is serving a sentence for more than one offence, the data reflect the most serious offence.

The data reflect the total offender population, which includes male and female federal offenders who are incarcerated (serving their sentences in federal or provincial institutions, and those on temporary absence) and federal offenders who are on community supervision. Community supervision includes federal offenders on day parole, full parole, statutory release, or in the community supervised on a long term supervision order, as well as those who are temporarily detained or paroled for deportation.

These figures are based on the offender population as of April 10, 2011.

The number of Aboriginal offenders under federal jurisdiction has increased

The number of Aboriginal offenders under federal jurisdiction has increased
Enlarge image

Note:

*Incarcerated includes male and female federal offenders serving their sentences in federal or provincial institutions, as well as those on temporary absence.

**Community supervision includes federal offenders on day parole, full parole, statutory release, or in the community supervised on a long term supervision order, as well as those who are temporarily detained or paroled for deportation.

The number of Aboriginal offenders under federal jurisdiction has increased
Aboriginal Offenders   Fiscal Year
2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11
Incarcerated            
Atlantic Region Men 110 120 118 111 109
  Women 7 4 5 9 9
Quebec Region Men 218 226 250 273 323
  Women 6 14 10 12 10
Ontario Region Men 323 351 373 398 417
  Women 24 25 25 24 40
Prairie Region Men 1,367 1,357 1,292 1,418 1,577
  Women 93 99 89 100 94
Pacific Region Men 414 439 427 429 449
  Women 18 22 28 19 29
National Total Men 2,432 2,493 2,460 2,629 2,875
  Women 148 164 157 164 182
  Total 2,580 2,657 2,617 2,793 3,057
             
Community            
Atlantic Region Men 25 37 45 50 48
  Women 8 10 6 6 9
Quebec Region Men 85 81 83 103 105
  Women 1 1 2 1 6
Ontario Region Men 121 152 142 165 170
  Women 12 21 21 18 21
Prairie Region Men 550 543 574 534 526
  Women 68 62 64 54 56
Pacific Region Men 208 218 214 245 223
  Women 14 21 20 20 15
National Total Men 989 1,031 1,058 1,097 1,072
  Women 103 115 113 99 107
  Total 1,092 1,146 1,171 1,196 1,179
             
Total Incarcerated & Community 3,672 3,803 3,788 3,989 4,236

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

Regional statistics for the Correctional Service of Canada account for data relating to the northern territories in the following manner: data for Nunavut are reported in the Ontario Region, data for the Northwest Territories are reported in the Prairies region, and data for the Yukon Territories are reported in the Pacific Region.

The total number of admissions to administrative segregation has fluctuated

The total number of admissions to administrative segregation has fluctuated
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Note:

These reports count admissions, not offenders. Offenders admitted multiple times to segregation are counted once for each admission. Offenders segregated under paragraph (f), subsection 44(1) of the Corrections and Conditional Release Act (Disciplinary Segregation) are not included.

Administrative segregation is the involuntary or voluntary separation, when specific legal requirements are met, of an inmate from the general population, other than pursuant to a disciplinary decision.

Voluntary administrative segregation is when the inmate requests placement in administrative segregation, and the Institutional Head believes, on reasonable grounds, that the continued presence of the inmate in the general population would jeopardize the inmate's own safety and that there is no reasonable alternative to placement in administrative segregation.

Involuntary administrative segregation is when the placement meets the requirements of subsection 31(3) of the Corrections and Conditional Release Act and the placement in administrative segregation is not voluntary.

The total number of admissions to administrative segregation has fluctuated
Year and Type of Administrative Segregation By Gender By Race
Women Men Total Aboriginal Non- Aboriginal Total
2006-07            
Involuntary 291 5,346 5,637 1,318 4,319 5,637
Voluntary 28 1,812 1,840 408 1,432 1,840
Total 319 7,158 7,477 1,726 5,751 7,477
             
2007-08            
Involuntary 326 5,070 5,396 1,243 4,153 5,396
Voluntary 42 1,794 1,836 415 1,421 1,836
Total 368 6,864 7,232 1,658 5,574 7,232
             
2008-09            
Involuntary 388 5,752 6,140 1,445 4,695 6,140
Voluntary 33 1,446 1,479 386 1,093 1,479
Total 421 7,198 7,619 1,831 5,788 7,619
             
2009-10            
Involuntary 330 5,888 6,218 1,532 4,686 6,218
Voluntary 18 1,272 1,290 367 923 1,290
Total 348 7,160 7,508 1,899 5,609 7,508
             
2010-11            
Involuntary 382 6,295 6,677 1,726 4,951 6,677
Voluntary 11 1,403 1,414 427 987 1,414
Total 393 7,698 8,091 2,153 5,938 8,091

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

These reports count admissions, not offenders. Offenders admitted multiple times to segregation are counted once for each admission. Offenders segregated under paragraph (f), subsection 44(1) of the Corrections and Conditional Release Act (Disciplinary Segregation) are not included.

Administrative segregation is the involuntary or voluntary separation, when specific legal requirements are met, of an inmate from the general population, other than pursuant to a disciplinary decision.

Voluntary administrative segregation is when the inmate requests placement in administrative segregation, and the Institutional Head believes, on reasonable grounds, that the continued presence of the inmate in the general population would jeopardize the inmate's own safety and that there is no reasonable alternative to placement in administrative segregation.

Involuntary administrative segregation is when the placement meets the requirements of subsection 31(3) of the Corrections and Conditional Release Act and the placement in administrative segregation is not voluntary.

The number of offender deaths while in custody has fluctuated

The number of offender deaths while in custody has fluctuated
Enlarge image

Note:

*Other causes of death include: natural causes, accidental deaths, death as a result of a legal intervention, other causes of death and where cause of death was not stated.

**For the calculation of rates, the total actual in-count numbers between 1999-00 and 2008-09 was used as the denominator.

The data on cause of death are subject to change following an official review or investigation, and should be used/interpreted with caution. The data presented were provided by the Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics at Statistics Canada, and may not reflect the outcome of recent reviews or investigations on cause of death.

The number of offender deaths while in custody has fluctuated
Year Type of Death
  Homicide   Suicide   Other* Total
  # % # % # % #
Federal              
1999-00 8 13.6 11 18.6 40 67.8 59
2000-01 0 0.0 9 20.9 34 79.1 43
2001-02 1 2.0 13 25.5 37 72.5 51
2002-03 2 4.1 12 24.5 35 71.4 49
2003-04 8 11.9 11 16.4 48 71.6 67
2004-05 3 6.1 9 18.4 37 75.5 49
2005-06 3 6.1 10 20.4 36 73.5 49
2006-07 3 4.9 10 16.4 48 78.7 61
2007-08 1 2.5 5 12.5 34 85.0 40
2008-09 2 3.1 9 13.8 54 83.1 65
Total 31 5.8 99 18.6 403 75.6 533
               
Provincial              
1999-00 3 6.4 26 55.3 18 38.3 47
2000-01 1 2.0 27 55.1 21 42.9 49
2001-02 0 0.0 17 41.5 24 58.5 41
2002-03 2 7.1 14 50.0 12 42.9 28
2003-04 0 0.0 7 38.9 11 61.1 18
2004-05 0 0.0 12 25.0 36 75.0 48
2005-06 2 4.0 20 40.0 28 56.0 50
2006-07 0 0.0 8 23.5 26 76.5 34
2007-08 0 0.0 6 20.7 23 79.3 29
2008-09 1 3.1 7 21.9 24 75.0 32
Total 9 2.4 144 38.3 223 59.3 376
               
Total Federal and Provincial Offender Deaths 40 4.4 243 26.7 626 68.9 909

Source: Adult Correctional Services Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada

Note:

*Other causes of death include: natural causes, accidental deaths, death as a result of a legal intervention, other causes of death and where cause of death was not stated.

