This study seeks to provide a preliminary overview of the challenges posed by radicalized and extremist prisoners, and to explore the potential for the radicalization of young European Muslims in the prison environment. The study draws on the body of existing prison theory literature, historical case examples and contemporary open sources. It draws a number of conclusions about the potential in prison for extremist activity, including radicalization, and highlights a number of areas where further research and action may be desirable.
1. Introduction -- 2. Prison, religion and radicalization -- 2.1. The impact of imprisonment on individuals - -2.2. Individual coping and "prisonization -- 2.3. Religion in prison life -- 2.4. Prisoner vulnerability to radicalization -- 3. Historical precedents -- 3.1. Irish republicanism -- 3.2. The suffragettes -- 3.3. Radicalized prisoners since 1945 -- 4. Violent jihadists and prison -- 4.1. Prisons in violent jihadist literature -- 4.2. Guidance and support for imprisoned violent jihadists -- 4.3. Violent jihadists in the British prison system -- 4.4. Jihadist activity in European prisons and beyond -- 4.5. Examples of countering violent jihadist activity in prison -- 5. The spectrum of radicalized prisoner behaviour in prison -- 5.1. Group formation and organizational activity -- 5.2. Non-violent resistance -- 5.3. Violent resistance -- 5.4. Comparison of two groups' activities and behaviour -- 6. Conclusions and recommendations -- Appendix A. An encounter behind the apostates' bars in Jordan -- Appendix B. Lesson eighteen: prisons and detention centres.