Percent calculation include deaths where the cause was unknown. Between 1999-00 and 2008-09, there were 14 deaths in federal custody and 53 deaths in provincial custody where the cause was unknown.

The data on cause of death are subject to change following an official review or investigation, and should be used/interpreted with caution. The data presented were provided by the Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics at Statistics Canada, and may not reflect the outcome of recent reviews or investigations on cause of death.

The number of escapes has decreased

The number of escapes has decreased
Enlarge image

The number of escapes has decreased
Type of Escapes 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11
Escapes from Multi-level Institutions 0 0 1 0 0
Number of Escapees 0 0 1 0 0
Escapes from Maximum Security Level Institutions 0 0 0 0 0
Number of Escapees 0 0 0 0 0
Escapes from Medium Security Level Institutions 0 0 0 1 0
Number of Escapees 0 0 0 1 0
Escapes from Minimum Security Level Institutions 31 29 21 28 14
Number of Escapees 37 33 23 30 17
Total Number of Escape Incidents 31 29 22 29 14
Total Number of Escapees 37 33 24 31 17

Source: Security, Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

The data represent the number of escape incidents from federal facilities during each fiscal year. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

An escape incident can involve more than one offender.

The supervised federal offender population in the community has increased since 2004-05

The supervised federal offender population in the community has increased since 2004-05
Enlarge image

Note:

*A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

**The data presented above do not include offenders temporarily detained following suspension of a conditional release, offenders who were on long term supervision orders (See Figure/Table E4), offenders paroled for deportation or offenders unlawfully at large.

Day parole is a type of conditional release granted by the Parole Board of Canada whereby offenders are permitted to participate in community-based activities in preparation for full parole or statutory release. The conditions require offenders to return nightly to an institution or half-way house unless otherwise authorized by the Parole Board of Canada .

Full parole is a type of conditional release granted by the Parole Board of Canada whereby the remainder of the sentence is served under supervision in the community.

Statutory release refers to a conditional release that is subject to supervision after the offender has served two-thirds of the sentence.

The supervised federal offender population in the community has increased since 2004-05
Year Supervision Type of Federal Offenders
Day Parole Full Parole Statutory Release Totals % change*
Women Men Women Men Women Men Women Men Both Both
2001-02 55 1,018 298 3,654 56 2,109 409 6,781 7,190 -5.2
2002-03 71 969 267 3,469 54 2,132 392 6,570 6,962 -3.2
2003-04 67 986 259 3,412 42 2,120 368 6,518 6,886 -1.1
2004-05 90 872 249 3,296 69 1,999 408 6,167 6,575 -4.5
2005-06 75 1,002 285 3,231 64 1,998 424 6,231 6,655 1.2
2006-07 97 973 289 3,243 64 2,116 450 6,332 6,782 1.9
2007-08 102 957 292 3,251 89 2,100 483 6,308 6,791 0.1
2008-09 86 927 322 3,263 103 2,386 511 6,576 7,087 4.4
2009-10 100 988 313 3,271 82 2,347 495 6,606 7,101 0.2
2010-11 69 943 302 3,331 97 2,358 468 6,632 7,100 -1

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

*Percent change is measured from the previous year.

These cases reflect the number of offenders on active supervision at fiscal year end. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.

The data presented above do not include offenders temporarily detained following suspension of a conditional release, offenders who were on long term supervision orders (See Figure/Table E4), offenders paroled for deportation or offenders unlawfully at large.

Over the last two years, the provincial/territorial community corrections population has increased

Over the last two year, the provincial/territorial community corrections population has increased
Enlarge image

Note:

A conditional sentence is a disposition of the court where the offender serves a term of imprisonment in the community under specified conditions. This type of sentence can only be imposed in cases where the term of imprisonment would be less than two years. Conditional sentences have been a provincial and territorial sentencing option since September 1996.

To allow for comparisons, the numbers exclude information from Newfoundland & Labrador, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nunavut, and Northwest Territories, as complete statistics for these jurisdictions were not available. As a result of these changes, the data presented in this year's report are not comparable to the data reported in previous versions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview.

Over the last two years, the provincial/territorial community corrections population has increased
Year Average Monthly Offender
Counts on Probation
Average Monthly Offender
Counts on Conditional Sentence
Total
2000-01 93,162 9,742 102,905
2001-02 94,854 11,417 106,270
2002-03 96,258 12,380 108,638
2003-04 92,061 12,725 104,786
2004-05 89,796 12,972 102,767
2005-06 89,631 13,045 102,676
2006-07 90,867 12,554 103,421
2007-08 92,724 12,279 105,004
2008-09 93,826 12,823 106,649
2009-10 97,380 12,988 110,368

Source: Corrections Key Indicator Report for Adults and Youth, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Note:

A conditional sentence is a disposition of the court where the offender serves a term of imprisonment in the community under specified conditions. This type of sentence can only be imposed in cases where the term of imprisonment would be less than two years. Conditional sentences have been a provincial and territorial sentencing option since September 1996.

To allow for comparisons, the numbers exclude information from Newfoundland & Labrador, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nunavut, and Northwest Territories as complete statistics for these jurisdictions were not available. As a result of these changes, the data presented in this year's report are not comparable to the data reported in previous versions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview.

The number of offenders on provincial parole has decreased over the past decade

The number of offenders on provincial parole has decreased over the past decade
Enlarge image

Note:

Provincial parole boards operate in Quebec and Ontario. On April 1, 2007, the Parole Board of Canada assumed responsibility for parole decisions relating to offenders serving sentences in British Columbia's provincial correctional facilities. The Parole Board of Canada has jurisdiction over granting parole to provincial offenders in the Atlantic and Prairie provinces, British Columbia, and to territorial offenders in the Yukon, Nunavut and Northwest Territories.

The number of offenders on provincial parole has decreased over the past decade
Year Average Monthly Counts on Provincial Parole
Provincial Boards Parole Board of Canada** Total Percent Change
Quebec Ontario British Columbia* Total
2000-01 903 322 249 1,474 287 1,761 -21,2
2001-02 846 276 265 1,387 229 1,616 -8,2
2002-03 581 210 223 1,014 195 1,209 -25,1
2003-04 550 146 189 885 190 1,075 -11,1
2004-05 517 127 166 810 176 986 -8,3
2005-06 628 152 147 927 163 1,090 10,3
2006-07 593 142 120 855 136 991 -9,1
2007-08 581 205 n/a 736 237 973 -1,8
2008-09 533 217 n/a 696 190 886 -8,9
2009-10 506 194 n/a 700 168 868 -2.0

Source: Corrections Key Indicator Report for Adults and Youth, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Note:

*On April 1, 2007, the Parole Board of Canada assumed responsibility for parole decisions relating to offenders serving sentences in British Columbia's provincial correctional facilities.

**The data represent the number of provincial offenders who are released from custody on the authority of the Parole Board of Canada and supervised by the Correctional Service of Canada.

Provincial parole boards operate in Quebec and Ontario. The Parole Board of Canada has jurisdiction over granting parole to provincial offenders in the Atlantic and Prairie provinces, British Columbia, and to territorial offenders in the Yukon, Nunavut and Northwest Territories.

Section D: Conditional Release

The federal day and full parole grant rates are decreasing

The federal day and full parole grant rates are decreasing
Enlarge image

Note:

The grant rate represents the percentage of pre-release reviews resulting in a grant by the Parole Board of Canada.

Day parole is a type of conditional release granted by the Parole Board of Canada in which offenders are permitted to participate in community-based activities in preparation for full parole or statutory release. The conditions require offenders to return nightly to an institution or half-way house unless otherwise authorized by the Parole Board of Canada.

Not all offenders apply for day parole, and some apply more than once before being granted day parole.

Full parole is a type of conditional release granted by the Parole Board of Canada in which the remainder of the sentence is served under supervision in the community.

The Parole Board of Canada must review the cases of all offenders for full parole at the time prescribed by legislation, unless the offender advises the Parole Board of Canada in writing that he/she does not wish to be considered for full parole.

The federal day and full parole grant rates are decreasing
Type of Release Year Granted Denied Grant Rate (%)
Women Men Women Men Women Men Total
Day Parole 2001-02 189 2,981 29 1,228 86.7 70.8 71.6
  2002-03 196 2,830 24 1,181 89.1 70.6 71.5
  2003-04 213 2,909 25 1,047 89.5 73.5 74.4
  2004-05 258 2,819 24 1,028 91.5 73.3 74.5
  2005-06 247 2,963 33 1,087 88.2 73.2 74.1
  2006-07 263 2,903 41 1,312 86.5 68.9 70.1
  2007-08 285 2,855 38 1,265 88.2 69.3 70.7
  2008-09 276 2,767 39 1,335 87.6 67.5 68.9
  2009-10 290 2,767 56 1,495 83.8 64.9 66.3
  2010-11 241 2,717 58 1,753 80.6 60.8 62.0
Full Parole 2001-02 148 1,512 53 2,128 73.6 41.5 43.2
  2002-03 112 1,391 57 1,965 66.3 41.4 42.6
  2003-04 156 1,449 48 1,897 76.5 43.3 45.2
  2004-05 155 1,376 72 1,751 68.3 44.0 45.6
  2005-06 168 1,486 67 1,959 71.5 43.1 44.9
  2006-07 168 1,451 82 2,058 67.2 41.4 43.1
  2007-08 168 1,399 70 2,008 70.6 41.1 43.0
  2008-09 208 1,428 62 2,019 77.0 41.4 44.0
  2009-10 188 1,309 87 2,089 68.4 38.5 40.8
  2010-11 136 1,366 85 2,217 61.5 38.1 39.5

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Note:

The grant rate represents the percentage of pre-release reviews resulting in a grant by the Parole Board of Canada.

Day parole is a type of conditional release granted by the Parole Board of Canada in which offenders are permitted to participate in community-based activities in preparation for full parole or statutory release. The conditions require offenders to return nightly to an institution or half-way house unless otherwise authorized by the Parole Board of Canada.

Not all offenders apply for day parole, and some apply more than once before being granted day parole.

Full parole is a type of conditional release granted by the Parole Board of Canada in which the remainder of the sentence is served under supervision in the community.

The Parole Board of Canada must review the cases of all offenders for full parole at the time prescribed by legislation, unless the offender advises the Parole Board of Canada in writing that he/she does not wish to be considered for full parole.

The federal day parole grant rate for Aboriginal offenders decreased in 2010-11

The federal parole grant rate for Aboriginal offenders decreased in 2010-11
Enlarge image

Note:

The grant rate represents the percentage of pre-release reviews resulting in a grant by the Parole Board of Canada.

Day parole is a type of conditional release granted by the Parole Board of Canada in which offenders are permitted to participate in community-based activities in preparation for full parole or statutory release. The conditions require offenders to return nightly to an institution or half-way house unless otherwise authorized by the Parole Board of Canada.

Not all offenders apply for day parole, and some apply more than once before being granted day parole.

Full parole is a type of conditional release granted by the Parole Board of Canada in which the remainder of the sentence is served under supervision in the community.

The Parole Board of Canada must review the cases of all offenders for full parole at the time prescribed by legislation, unless the offender advises the Parole Board of Canada in writing that he/she does not wish to be considered for full parole.

The federal day parole grant rate for Aboriginal offenders decreased in 2010-11
Type of Release Year Aboriginal Non-Aboriginal Total Number Granted/Denied
Number Granted Number Denied Grant Rate (%) Number Granted Number Denied Grant Rate (%)
Day Parole 2001-02 484 163 74.6 2,686 1,094 71.1 4,427
  2002-03 488 181 72.9 2,538 1,024 71.3 4,231
  2003-04 504 164 75.4 2,618 908 74.2 4,194
  2004-05 493 156 76.0 2,584 896 74.3 4,129
  2005-06 577 197 74.5 2,633 923 74.0 4,330
  2006-07 516 248 67.5 2,650 1,105 70.6 4,519
  2007-08 482 211 69.6 2,658 1,092 70.9 4,443
  2008-09 463 248 65.1 2,580 1,126 69.6 4,417
  2009-10 456 289 61.2 2,601 1,262 67.3 4,608
  2010-11 436 381 53.4 2,522 1,430 63.8 4,769
Full Parole 2001-02 185 317 36.9 1,475 1,864 44.2 3,841
  2002-03 175 326 34.9 1,328 1,696 43.9 3,525
  2003-04 203 300 40.4 1,402 1,645 46.0 3,550
  2004-05 185 295 38.5 1,346 1,528 46.8 3,354
  2005-06 195 382 33.8 1,459 1,644 47.0 3,680
  2006-07 155 378 29.1 1,464 1,762 45.4 3,759
  2007-08 167 333 33.4 1,400 1,745 44.5 3,645
  2008-09 153 363 29.7 1,483 1,718 46.3 3,717
  2009-10 115 375 23.5 1,382 1,801 43.4 3,673
  2010-11 145 440 24.8 1,357 1,862 42.2 3,804

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Note:

The grant rate represents the percentage of pre-release reviews resulting in a grant by the Parole Board of Canada.

Day parole is a type of conditional release granted by the Parole Board of Canada in which offenders are permitted to participate in community-based activities in preparation for full parole or statutory release. The conditions require offenders to return nightly to an institution or half-way house unless otherwise authorized by the Parole Board of Canada.

Not all offenders apply for day parole, and some apply more than once before being granted day parole.

Full parole is a type of conditional release granted by the Parole Board of Canada in which the remainder of the sentence is served under supervision in the community.

The Parole Board of Canada must review the cases of all offenders for full parole at the time prescribed by legislation, unless the offender advises the Parole Board of Canada in writing that he/she does not wish to be considered for full parole.

Federal parole hearings involving an Aboriginal Cultural Advisor increased for the first time in the past four years

Federal parole hearings involving an Aboriginal Cultural Advisor increased for the first time in the past four years
Enlarge image

Note:

The presence of an Aboriginal Cultural Advisor is an alternative approach to the traditional parole hearing, and was introduced by the Parole Board of Canada to ensure that conditional release hearings were sensitive to Aboriginal cultural values and traditions. This type of hearing is available to both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal offenders.

Federal parole hearings involving an Aboriginal Cultural Advisor increased for the first time in the past four years
Year Hearings held with an Aboriginal Cultural Advisor
Aboriginal Offenders Non-Aboriginal Offenders All Offenders
Total Hearings With Cultural Advisor Total Hearings With Cultural Advisor Total Hearings With Cultural Advisor
  # # % # # % # # %
2001-02 1,122 431 38.4 4,752 41 0.9 5,874 472 8.0
2002-03 1,186 477 40.2 5,010 51 1.0 6,196 528 8.5
2003-04 1,251 550 44.0 5,101 73 1.4 6,352 623 9.8
2004-05 1,325 617 46.6 5,055 95 1.9 6,380 712 11.2
2005-06 1,373 645 47.0 5,205 97 1.9 6,578 742 11.3
2006-07 1,334 600 45.0 5,302 85 1.6 6,636 685 10.3
2007-08 1,218 470 38.6 4,782 51 1.1 6,000 521 8.7
2008-09 1,175 422 35.9 4,445 56 1.3 5,620 478 8.5
2009-10 1,122 361 32.2 4,559 59 1.3 5,681 420 7.4
2010-11 1,155 434 37.6 4,418 56 1.3 5,573 490 8.8

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Note:

The presence of an Aboriginal Cultural Advisor is an alternative approach to the traditional parole hearing, and was introduced by the Parole Board of Canada to ensure that conditional release hearings were sensitive to Aboriginal cultural values and traditions. This type of hearing is available to both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal offenders.

Offenders serve about 40% of their sentence prior to starting first full parole

Offenders serve about 40% of their sentence prior to starting first full parole
Enlarge image

Note:

Timing of parole in the sentence refers to the percentage of the sentence served at the time the first day parole or full parole starts during the sentence. In most cases a full parole is preceded by a day parole.

These calculations are based on sentences under federal jurisdiction, excluding life sentences and indeterminate sentences.

Offenders (other than those serving life or indeterminate sentences or subject to judicial determination) normally become eligible for full parole after serving 1/3 of their sentence or seven years, whichever is less. Eligibility for day parole is normally at 6 months before full parole eligibility or at 1/6 of the sentence for cases that meet the accelerated parole review criteria (see Section 125 of the Corrections and Conditional Release Act).

Offenders serve about 40% of their sentence prior to starting first full parole
Year Type of Supervision
First Day Parole First Full Parole
Women Men Total Women Men Total
  Percentage of sentence incarcerated
2001-02 26.8 32.0 31.6 36.6 39.1 38.8
2002-03 26.9 31.5 31.1 37.4 39.0 38.8
2003-04 27.5 33.4 33.0 37.5 39.6 39.4
2004-05 28.8 33.3 32.9 37.2 39.6 39.4
2005-06 28.5 32.9 32.5 36.1 39.3 39.0
2006-07 27.4 33.2 32.6 37.2 39.3 39.1
2007-08 30.3 32.3 32.1 37.9 38.3 38.3
2008-09 28.2 32.4 31.9 36.6 38.7 38.4
2009-10 29.5 33.2 32.8 36.1 38.4 38.1
2010-11 29.2 31.7 31.5 36.6 37.9 37.8

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Note:

Timing of parole in the sentence refers to the percentage of the sentence served at the time the first day parole or full parole starts during the sentence. In most cases a full parole is preceded by a day parole.

These calculations are based on sentences under federal jurisdiction, excluding life sentences and indeterminate sentences.

Offenders (other than those serving life or indeterminate sentences or subject to judicial determination) normally become eligible for full parole after serving 1/3 of their sentence or seven years, whichever is less. Eligibility for day parole is normally at 6 months before full parole eligibility or at 1/6 of the sentence for cases that meet the accelerated parole review criteria (see Section 125 of the Corrections and Conditional Release Act).

Aboriginal offenders serve a higher proportion of their sentences before being released on parole

Aboriginal offenders serve a higher proportion of their sentences before being released on parole
Enlarge image

Note:

Timing of parole in the sentence refers to the percentage of the sentence served at the time the first day parole or full parole starts during the sentence. In most cases a full parole is preceded by a day parole.

These calculations are based on sentences under federal jurisdiction, excluding life sentences and indeterminate sentences.

Offenders (other than those serving life or indeterminate sentences or subject to judicial determination) normally become eligible for full parole after serving 1/3 of their sentence or seven years, whichever is less. Eligibility for day parole is normally at 6 months before full parole eligibility or at 1/6 of the sentence for cases that meet the accelerated parole review criteria (see Section 125 of the Corrections and Conditional Release Act).

Aboriginal offenders serve a higher proportion of their sentences before being released on parole
Year Type of Supervision
First Day Parole First Full Parole
Aboriginal Non-Aboriginal Total Aboriginal Non-Aboriginal Total
  Percentage of sentence incarcerated
2001-02 37.0 30.7 31.6 42.7 38.4 38.8
2002-03 35.5 30.3 31.1 40.8 38.6 38.8
2003-04 38.7 31.9 33.0 42.9 38.9 39.4
2004-05 37.2 32.2 32.9 42.1 39.0 39.4
2005-06 36.7 31.8 32.5 42.4 38.5 39.0
2006-07 37.5 31.9 32.6 41.0 38.9 39.1
2007-08 38.3 31.2 32.1 40.9 38.0 38.3
2008-09 38.0 31.1 31.9 41.1 38.2 38.4
2009-10 38.7 31.9 32.8 41.2 37.8 38.1
2010-11 37.4 30.7 31.5 41.2 37.5 37.8

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Note:

Timing of parole in the sentence refers to the percentage of the sentence served at the time the first day parole or full parole starts during the sentence. In most cases a full parole is preceded by a day parole.

These calculations are based on sentences under federal jurisdiction, excluding life sentences and indeterminate sentences.

Offenders (other than those serving life or indeterminate sentences or subject to judicial determination) normally become eligible for full parole after serving 1/3 of their sentence or seven years, whichever is less. Eligibility for day parole is normally at 6 months before full parole eligibility or at 1/6 of the sentence for cases that meet the accelerated parole review criteria (see Section 125 of the Corrections and Conditional Release Act).

Women serve a lower proportion of their sentences than men before being released on parole

Women serve a lower proportion of their sentences than men before being released on parole
Enlarge image

Note:

Timing of parole in the sentence refers to the percentage of the sentence served at the time the first day parole or full parole starts during the sentence. In most cases a full parole is preceded by a day parole.

These calculations are based on sentences under federal jurisdiction, excluding life sentences and indeterminate sentences.

Offenders (other than those serving life or indeterminate sentences or subject to judicial determination) normally become eligible for full parole after serving 1/3 of their sentence or seven years, whichever is less. Eligibility for day parole is normally at 6 months before full parole eligibility or at 1/6 of the sentence for cases that meet the accelerated parole review criteria (see Section 125 of the Corrections and Conditional Release Act).

Women serve a lower proportion of their sentences than men before being released on parole
Year Type of Supervision
First Day Parole First Full Parole
Women Men Total Women Men Total
  Percentage of sentence incarcerated
2001-02 26.8 32.0 31.6 36.6 39.1 38.8
2002-03 26.9 31.5 31.1 37.4 39.0 38.8
2003-04 27.5 33.4 33.0 37.5 39.6 39.4
2004-05 28.8 33.3 32.9 37.2 39.6 39.4
2005-06 28.5 32.9 32.5 36.1 39.3 39.0
2006-07 27.4 33.2 32.6 37.2 39.3 39.1
2007-08 30.3 32.3 32.1 37.9 38.3 38.3
2008-09 28.2 32.4 31.9 36.6 38.7 38.4
2009-10 29.5 33.2 32.8 36.1 38.4 38.1
2010-11 29.2 31.7 31.5 36.6 37.9 37.8

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Note:

Timing of parole in the sentence refers to the percentage of the sentence served at the time the first day parole or full parole starts during the sentence. In most cases a full parole is preceded by a day parole.

These calculations are based on sentences under federal jurisdiction, excluding life sentences and indeterminate sentences.

Offenders (other than those serving life or indeterminate sentences or subject to judicial determination) normally become eligible for full parole after serving 1/3 of their sentence or seven years, whichever is less. Eligibility for day parole is normally at 6 months before full parole eligibility or at 1/6 of the sentence for cases that meet the accelerated parole review criteria (see Section 125 of the Corrections and Conditional Release Act).

The majority of federal day paroles are successfully completed

The majority of federal day paroles are successfully completed
Enlarge image

Note:

*Revocation for Breach of Conditions includes revocation with outstanding charges.

A day parole is considered successful if it was completed without a return to prison for a breach of conditions or for a new offence.

The majority of federal day paroles are successfully completed
Federal Day Parole Outcomes 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11
  # % # % # % # % # %
Successful Completion
Regular 1,777 81.3 1,698 80.9 1,783 83.9 1,720 86.0 1,747 88.1
Accelerated 757 81.3 803 81.2 812 84.1 807 86.3 869 91.0
Total 2,534 81.3 2,501 81.0 2,595 83.9 2,527 86.1 2,616 89.1
Revocation for Breach of Conditions*              
Regular 294 13.4 309 14.7 284 13.4 225 11.3 201 10.1
Accelerated 108 11.6 127 12.8 106 11.0 103 11.0 72 7.5
Total 402 12.9 436 14.1 390 12.6 328 11.2 273 9.3
Revocation with Non-Violent Offence              
Regular 96 4.4 77 3.7 45 2.1 43 2.2 30 1.5
Accelerated 65 7.0 59 6.0 43 4.5 23 2.5 14 1.5
Total 161 5.2 136 4.4 88 2.8 66 2.2 44 1.5
Revocation with Violent Offence**              
Regular 20 0.9 16 0.8 14 0.7 11 0.6 4 0.2
Accelerated 1 0.1 0 0.0 5 0.5 2 0.2 0 0.0
Total 21 0.7 16 0.5 19 0.6 13 0.4 4 0.1
Total                    
Regular 2,187 70.1 2,100 68.0 2,126 68.8 1,999 68.1 1,982 67.5
Accelerated 931 29.9 989 32.0 966 31.2 935 31.9 955 32.5
Total 3,118 100.0 3,089 100.0 3,092 100.0 2,934 100.0 2,937 100.0

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Note:

*Revocation for Breach of Conditions includes revocation with outstanding charges.

**Violent offences include murder and Schedule I offences (listed in the Corrections and Conditional Release Act) such as assaults, sexual offences, arson, abduction, robbery and some weapon offences.

Day parole is a type of conditional release in which offenders are permitted to participate in community-based activities in preparation for full parole or statutory release. The conditions require offenders to return nightly to an institution or half-way house unless otherwise authorized by the Parole Board of Canada.

Eligibility for day parole release normally occurs 6 months prior to full parole. Eligibility for accelerated parole review cases occurs after the offender serves 6 months or 1/6 of the sentence, whichever is greater.

The majority of federal full paroles are successfully completed

The majority of federal full paroles are successfully completed
Enlarge image

Note:

*Revocation for Breach of Conditions includes revocation with outstanding charges.

A full parole is considered successful if it was completed without a return to prison for a breach of conditions or for a new offence.

These data do not include offenders serving life or indeterminate sentences as these offenders, by definition, remain under supervision for life.

The majority of federal full paroles are successfully completed
Federal Full Parole Outcomes* 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11
  # % # % # % # % # %
Successful Completion                
Regular 412 70.4 439 72.8 416 75.8 386 75.0 389 75.8
Accelerated 574 67.6 575 68.7 633 70.5 625 73.3 655 74.8
Total 986 68.8 1,014 70.4 1,049 72.5 1,011 73.9 1,044 75.2
Revocation for Breach of Conditions**              
Regular 105 17.9 110 18.2 82 14.9 82 15.9 86 16.8
Accelerated 172 20.3 169 20.2 184 20.5 164 19.2 169 19.3
Total 277 19.3 279 19.4 266 18.4 246 18.0 255 18.4
Revocation with Non-Violent Offence              
Regular 54 9.2 42 7.0 40 7.3 39 7.6 27 5.3
Accelerated 99 11.7 85 10.2 76 8.5 61 7.2 48 5.5
Total 153 10.7 127 8.8 116 8.0 100 7.3 75 5.4
Revocation with Violent Offence***              
Regular 14 2.4 12 2.0 11 2.0 8 1.6 11 2.1
Accelerated 4 0.5 8 1.0 5 0.6 3 0.4 4 0.5
Total 18 1.3 20 1.4 16 1.1 11 0.8 15 1.1
Total                    
Regular 585 40.8 603 41.9 549 37.9 515 37.6 513 36.9
Accelerated 849 59.2 837 58.1 898 62.1 853 62.4 876 63.1
Total 1,434 100.0 1,440 100.0 1,447 100.0 1,368 100.0 1,389 100.0

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Note:

*Excludes offenders serving indeterminate sentences because they do not have a warrant expiry date and technically speaking, can only successfully complete full parole upon [their] death.

**Revocation for Breach of Conditions includes revocation with outstanding charges.

***Violent offences include murder and Schedule I offences (listed in the Corrections and Conditional Release Act) such as assaults, sexual offences, arson, abduction, robbery and some weapon offences.

Full parole is a type of conditional release granted by the Parole Board of Canada in which a portion of the sentence is served under supervision in the community. Offenders (other than those serving life or indeterminate sentences or subject to judicial determination) normally become eligible for full parole after serving 1/3 of their sentence or seven years, whichever is less.

The majority of statutory releases are successfully completed

The majority of statutory releases are successfully completed
Enlarge image

Note:

*Revocation for Breach of Conditions includes revocation with outstanding charges.

A statutory release is considered successful if it was completed without a return to prison for a breach of conditions or for a new offence.

Statutory release refers to a conditional release that is subject to supervision after the offender has served two-thirds of the sentence.

The majority of statutory releases are successfully completed
Statutory Release Outcomes 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11
  # % # % # % # % # %
Successful Completion 3,201 56.6 3,320 56.7 3,490 59.1 3,723 61.1 3,437 62.4
Revocation for Breach of Conditions* 1,623 28.7 1,712 29.2 1,722 29.1 1,682 27.6 1,516 27.5
Revocation with Non-Violent Offence 646 11.4 638 10.9 569 9.6 566 9.3 485 8.8
Revocation with Violent Offence** 188 3.3 184 3.1 129 2.2 124 2.0 73 1.3
Total 5,658 100.0 5,854 100.0 5,910 100.0 6,095 100.0 5,511 100.0

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Note:

*Revocation for Breach of Conditions includes revocation with outstanding charges.

**Violent offences include murder and Schedule I offences (listed in the Corrections and Conditional Release Act) such as assaults, sexual offences, arson, abduction, robbery and some weapon offences.

Over the past decade, the rate of violent conviction for offenders while under supervision has declined

Over the past decade, the rate of violent conviction for offenders while under supervision has declined
Enlarge image

Note:

*Supervised offenders include offenders who are on parole, statutory release, those temporarily detained in federal institutions, and those who are unlawfully at large.

**Violent offences include murder and Schedule I offences (listed in the Corrections and Conditional Release Act) such as assaults, sexual offences, arson, abduction, robbery and some weapon offences.

The dotted line between 2009-10 and 2010-11 is intended to signify that due to delays in the court process, these numbers under-represent the actual number of convictions, as verdicts may not have been reached by year-end.

Over the past decade, the rate of violent conviction for offenders while under supervision has declined
Year # of Offenders Convicted for Violent Offences Rate per 1,000 Supervised Offenders*
Day Parole Full Parole Statutory Release Total Day Parole Full Parole Statutory Release
2001-02 31 35 183 249 24 8 64
2002-03 22 28 205 255 17 7 70
2003-04 19 22 204 245 15 6 69
2004-05 27 32 182 241 22 8 61
2005-06 16 24 166 206 12 6 54
2006-07 21 18 188 227 16 5 59
2007-08 16 20 184 220 14 6 59
2008-09 19 16 129 164 17 4 38
2009-10 13 11 124 148 10 3 38
2010-11** 4 15 73 92 5 4 22

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Note:

*Supervised offenders include offenders who are on parole, statutory release, those temporarily detained in federal institutions, and those who are unlawfully at large.

**Due to delays in the court processes, the numbers under-represent the actual number of convictions, as verdicts may not have been reached by year-end.

Violent offences include murder and Schedule I offences (listed in the Corrections and Conditional Release Act) such as assaults, sexual offences, arson, abduction, robbery and some weapon offences.

Day and full parole include those offenders serving determinate and indeterminate sentences.

Over 25% of offenders serving determinate sentences were not reviewed for parole

Over 25% of offenders serving determinate sentences were not reviewed for parole
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Note:

*Data include only those offenders who commenced their determinate sentence during the fiscal year indicated (April 1 to March 31 of the following year) and had completed their sentence by March 31, 2011.

Over 25% of offenders serving determinate sentences were not reviewed for parole
  Year that Determinate Sentence Commenced
2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05
  # % # % # % # % # %
Reviewed by Board 2,768 74.7 2,496 69.5 2,540 70.3 2,440 68.9 2,563 69.1
Parole Granted 1,923 51.9 1,722 47.9 1,799 49.8 1,775 50.1 1,801 48.5
Parole Denied 845 22.8 774 21.5 741 20.5 665 18.8 762 20.5
Not Reviewed by Board* 938 25.3 1,096 30.5 1,075 29.7 1,102 31.1 1,148 30.9
Total Sentences 3,706 100.0 3,592 100.0 3,615 100.0 3,542 100.0 3,711 100.0

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Note:

*These are determinate sentences where the offender either waived all parole reviews, withdrew all parole applications, or postponed until statutory release.

Data include only those offenders who commenced their determinate sentence during the fiscal year indicated (April 1 to March 31 of the following year) and had completed their sentence by March 31, 2011.

The number of offenders granted temporary absences has decreased since 2001-02

The number of offenders granted temporary absences has decreased since 2001-02
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Note:

A temporary absence is permission given to an eligible offender to be away from the normal place of confinement for medical, administrative, community service, family contact, personal development for rehabilitative purposes, or compassionate reasons, including parental responsibilities.

A work release is a structured program of release of specified duration for work or community service outside the penitentiary, under the supervision of a staff member or other authorized person or organization.

These numbers depict the number of offenders who received at least one temporary absence permit (excluding those for medical purposes) or at least one work release. An offender may be granted more than one temporary absence permit or work release over a period of time.

The number of offenders granted temporary absences has decreased since 2001-02
Year Temporary Absences Work Releases
Escorted Unescorted
  # of Offenders # of Permits # of Offenders # of Permits # of Offenders # of Permits
2001-02 2,877 30,053 838 5,174 618 1,392
2002-03 2,722 34,187 725 4,910 595 1,352
2003-04 2,691 38,112 715 4,133 495 1,051
2004-05 2,519 35,276 526 3,600 330 763
2005-06 2,570 37,138 505 3,058 355 997
2006-07 2,531 39,790 502 4,169 338 723
2007-08 2,516 41,623 469 3,802 300 613
2008-09 2,335 36,393 436 3,805 238 651
2009-10 2,207 35,875 391 3,351 241 1,028
2010-11 2,250 40,062 343 3,083 268 1,192

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

A temporary absence is permission given to an eligible offender to be away from the normal place of confinement for medical, administrative, community service, family contact, personal development for rehabilitative purposes, or compassionate reasons, including parental responsibilities.

A work release is a structured program of release of specified duration for work or community service outside the penitentiary, under the supervision of a staff member or other authorized person or organization.

These numbers depict the number of offenders who received at least one temporary absence permit (excluding those for medical purposes) or at least one work release. An offender may be granted more than one temporary absence permit or work release over a period of time.

Section E: Statistics on Special Applications of Criminal Justice

The number of detention reviews has fluctuated over the past five years

The number of detention reviews has fluctuated over the past five years
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Note:

According to the Corrections and Conditional Release Act, an offender entitled to statutory release after serving two-thirds of the sentence may be held in custody until warrant expiry if it is established that the offender is likely to commit, before the expiry of sentence, an offence causing death or serious harm, a serious drug offence or a sex offence involving a child.

The number of detention reviews has fluctuated over the past five years
Year Outcome of Initial Detention Reviews Total
Detained Statutory Release Total
Abor. Non - Abor. Total % Abor. Non - Abor. Total % Abor. Non - Abor.
1996-97 110 321 431 93.3 11 20 31 6.7 121 341 462
1997-98 79 233 312 93.1 9 14 23 6.9 88 247 335
1998-99 76 158 234 91.1 3 20 23 8.9 79 178 257
1999-00 83 125 208 93.7 3 11 14 6.3 86 136 222
2000-01 69 146 215 93.9 6 8 14 6.1 75 154 229
2001-02 73 184 257 94.5 2 13 15 5.5 75 197 272
2002-03 81 164 245 86.3 14 25 39 13.7 95 189 284
2003-04 71 208 279 92.1 8 16 24 7.9 79 224 303
2004-05 68 157 225 91.1 6 16 22 8.9 74 173 247
2005-06 75 158 233 89.3 11 17 28 10.7 86 175 261
2006-07 66 156 222 88.8 4 24 28 11.2 70 180 250
2007-08 86 161 247 93.2 7 11 18 6.8 93 172 265
2008-09 101 155 256 95.9 5 6 11 4.1 106 161 267
2009-10 97 165 262 93.9 2 15 17 6.1 99 180 279
2010-11 111 127 238 94.4 4 10 14 5.6 115 137 252
Total 1,246 2,618 3,864 92.3 95 226 321 7.7 1,341 2,844 4,185

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Note:

According to the Corrections and Conditional Release Act, an offender entitled to statutory release after serving two-thirds of the sentence may be held in custody until warrant expiry if it is established that the offender is likely to commit, before the expiry of sentence, an offence causing death or serious harm, a serious drug offence or a sex offence involving a child.

80% of judicial review hearings result in earlier parole eligibility

80% of judicial review hearings result in earlier parole eligibility
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Note:

*Of the 33 offenders no longer under active supervision, 13 are incarcerated, 15 are deceased, one is being temporarily detained, and four have been deported.

Judicial review is an application to the court for a reduction in the time required to be served before being eligible for parole. Judicial review procedures apply to offenders who have been sentenced to imprisonment for life without eligibility for parole until more than fifteen years of their sentence has been served. Offenders can apply when they have served at least 15 years of their sentence.

80% of judicial review hearings result in earlier parole eligibility
Province/Territory of Judicial Review Parole Ineligibility Reduced by Court Reduction Denied by Court Total
1st degree murder 2nd degree murder 1st degree murder 2nd degree murder 1st degree murder 2nd degree murder
Northwest Territories 0 0 0 0 0 0
Nunavut 0 0 0 0 0 0
Yukon 0 0 0 0 0 0
Newfoundland & Labrador 0 0 0 0 0 0
Prince Edward Island 0 0 0 0 0 0
Nova Scotia 1 1 1 0 2 1
New Brunswick 1 0 0 0 1 0
Quebec 57 15 6 2 63 17
Ontario 20 0 16 1 36 1
Manitoba 7 3 1 0 8 3
Saskatchewan 6 0 2 0 8 0
Alberta 18 0 5 0 23 0
British Columbia 17 1 4 0 21 1
Sub-total 127 20 35 3 162 23
Total 147 38 185

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

These numbers represent total decisions as of April 10, 2011.

Judicial reviews are conducted in the province where the conviction took place.

The number of dangerous offender designations has decreased since 2010-11

The number of dangerous offender designations has decreased since 2010-11
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Note:

*The number of Dangerous Offenders designated per year does not include overturned decisions.

Three offenders who received Dangerous Offender designations did not have a designation date entered in their file, and are therefore not represented in the graph. However, they are counted in the total number of offenders who received a designation.

Offenders who have died since receiving designations are no longer classified as “active”; however, they are still represented in the above graph, which depicts the total number of offenders “designated”;.

Dangerous Offender legislation came into effect in Canada on October 15, 1977, replacing the Habitual Offender and Dangerous Sexual Offender provisions that were abolished. A Dangerous Offender (DO) is an individual given an indeterminate sentence on the basis of a particularly violent crime or pattern of serious violent offences where it is judged that the offender's behaviour is unlikely to be inhibited by normal standards of behavioural restraint (see section 752 of the Criminal Code of Canada). Until August 1997, a determinate sentence was possible for those designated as DOs. In addition to the DOs, there remain within federal jurisdiction 34 Dangerous Sexual Offenders and nine Habitual Offenders.

The number of dangerous offender designations has decreased since 2010-11
Province/Territory
of Designation
All Designations (# designated since 1978) Active Dangerous Offenders
# of Indeterminate Offenders # of Determinate Offenders Total
Newfoundland & Labrador 11 8 0 8
Nova Scotia 17 14 0 14
Prince Edward Island 0 0 0 0
New Brunswick 8 7 0 7
Quebec 61 57 0 57
Ontario 222 182 1 183
Manitoba 10 9 0 9
Saskatchewan 52 46 0 46
Alberta 46 38 0 38
British Columbia 112 88 1 89
Yukon 1 1 0 1
Northwest Territories 5 5 0 5
Nunavut 1 1 0 1
Total 546 456 2 458

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

Numbers presented are as of April 10, 2011.

The number of Dangerous Offenders declared per year does not include overturned decisions.

Offenders who have died since receiving designations are no longer classified as “active”; however, they are still represented in the total number of offenders “designated”.

Most long term supervision orders are for a 10-year period

Most long term supervision orders are for a 10-year period
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Note:

Long Term Supervision Order (LTSO) legislation, which came into effect in Canada on August 1, 1997, allows the court to impose a sentence of two years or more for the predicate offence and order that the offender be supervised in the community for a further period not exceeding 10 years.

Twenty-nine offenders under these provisions have died and 38 offenders have completed their long term supervision period.

Most long term supervision orders are for a 10-year period
Province or Territory of Order Length of Supervision Order (years) Current Status
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 10 Total Incarcerated DP, FP or SR* LTSO period LTSO** interrupted Total
Newfoundland & Labrador 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 6 2 0 2 1 5
Nova Scotia 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 11 14 3 0 9 0 12
Prince Edward Island 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 2 0 0 0 0 0
New Brunswick 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 6 9 4 0 5 0 9
Quebec 0 2 0 42 6 23 8 137 218 79 23 89 3 194
Ontario 0 0 2 8 4 14 15 153 196 73 6 81 18 178
Manitoba 0 0 0 1 1 2 1 26 31 11 1 17 0 29
Saskatchewan 1 0 1 9 7 5 7 27 57 29 2 19 1 51
Alberta 0 0 0 7 1 0 1 46 55 19 1 23 3 46
British Columbia 0 0 0 8 3 5 5 83 104 37 7 50 2 96
Yukon 0 0 0 1 0 2 0 6 9 5 1 3 0 9
Northwest Territories 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 2 3 0 0 2 1 3
Nunavut 0 0 0 2 0 0 1 3 6 4 0 2 0 6
Total 1 3 3 84 22 51 39 507 710 266 41 302 29 638

Source: Correctional Service Canada.

Note:

*This category includes offenders whose current status is either supervised on day parole (DP), full parole (FP) or statutory release (SR).

**This category includes offenders convicted of a new offence while on the supervision portion of an LTSO. When this occurs, the LTSO supervision period is interrupted until the offender has served the new sentence to its warrant expiry date. At that time, the LTSO supervision period resumes where it left off.

These numbers are as of April 10, 2011.

Twenty-nine offenders under these provisions have died and 38 offenders have completed their long term supervision period.

The number of pardon applications processed has decreased

The number of pardon applications processed has decreased
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Note:

*Source: Royal Canadian Mounted Police Criminal Records Division, 2009.

Pardons allow people who were convicted of a criminal offence but have completed their sentence and demonstrated that they are law-abiding citizens to have their criminal record sealed. A person convicted of a summary offence may apply for a pardon three years after the completion of the sentence, and a person convicted of an indictable offence may apply after five years.

The number of pardon applications processed has decreased
Type of Decision 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11
Granted 7,076 14,514 30,317 16,250 9,393
Issued 7,672 10,332 9,311 7,889 2,693
Denied 103 175 800 437 293
Total Granted/Issued/Denied 14,851 25,021 40,428 24,576 12,379
Percentage Granted/Issued 99.3 99.3 98.0 98.0 98.0
           
Revocations* 133 34 123 194 71
Cessations 2,264 547 584 727 1,043
Total Revocations/Cessations 2,397 581 707 921 1,126
           
Cumulative Granted/Issued** 352,631 377,477 417,105 441,244 453,330
Cumulative Revocations/Cessations** 14,004 14,585 15,292 16,213 17,339

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Note:

*Revocations fluctuate due to resource re-allocation to deal with backlogs.

**Cumulative data reflects pardon activity since 1970, when the pardon process was established under the Criminal Records Act.

Pardons are issued for summary offences, upon application, following a three-year conviction-free period after the completion of the sentence. In cases of indictable offences, pardons are granted at the discretion of the Parole Board of Canada (PBC) following a five-year period of good conduct after the completion of the sentence. The cessation of a pardon automatically occurs following a subsequent conviction for an indictable offence or hybrid offence, with some exceptions, including impaired driving, driving with more than 80 mg of alcohol in the blood or fail to provide a breath sample. Revocations are at the discretion of the PBC following a subsequent summary conviction, or for lack of good conduct. The Board may also render a decision of cessation when it is convinced by new information that the person was not eligible for a pardon at the time it was awarded.

Section F: Victims of Crime

Victimization rates for theft of personal property have increased

Victimization rates for theft of personal property have increased
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Note:

*Assault data includes incidents of spousal violence. In previous editions of this document, the victimization data excluded incidents of spousal violence.

Rates are based on 1,000 population, 15 years of age and older, across the 10 provinces.

Victimization rates for theft of personal property have increased
Type of Incident Year
1999 2004 2009
Theft of Personal Property 75 93 108
Sexual Assault 21 21 24
Robbery 9 11 13
Assault* 81 75 80

Source: General Social Survey, Statistics Canada, 1999, 2004 and 2009.

Note:

*Assault data includes incidents of spousal violence. In previous editions of this document, the victimization data excluded incidents of spousal violence.

Rates are based on 1,000 population, 15 years of age and older, across the 10 provinces.

The majority of victims of violent crime are under 30

The majority of victims of violent crime are under 30
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Note:

*Population estimates are as of July 1, 2010.

Violent crimes include homicide, attempted murder, assault, sexual offences, abduction, robbery and traffic offences causing bodily harm and death.

The data do not represent 100% coverage. The data excludes 4,369 cases where age was unknown, 937 cases where sex was unknown and 876 cases where both age and sex were unknown.

Due to rounding, totals may not add to 100 percent.

The majority of victims of violent crime are under 30
Age of Victim Males Females Total
  # % # % # %
0 to 4 years 1,917 1.0 2,058 1.0 3,975 1.0
5 to 9 years 3,848 2.0 3,728 1.8 7,576 1.9
10 to 14 years 13,775 7.2 13,649 6.7 27,424 6.9
15 to 19 years 29,342 15.4 32,365 15.8 61,707 15.6
20 to 24 years 27,109 14.2 32,003 15.6 59,112 14.9
25 to 29 years 22,839 12.0 26,211 12.8 49,050 12.4
30 to 34 years 17,977 9.4 21,449 10.5 39,426 10.0
35 to 39 years 16,630 8.7 19,349 9.5 35,979 9.1
40 to 44 years 15,878 8.3 17,637 8.6 33,515 8.5
45 to 49 years 15,227 8.0 14,728 7.2 29,955 7.6
50 to 54 years 10,775 5.6 9,197 4.5 19,972 5.0
55 to 59 years 6,943 3.6 5,181 2.5 12,124 3.1
60 to 64 years 4,146 2.2 3,009 1.5 7,155 1.8
65 to 69 years 2,199 1.2 1,593 0.8 3,792 1.0
70 to 74 years 1,133 0.6 987 0.5 2,120 0.5
75 and over 1,221 0.6 1,557 0.8 2,778 0.7
Total 190,959 100.0 204,701 100.1 395,660 100.0

Source: Incident-based Uniform Crime Reporting Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Note:

The data do not represent 100% coverage. The data excludes 4,369 cases where age was unknown, 937 cases where sex was unknown and 876 cases where both age and sex were unknown.

Due to rounding, totals may not add to 100 percent.

The majority of victims receiving services are victims of violent crime

The majority of victims receiving services are victims of violent crime
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Note:

Victim services are defined as agencies that provide direct services to primary or secondary victims of crime, and that are funded in whole or in part by a ministry responsible for justice matters.

Data for 2009/2010 is planned for release February 2012. Collection of data for 2011/2012 is planned to begin May 2012.

The majority of victims receiving services are victims of violent crime
Type of Crime Gender of Victim
Women Men Not Reported Total
  # % # % # % # %
Homicide 156 2.6 61 3.0 9 0.5 226 2.3
Other offences causing death 63 1.1 51 2.5 1 0.1 115 1.2
Sexual assault 1,632 27.5 298 14.9 95 5.1 2,025 20.6
Criminal harassment 243 4.1 44 2.2 12 0.6 299 3.0
Other violent offences 2,786 46.9 809 40.4 318 17.0 3,913 39.9
Other criminal offences* 396 6.7 429 21.4 118 6.3 943 9.6
Other Incidents** 330 5.6 205 10.2 78 4.2 613 6.3
Unknown type of crime 335 5.6 634 31.7 705 37.8 1,674 17.1
Total 5,941 100.0 2,001 100.0 1,866 100.0 9,808 100.0

Source: Victim Services in Canada, 2007/2008; Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.

Note:

*Other criminal offences include arson, property crimes, traffic offences, and other Criminal Code offences.

**Other incidents include those of a non-criminal nature as well as those that are still under investigation to determine if they are criminal offences.

Victim services are defined as agencies that provide direct services to primary or secondary victims of crime, and that are funded in whole or in part by a ministry responsible for justice matters.

Data for 2009/2010 is planned for release February 2012. Collection of data for 2011/2012 is planned to begin May 2012.

The number of victims registered with the federal correctional system has increased

The number of victims registered with the Correctional System has increased
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Note:

*In order to register to receive information under sections 26 and 142 of the Corrections and Conditional Release Act, a person must meet the definition of a victim that appears in section 2, or subsections 26(3) or 142(3) of the Act. Victims can register with the Correctional Service of Canada or the Parole Board of Canada by completing a Victims Request for Information form, though a signed letter of request can be considered as meeting this requirement.

**Violent crimes include assault, attempt to cause death, offences causing death, sexual offences and offences involving violence or threats.

***A notification is a contact with a registered victim, by phone or mail, to provide information to which sections 26 and 142 of the Corrections and Conditional Release Act entitles them.

The number of victims registered with the correctional system has increased
Year Number of Offenders with Registered Victims Number of Registered Victims* Number of Notifications** to Registered Victims
2007 3,147 4,979 13,829
2008 3,295 5,294 24,810
2009 3,412 5,816 36,474
2010 3,654 6,366 40,626
2011 3,874 6,940 --

Source: Correctional Service Canada

Note:

*In order to register to receive information under sections 26 and 142 of the Corrections and Conditional Release Act, a person must meet the definition of a victim that appears in section 2, or subsections 26(3) or 142(3) of the Act. Victims can register with the Correctional Service of Canada or the Parole Board of Canada by completing a Victims Request for Information form, though a signed letter of request can be considered as meeting this requirement.

**A notification is a contact with a registered victim, by phone or mail, to provide information to which sections 26 and 142 of the Corrections and Conditional Release Act entitles them.

-- Data not available.

Parole Board of Canada contacts with victims have increased

Parole board of canada contacts with victims have increased
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Note:

*A victim contact refers to each time the Parole Board of Canada has contact with a victim by mail, fax, or by telephone.

**Actual victim is a surviving victim of crime per CCRA 2-1(a). Family/guardian is a family member of a victim of crime per CCRA 2-1(b). And, if physical or emotional harm was done to a person as a result of the offender's act, whether or not the offender is prosecuted or convicted of the act, and if the person made a complaint to the police or the Crown attorney, the person is recognized as a victim per CCRA 26(3) and 142(3).

Parole Board of Canada contacts with victims have increased
Year Total Number of Contacts*
1995-96 5,930
1996-97 6,525
1997-98 8,043
1998-99 9,883
1999-00 11,177
2000-01 12,718
2001-02 14,013
2002-03 14,270
2003-04 15,263
2004-05 15,479
2005-06 16,711
2006-07 21,434
2007-08 20,457
2008-09 20,039
2009-10 22,181
2010-11 22,483

Source: Parole Board of Canada.

Note:

*A victim contact refers to each time the Parole Board of Canada has contact with a victim by mail, fax, or by telephone.

Actual victim is a surviving victim of crime per CCRA 2-1(a). Family/guardian is a family member of a victim of crime per CCRA 2-1(b). And, if physical or emotional harm was done to a person as a result of the offender's act, whether or not the offender is prosecuted or convicted of the act, and if the person made a complaint to the police or the Crown attorney, the person is recognized as a victim per CCRA 26(3) and 142(3).

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